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iHt£feellaneou0 Cratt0^ 







VOL. I. 



The Antiquarian Society of Newcastle upon Tyne was estab- 
lished on the 6th day of February, 1813; when the purport of its 
Institution was declared to be ** Inquiry into Antiquities in general, 
but especially into those of the North of England^ and of the Counties 
of Northumberland, Cumberland^ mod DurhaiHy in particular;" the 
following Code of Statutes was adopted for the regulation of the Soci* 
ety ; and the Officers for the year nominated. 


]. The Society shaH consist of Ordinafy, Correspoading, and Honorary Membonu The 
number of Ordinary Members limited to one hundred ; the number of Corresponding and 
Honorary Members unlimited* The candidates for admission as Ordinary Members shall be 
proposed at a regular meeting by at least three Members, and balloted for at the next suc- 
ceeding meeting; three^fonrths of the Members present to confirm the admissioa of the 
candidate. The election of Corresponding and Honorary Members shall be subject to the 
same regulations as the election of Ordinary Members, excepting that they may be balloted 
for the same meeting at which they we proposed. Twelve Members to fbrm a constitution. 

n. Persons residing within die town and county of Newcastle upon Tyne, die ooonties 
of Northumberland, Durham, or Cumberland, shall not be eligible as Coitespondiog 

in. The Officers of die Society to consist of a Patron, one P^esident^ three Vioe^Presi^ 
dents, two Secretaries, one Treasurer, and a Council of six. The offlee of patron to con- 
tinue for life; die other Officers to be annually elected, out of the class of Otdkmry Mem- 
bers, by written Hsts, to be delivered by the Members in person at die Anniversary Meeting. 
These officers to have charge of die property of the Society, and any five to be competent 
to act. 


IV. The interest of each member in the funds and property of the Society to continue 
so long only as he shall remain a Member ; and the property shall nerer be sold or other- 
wise disposed of (except in the case of duplicates hereinafter mentioned), so long as there 
remain Members sufficient to form a constitution ; but should the Members be reduced 
below the number of twelve, and so remain for twdve calendar months then next following, 
the funds and property of the Society riiall be delivered unto, and vest in, the oldest So« 
ciety of Antiquaries in Great Britain* 

V. Each Ordinary and Corresponding Member to pay an admission fee of two guineas, 
and each Ordinary Member to pay an annual subscription of one guinea, commencing the 
Anniversary Meeting iii 1814* 

VL The Meetings of the Society to be held in the Society's room, at six o'clock in the 
evening, on the first Wednesday in every month ; and the Anniversary Meeting at twelve 
o'clock in the day, at the same place, on the first Wednesday in January. 

VIL All papers to be read in the order of their dates* If any Member declines reading 
his own paper, any other Member may be allowed to read it: but such as are to be read 
by the Secretaries shall be sent to them a month previous to their being laid before the 

VnL Three Censors to be annually chosen by the Officers out of the Ordinary Members ; 
to whom shall be intrusted the charge of revising and printing all such papers and commu- 
nications as the Officers may admit into the Transactions of the Society. 

IX. All donations to the Society to be regularly recorded in a book kept for that purpose, 
describing at length their nature, when and where discovered, the donor's names, Ac« An4 
all duplicates of Coins, Books, &c to be at the disposal of the Officers, for the benefit of the 
Socie^ at large. 

X. Each Member, on his admission, shall sign the Statutes ; but any Ordinary Member 
may, on produdng and leaving the authority by letter for it, sign them for such Members 
as cannot conveniently attend at the time of their admission* 

XI. No alteration shall be made in the Statutes, except at the AnniverNury Meeting ii| 
January. And every alteration intended to be then proposed, must be publicly announced 
and inserted in the Transactions at a meeting previous to the General Meeting. 

XII. And kstlyr-We, th^ undersigned Members, obUge ourselves to observe and fulfil 


the above StaUites, and coafonn owselves to all the future Rules a6d ^egulatiooa, wUch 
mi^ be made by the Socie^ and regularly entered in the Minate Book* , 

It having appeared, on further deliberation, to the Society, that cer- 
tain alterations should be introduced into this Code of Statutes, it was at 
the Anniversary Meeting holden on the 5th day of January, 1814, 


L That every new Member shall conform to the statutes of this Society, within four of 
its meetings after his election, or such election to be void, 
IL That all donations to the Society be presented through the Council. 

III. That the Council be increased from six to twelve. 

IV. That at the time of balloting for any -gentleman as a Member of this Society, one of 
the gentlemen who proposed him shall be present, and in case of his election, pay his admis- 
sion fee and subscription. 

At the Anniversary Meeting, holden on the 4th day of January, 

It was bbsolvkd, 
That the Constitution be reduced from twelve to eight Members. 

At the Anniversary Meeting, holden on the 5th of January, 1830^ 
at the Society's apartments in the Bigg^market^ 

It was rbsolvbd. 
That the 4lh Rule do end at the word ** mentioned,'' and that the remainder be expunged. 

And at the Anniversary Meeting, holden on the Sd day of January^ 

It was rssolvbd. 
That the Constitution be reduced from eight Members to s|x« 


Shortly after the institation of the Society, a Seal, engraven by Mr. 
Wyon, of the Royal Mint, from a design by Mr. Howard, R. A. was 
presented to the Society by its President, Sir John Edward Swinburne, 
Baronet. On the field is represented the figure of a female, who is 
supposed to be recording the proceedings of the Society ; she is seated 
on the fragment of a column, opposite to an altar, found near Newcastle 
upon Tyne, and inscribed LAMIIS TRIBVS; beneath is written 
a wood cut executed by Mr. Thomas BewicJk, of Newcastle, to whose 
abilities in that art his various productions bear ample testimony, is 
given in the title page of this volume. 

This publication of the Transactions of this Society is submitted to 
the notice of the public, not without a considerable degree of hope 
that, not more from the attention of those entrusted with its manage- 
ment, than from the numerous donations which have been presented 
to it, and from the countenance and support which it has received 
from many gentlemen, who have become members of it since its first 
establishment, the wishes of its institutors will be realized. 

The various presents which have been liberally sent to the Society, 
and the interesting communications with which it has been favoured 
relative to antiquities in its neighbourhood, afford ample testimony of 
the loss, which has been sustained^ in consequence of a Society for 
the preservation of Antiquarian Remains not having been previously 
established in this district. 





Introduction —On the Study of Antiquities^ by the Rev. John 

Hodgson, Secretary y ..... i 

Some Account of a Set of Gold Beads, presented to the Antiquarian 
Society of Newcastle upon Tyne, by His Grace the Duke of 
Northumberland, in a Letter to Thos. Davidson, Esq. O. M* 
from the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary, • . I 

Extract of a Letter from the Duke of Northumberland, to Thoft. 

Davidson, Esq. of Newcastle upon Tyne, . • 9 

Communications respecting Implements qf ancient Brass, . . H 

An Enquiry into the £ra when Brass zvas used in purposes to which 
Iron is now applied, by the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary, • 17 

An Extract from Memoranda respecting the Discovery qf an a^icient 
Stone Coffin, in the Ckurch^yard of Chatton, Northumberland, 
by the Rev. Joseph Cook, of Newton Hail, Vicar of Chatfon, 
8(c. . . . . . . 99 

An Account qf the opening qf an ancient Grave near Denton, in the 
County of Northumberland s and some Notices respecting an 
Arrow Head of Flint, by Mr. Edward Woodhouse^ qf Scotch- 
wood, ... . . . . .101 


Some Account of a Saxon Inscription^ on a Stone found near Fal- 
stone, in the County of Northumberland, in a Letter to Robert 
Spearman^ Esq. of Sewing Shields, from the Rev. James Wood, 
Minister of the Scotch Chapel at Falstone, . .103 

An Account of the Seal of the last Treasurer of the Augustine Mo- 
nastery at Canterbury, in a Letter to the Rev. Wm. Turner, by 
James Gomme, Esq., of High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, . 105 

Remarks on the Inscription to the Zodiacal Ceres, lately discovered at 
Caei^vorran, on the Roman Wall, in a Letter to the Rev. John 
Hodgson, Sec. by George Stanley Faber, B, D. Rector of 
Long Newton, in the County of Durham, . . .107 

An Enquiry into the Antiquity of an ancient Entrenchment, called 
Wardley, in the Parish of J arrow, and County of Durham, by 
the li.ev. i o\m}\oA^on, Secretary, . .112 

Observations on an ancient Aqueduct, and certain Heaps of Iron 
Scoria, in the Parish of Lanchester, in t/ie County of Durham, 
by the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary, • . . 1 18 

A Description of a Silver Ring found on Tow ton Moor, in the County 
of Fork, in 1770, and presented by the Rev. William Turner 
to the Society, in a Letter to Mr. Adamson, Secretary^ . 128 

An Account of a Saxon Coin of Ecgfrith, King of Northumberland, 

presented to the Society by the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary, 134 

An Account of an Inscription on FalUyoifield Fell, in the County of 
Northumberland, by the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary, . 126 

An Account of an Inscription discovered at Walwick Chesters, in 
the County of Northumberland, by the Rev. John Hodgson^ 
Secretary, . . . . . .128 

An Account of two Bronze Figures discovered at the Roman Station 
near the Village of BenxoeU, in the County of Northumberland, 
and presented by Mr. John Stanton to the Society, . .131 

An Account of an ancient Camp, in the County of Cumberland, in a 

Letter from Mr. G. A, Dickson, to the Secretary, . . 132 



An Account qf a Brass Coin of the Emperor Hadrian^ in a Letter 
from Mr. J. Adamson, Secretary^ to the Rev. J. Hodgson, 
Secretary y . . . . . .133 

An Account qf the Seal of the Nunnery of St. Bartholomew^ at Neuh 
castle upon Tyne, in a Letter from Mr. J. T. Brockett, to the 
Council of the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle upon Tyne, . 135 

De Annulo aureo Bunicis Characteribus signato, nuper in Anglia 
inventOy et pluribus ejusdem Generis, brevis Dissertatio, Auctore 
Finno Magnuson, Professore Havniensi, Xc. 8Cc. Kc. ad Jo- 
hannem Hodgson, Sec. A. S. Pontis ASlii, per literas missa, 136 

An Account of an Inscription found near Binchester, in the County 
of Durham, communicated to Mr. Adamson, Secretary, by 
Ph. Orkney Skene, Esq. . . . .142 

Papers relative to the Plot in the North, in 1663, extracted by the 
Rev. John Hodgson, Sec. from the 31st Volume of the Mick- 
leton and Spearman Manuscripts, presented by the Rev. George 
Wasey, M. A. to the Hon. and Right Rev. Shate, Lord 
Bishop of Darham, and by him presented, in 181 7> to the Li- 
brary founded by Bishop Cousin, at Durham, «. .143 

Calenders of the Prisoners corifined in the High Castle in Newcastle 
upon Tyne, at the Assizes for Northumberland in the Years 
1628 and 1629« Communicated by the Rev. John Hodgson, 
Secretary, . . , . , ; 149 

Indentures between Sir Francis Brandling and Sir Thomas Swin- 
burne in 1627; and Sir Thomas Swinburne and Thomas 
Carr, Esquire, in 1629, for delivering over the Gaol of North- 
umberland, extracted from Sir Thomas Swinburne's Sheriffs 
book, by t/ie Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary, . .164 

A Copy of the Betum of three Members of Parliament to serve 
for the County of Northumberland, in 1654. Communicated 
by Mn John Bell, . . • • .171 




On the Court Party in the House of Commons j in 1677, communicated 
by Walter Calverley Trevelyan, of fVallington, Esq. to Mr, 
AdamsoDy Secretary ^ . . * . .173 

An Account of certain Instruments formerly used for the Purpose 
of Blasting in the LeadMines of Co\one\ and Mrs. Beaumont, 
at AllenJieads. Communicated by Mr. Thomas Crawhall, of 
Newcastle upon Tyne, . . . . . 182 

Papers relating to the general History of the County of Durham, 
in the Time of Charles 11. extracted from the 31 st Volume 
of the Mickleton Collection ; and communicated by the Rev. 
John Hodgson, Secretary, . . . .187 

An Account of certain Arrow Heads of bronze, found near Mount 
Caucasus, and communicated to the late Rev. J. D. Carlyle, by his 
Excellency M. Tomara, Ambassadorfor Russia at Constantinople, 201 

An Account of a Roman Ring found at Halton Chesters, and of a 
Bas Relief Figure of Neptune found at Carrozo, in Northumber- 
land^ in a Letter to John Adamson, F. A. S. 8Cc. 8(c. from 
John Trevelyan, Esq. of Wallington, . . . 203 

An Account of some Antiquities found at Norby Estate, in Norway, 

in a Letter from Mr. Peterson to the Rev. John Hodgson, Sec. 205 

An Account of a Sepulchral Inscription, discovered at Little Chesters^ 
in the County of Northumberland, by the Rev. Anthony 
Hedley, A. M. . . . . . . 208 

An original Letter of the Reign of Henry VHI. without the date of 
the year, i?i the Chapter House, fVestminster, tvith Observations 
thereon, in a Letter from John Caley, Esq. F. S. A., 8Cc. 8Cc. 
to the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary, • . .213 

Some Account of an ancient Plan of Tynemouth, in the County of 
Northumberland, in a letter from t/ie Rev. John Hodgson, 
to John Adamson, Esq. Secretary, . 1 .216 

Extract from a German Pamphlet, intitled " A Tour along the 
Devil's Wall,'' published as a Specimen of a projected History of 


Bavaria^ by J. Andreas Buchner, Professor at the Royal Bava- 
rian Lyceum at Regensberg, translated by the Rev. Hugh Salvin, 219 

Observations on the Altar and Inscription found at Tynemouth in 
the year 1781, 6y Mr. Thomas Hodgson, . ,231 

An Account of a Roman Station^ near Glanton, Northumberland, 
in a Letter from John Smart, Esq. of Trewitt, to the Rev. 
John Hodgson, Secretary, .... 239 

An Essay towards ascertaining the Etymology of the Names of 
Places in the County of Northumberland, by the Rev. Anthony 
Hedley, M. A. . . . . . . 242 

Observations on the Roman Station of Housesteads, and on some 
Mithraic Antiquities discovered there, in a Letter from the 
Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary, to the Rev. A. Hedley, of 
Newcastle upon Tyne, . .... 263 

Appendix. — ^No. I. — An Account of a Roman Altar, presented by 

Mr. G. A. Dickson, of Newcastle, to the Society, . . 3 

No. II. — An Account of two Roman Altars, by Mr. G. A. Dickson, 4 
No. III. — An Account of an ancient Sword, in a Letter to Mr. 

Adamson, Secretary, by Mr. Culley, . . . 5 

No. IV. — Inscriptions found at Old Carlisle, in Cumberland, com* 

municated by Mr. G. A. Dickson, . . . ib. 

No. V. — Account of a bronze Stamp, or Seal, in the form of a Cross, 

presented to the Society, by Mr. Dickson, . . . ib. 

No. VI. — Some Notice respecting an Inscription on the Bell of 
Heworth Chapel, by the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary, . ib. 

No. VII. — A List of a Collection of Roman Antiquities, found prinr 
cipally at, or near, Housesteads, and zvhich have lately come 
into the possession of the Society, , . .7 

List of Donations. 

Catalogue of the Library. 

List of Members. 


lPftg« xL liw Ufjbr in the diitbt, read <m flie batik. 

Page xii. line SOfJbr wrote, read wrought. 

Page xiii. line 6» after buildings, insert m Grreece* 

Page %vh notfe ifJ^ Blount, read Earle. 

l\i|(^ 90» Hm 5^ j^r Motes, read Joshua. 

Pbge 51, line S^Jwr 186^ read 286. 

Page 51, line S^Jor 1638, reac^ 1438. 

Page 52, line 13, read Daimachus* Polibfcbttea contained. 

Page 92, line 20, Jor of, read in. 

Page 112, line S^for Plate III. r^aif Plate V. 

Page 1 12, lines 14 and IS^Jbr feet, r«ai/ yards. 

Page 119, line 1, read Duke of Britain. 

Page 126, line 29, ^r them, read they. 

Page 128, line 21, ^or ever, read was. 

Page 243, line 2tJor in kerton, read Pinkerton. 

Page 270, line 11 ^ for cavalry, read soldiery. 

Page 283, line S^for the, read a. 


In binding the two Parts together. 

Cancel the Title Pages and Preface giren with Fwtt I. substituting those given with Part II* 

Ditto, page 1 55 of Part I. 

Ditto, page 7, of the Appendix in Part I. substituting the two leaves of Appendix in Part IL 

Ditto, the List of Members at the end of Part I. substituting that at the end of Part IL 

Let the sheet of Donations and the sheet of Additions to the Catalogue in Part IL be placed 

after the corresponding sheets of Part I. 
Plates L and IL to fece ...... I^ 14 

Plate of Saxon Inscription ....... 103 

Plate IV. 107 

Plate V. 112 

Plate VL 124 

Plate VIL 132 

Plate of Seal of the Nunnery of St. Bartholomew * • - - 135 

Plate IX. (Arrow Heads) ....... 201 

Plan of Tynemouth to be inserted before ..... 216 

MapoftheDevil's Wall, in Bavaria - . - - - - 219 

Mithraic Antiquities discovered at Housesteads .... 265 

Plate IX. ( Antiquities found at Plumpton) to face page 2 of the List of Donations. 






SociXTT has a right to expect, both from individuals, and from bodies of men, that their 
labours and enquiries be directed to some useful end* Concerning the origin of this right, 
I forbear any discussion, supposing it cannot be misunderstood ; for even experience may 
teach us, that, in a community of persons, attention to mutual wants is indispensably incum- 
bent on every one. In moral matters, childhood and old age need only be mentioned to 
refresh our memories with the truth of this position ; and the plain impossibility of each 
individual learning the various arts, connected with procuring for himself an adequate supply 
of the necessaries suited to the nature of social life, sufficiently demonstrates its utility in 
every other point of view. We are necessary to each other, and this necessity obtains every 
possible degree of modification, by dividing the different branches of the arts, science, and 
manufactures, into distinct callings ; and by the force of impressions made on our minds so 
near the time of infancy as often to be mistaken for innate propensities. 

But utility is not a striking feature of some of the pursuits that have eagerly engaged the 
attention of individuals in every civilized nation, and in all ages of the world ; and of this 
class is the Study of Antiquities. The mind does not at first sight perceive any advantage 
that can arise to society from contemplations on the ruins of cities, camps, and the remains 
of objects connected with the arts, or the military or domestic affiiirs, of the people that 
have preceded the sra we live in. 

AH nations have had perpetual examples of contrivance directed by instinct before their 
^es, in the nests of birds, and in the systematic arrangement observable in the habitations 
of the ant and beaver, and in the cells of bees, hornets, wasps, and other insects. No one, 


I thinky could inspect the curious work of the weaving and the sowing birds, without apply-^ 
ing the principles of their art to his own necessities ; and after minutely inspecting the 
wonderful economy of an ant hill, one may perceive how strongly Solomon's advice to the 
sluggard that he should ** go to the ant, learn her ways, and be wise/' appears to be appKr^ 
cable to the wisest and most industrious. But the first exertions of instinctive art are never 
exceeded by a repetition of trials, while each successive effort of human ingenuity is usually a 
step to improvement, — an approximation to a species of perfection, which, in works of arts, 
there is always a possibility of imitating, as long as the prototype exists, and concerning 
which no arbitrary height can be fixed as the highest to be attained ; for, in human things, I 
think, we must allow, that whatever is in itself superior and excellent, at present, may. 
itself be excelled. 

The Colleges of Numa, the Casts of India, the Guilds and Mysteries of our own nation, 
were all political expedients contrived and sanctioned for the purpose of continuing the 
knowledge, and perpetuating the improvements, in the several arts for which they were* 
instituted. — Where artisans work only from model, where . the secrets of a trade are not 
recorded in books, and especially where the art of printing has not contributed to perpetuate 
the experience of ingenious persons, without such institutions, valuable discoveries would 
not only be liable to perish with their authors ; but every depression, in the political circum-. 
stances of a country, would threaten to obliterate all but the names of many useful arts. 

While the Apollo Belvidere or the horses of Lysippus exist, we have specimens before 
us of the state of statuary more than three centuries before the Christian sera. The same 
observation is applicable to the arts of making earthen ware, coining, compounding metals, 
engraving on precious stones, to architecture, and the manufacturing of objects capable of 
resisting the attacks of time. But though Pliny tells us, that the ancient painters found the 
larch to be immortal in tablets, and that it never cracked, yet, supposing the metaphor of 
his language to be founded on something analogous to truth, after the storm of ignorance 
and barbarity which extinguished the glory and overturned the grandeur of the Roman 
empire, where shall we look for the works of Apelles, or Protogenes ; and, with a knowledge 
of the various substances they employed in their art, be gratified with seeing that perfection, 
to which painting had arrived in their times, and concerning which the expressions of 
ancient authors, and the almost inimitable workmanship of the gems, medals, and statues of 
those ages, are a sort of humiliating and unwelcome recorders of an excellence, to which 
modem ingenuity has never yet been able to arrive ? 

That there exists in human nature a propensity to this pursuit is evident, from the anxiety 
all classes of people evince to be acquainted with the history of the places wherein they 
were born, or to which they have become attached by residence or property. The antiquity 
of a man's family, of his house, or his village, is narrated with a pleasure which seems to- 
increase as the history of the object grows older ; and when records fail, the obscurity of 
fable is employed to lengthen the importance of these ** simple annals«'' Most of aationji 


deduce their origin from gods and fabulous heroes, and the poorest villagers of our country, 
if they have nothing to reUte concerning their own families or habitations, are seldom with- 
out legendary traditions about battles, fairies, or ghosts, to beguile the tedium of a winter's 

The earliest inhabiters of the world, finding oral tradition a defective recorder of events, 
and that places, which had been sanctified by any act of piety, or rendered remarkable by 
any great transaction, were soon forgotten, erected rude pillars, or threw up mounds of 
earth, or heaps of stones, to preserve their memory. The projectors of the Tower of Babel 
encouraged each other to ** build a city and a tower having its summit in heaven, that they 
might acquire a name — ^lest they should be dispersed over the face of the whole earth*'* 
and forgotten. The memorable pillar which Jacob set up in Beth-el ;f the pillar and the 
heap of witness in memory of his agreement with Laban 4 and the pillar of Padaa-aram, § 
were all erected to preserve, in the minds of his o&pring, a grateful sense of the transac- 
tions they were intended to record. The twelve stones, which Joshua commanded to be 
set up in the midst of the river Jordan, he informed his army were for ** a sign among 
them, that when their children asked their fathers in time to come, saying : What mean 
ye by these stones ? Then ye shall answer them : That the waters of Jordan were cut off 
before the ark of the covenant of the Lord: when it passed over Jordan, the waters. of 
Jordan were cut off; and these stones shall be for a memorial unto the children of Israel 
for ever." II Samuel, afler a battle with the Philistines, set up a stone ** between Mizpeth 
and Shen, and called the name of it Eben-ezer," that is, the stone of help.f After deso-ib- 
ing the different ceremonies performed at the funeral of Patroclus, Homer teUs us^ 
** That done, they bid the sepulchre aspire, 
** And cast the deep foundations round the pire : 
** High in the midst they heap the swelling bed 
** Of rising earth, memorial of the dead. "*^ 

And the spirit of Agamemnon, in the regions of the dead, thus addresses Achilles — 

*^ Now all the sons of warlike Greece surround 

** Thy destin'd tomb, and cast a mighty mound : 

** High o'er the shore the growing hill we raise, 

** That wide th' extended Hellespont surveys ; 

** Where all from age to age that pass the coast, 

" May point Achilles' tomb, and hail the mighty ghost."f f 

* Gen. xL 4, f Gen. xxviii. is. J Gen. xxxi. 45, &c, 

§ Gen. zxxv. 14. || Josh. xviL 4, &c. T I. Sam. vii. is. 

♦• Pope's Homer's Iliad, book 2S, line 317. 
ff Pope's Homer's Odyssey, book 24, line 101, &c. 



The tomby which the army of Alexander raised over the remains of Demartus, was of 
** vast perimeter, and eighty cubits high.*'* In the more advanced ages of civilization, 
these memorials of the ** mighty dead" were covered with hieroglyphic records, and, at 
length, the strong desire in man, to have his name and actions distinctly and surely told 
among succeeding generations, impelled him to engrave them on rocks and tablets of stone, 
and perpetuate the glory of his country in histories. 

Tl)us it would appear, that these propensities of mankind to preserve the memory of past 
events, and to ask their forefathers concerning any pillar or other monument of antiquity : 
" What mean ye by these stones," have prevailed since the earliest ages of the world. — 
An animated nature clings to life ; and that part of us, in which is seated the desire which 
has drawn and bound us together in this society, is not satisfied, even with the prospect of 
a better and longer existence; but mingles its cup of aversion to die, with the hope that its 
remembrance will be long chenshed amongst its friends and descendants afler it has emi- 
grated from this life. The numerous inscriptions on altars, tombs, and all kinds of build- 
ings, strongly mark this inclination for posthumous fame ; and the thirst shewn among all 
dasses of people to learn the meaning, date, and history of such remains of former ages, as 
dearly points out the corresponding propensity to keep in mind, and be acquainted with, 
the persons and the wjorks of former ages. Nor are we without considerable evidence that 
the most polite nations of antiquity afiected this study, with as much eagerness as modern 
nations have done. Cato, the elder, wrote a book on the antiquities of cities in Italy ; and 
Tacitus informs us, that ** Germanicus, when Marcus Silanus and Lucius Norbanus were 
Consuls, made a tour into Egypt to view its antiquities. — He sailed up the Nile, from Can- 
opus, a city, which the Spartans built in memory of a pilot of that name, whom they 
buried there, at the time Menelaus, on his return to Greece, was driven on the Lybian 
coast. From thence he went to the mouth of the Nile, dedicated to Hercules, who, as the 
natives contend, was born among them, and the first who bore that name, succeeding hero^ 
having honoured his memory by suffering themselves to be called after him. Then he 
visited the extensive remains of Thebes, where Egyptian characters, on obelisks, described 
its former opulence ; and which one of the eldest of their priests interpreted to him. He 
saw the statue of Memnon, which, though wrote in stone, gives a vocal sound when tlie rays 
of the sun strike it ; the pyramids, resembling mountains, raisied in almost impassable sands, 
by the emulation of kings; the lake made by the labour of man to receive the overflowings 
of the Nile ; and, in cerUin straiu of the river, places of such profound depth, that they 
had never been sounded. He also went to Elephanticd and Scyend, formerly the bounda- 
ries of the Roman empire, which now extends to the Red Sea." 

The miscellaneous works of Plutarch, commonly called his Morals, abound with profound 
enquiries into the antiquities of several nations ; and his two books on Greek and Ron^an 

* Plut Vit. p. 1977, Ed. Hen. Stephani, an. 1579. 


Questions^ he recommends as treatises on the manners and customs of those countries, 
** which may answer their turn very well, who, reading old authors, are desirous to know 
the particulars of antiquity."* 

The Heilados Periegesis of Pausanias is a topographical work, which contains very mi- 
nute and^ccurate descriptions of the most celebrated cities, temples, and other publTc 
buildrngsTwitS^ne history of their origin, and enumerations of the most retnarkable objects 
of antiquity preserved in them in his time : it abounds with interesting notices of battles, 
the fields on which they were fought, the monuments that were erected to their memory — 
with accounts of the statues and tombs of the most distinguished of the Greeks, and of rites 
and customs which have long ceased to exist. 

There is, perhaps, a sort of inde6nable regret constantly hanging about our minds, that 
our lives and knowledge are so circumscribed, that we cannot more strongly assimilate our 
mental faculties to that Infinite Perfection, who ** made us after his own image," and 
has a distinct comprehension of the whole economy of his works. The largest circle of 
darkness, that any human intellect ever yet investigated, is a little one, when compared with 
the orbits of the planets ; and these are but insignificant rings, when set in opposition to the 
immensity of space, which the divine understanding fills and illuminates. But to us, noS 
only the operations of nature are either inexplicably mysterious or indistinctly known ; but 
the greater part of the history of the families of the world, that have passed behind the goal 
of the present time, is for ever removed from the reach of our observation. Daylight has 
shone on all the places and generations of the people that have preceded us ; but how little 
of their experience has been recorded for our benefit! how obscure the history of those 
among them that are best known ! No ingenious and well educated mind could, I think, 
but be gratified with seeing the annals of his country accurately analized, and the dregs of 
fable filtered off; and even those who fix their minds on objects more sensibly beneficial to 
the world, certainly could not refuse to rejoice at the discoveiy (suppose in the deflagrated 
ruins of Herculaneum or Pompeia) of some account of the progress of that refinement, or 
some treatise on those arts that led to the enviable greatness of the nations of antiquity. 
But look at Greece, once the favourite abode of liberty, the land of politeness, the cradle of 
heroes, the seat of learning ; now inhabited by slaves, the nurse of ignorance and supersti- 
tion ! Italy, that of old, called her dominions ^* orbis terrarum'% and boasted so many goodly 
cities, the sun of her glory has long since gone down, and her inhabitants been swayed by 
petty tyrants or foreign powers. How finely has Sulpicius, in a letter to Cicero, repre- 
sented this notion of the weakness of man, by contrasting it with the ruins of the most 
splendid of his works. ** Returning," says he, " out of Asia, as I sailed from ^gina to- 
wards Megara, I began to view the country all around, ^gina was behind me, before me 
Megara, on the right Pinceus^ on the left Corinth, all in former times most flourishing 
cities ; but now they lie prostrate and in ruins before my eyes. I began to think within 

* Holland's Transladon, p. SS8. 


myself 7 Ah i shall we, shadows of creatures, shall we be iDdignant, if one of us die or be 
slaiuy when in one place the carcases of so many cities bestrew the earth.''* 

When, indeed, the mind reflects that there is a principle in nature, which, by constant, 
though imperceptible, industry, dissolves the strongest and most beautiful monuments of 
human skill ; and that this principle often <finds powerful assistance in wars and civil commo- 
tions, how can it but behold with admiration and pleasure any object that has escaped, 
through a long series of ages, the reiterated attacks of this combined enemy ? Who is there 
so dull and incurious, that if he should be shewn the tombs of one of the Jewish prophets, 
or the sepulchre where the author of our religion was laid, would not approach it with reve- 
rence, and examine it with care ? Who would not wish he could say, that he had trod the 
plains of Issus, where Alexander defeated Darius ; of Cannae, memorable for the overthrow 
of the Romans, by Hannibal ; or to witness, on the plains of Pharsalia, the fulfilment of this 
prophecy of Virgil ?— 

** Tlie time, indeed, shall come, when in these fields, 
** Turning the soil, some hind, with crooked plough, 
** Shall spears discover, eaten through with rust ; 
** With ponderous harrows dash 'gainst empty helms, 
** And bones enormous, wond'ring, dig from tombs/'f 

The writers of romances and novels have discovered, that the best of the human passions 
is often most effectually called out amongst scenes, which favour antiquarian contemplation ; 
and have, therefore, laid many of their finest plots within the walls of decaying castles, or 
heightened their narratives with descriptions of the ruins of monastic edifices, crowned with 
ivy, and gilded with moon-beams. Indeed all the best modifications of our passions and affec- 
tions are never more satisfactorily employed than in meditating over the wrecks of ancient 
times. What piety is there so cold as could not be warmed among the ruins of Jerusalem, 
on the banks of Kedron, or on the heights of Calvary ? Which of us, without horror and 
virtuous indignation, could visit the chambers of the Tower of London, where Tyrrel, at 

* £x Ana rediens, cum ab iEgina M^garam versus navigarem, copi regiones circumcirca protpicere. 
Post me erat ^gina ; ante Megara; dextra PirsMus, sinistra Corinthus : quae oppida quodam tempore 
florentissiina fuerunt, nunc prostrata et diruta ante oculos jacent. Coipi egomet mecum sic cogitare : 
Hem ! nos homunculi indignamur, si quis nostrum interiit, aut occisus est, quorum vita brevior esse 
debet, cum uno loco tot oppiddm cadavera projecta jaceant ? Cic. £p. lib. iv. ep. 5. 
f Scilicet et tempus veniet cum finibus illis 

AgriccAa, incurve terram molitus aratro, 

Exesa inveniet scabra rubigine pila, 

Aut gravibus rastrb galeas pulsabit inanes, 

Grandiaque eSowM mirabitur oisa sepulchris. Oeor. lib. i. 493 


the command of Richard the Tbirdy smothered the King's young nephews, Edward the 
Fifth and the Duke of York ? We find Shakespeare lamenting to see a fine religious edifice 
falling together firom neglect, in the foUowing beautiful passage : — 

" O it pities me 
** To see these antique walls and hallowed towers 
" Split with the winter's frost, or mould'Hng down 
*• Their very ruins ruined ; the crushed pavement, 
** Time's marble register, deep overgrown 
** With hemlock and rank fumitory, hides, 
** Together with their perishable mould,^ 
** The brave man's trophies and the good man's praise^ 
" Envying the worth of buried ancestry." 

A cabinet of ancient medals not only fills us with admiration at the excellency of their 
workmanship, and instructs us in the mythology, architecture, dress, and the shape and use 
of various articles connected with the war, government, religion, and domestic concerns of 
the times in which they were struck ; but it brings us into the presence and frietidsliip of 
the worthies of Greece and Rome. With Alexandec before us, we seem to ** fight his bat- 
tles o'er again." We stand doubtful whether ^be more to- admire or condemn the conduct 
of Cflssar ; and as we examine the lines of Tiberius's brow, we sigh at the hopelessness of 
seeing liberty and security in a nation; while its throne is filled by a sullen and artful tyrants 

But perhaps the obscurity, in which the antiquary's pursuits are generaUy involved, is 
not the least contributor to his pleasure. We are naturally gratified with making new dis- 
coveries, and with overcoming difficulties.. We love to make the little candle of our intellect 
extend its light as far as possible : ai^it is only by constant exercise, that we can tutor ouc 
eyes to see objects that lie on the verge of the circle of darkness which surrounds the brightest 
understandings; and at that point, every thing, as if enveloped in amist, represents itself to 
us in a magnitude and importance greater than is real. The deception invites us- forward, 
and the avidity of our enquiry increases, as certainty is removed, or truth assumes a more 
shadowy and incomprehensible form. 

This employment is shaded with a mixture of satisfaction and melancholy, suitable to 
minds that love to retire, at times, from the hurry and confusion of the world. It is cal- 
culated to raise up in us a source of enjoyment, and to bring us into the company of friends, 
which we c^ never hope to. be blessed with in the exercise of our worldly engagements. 
** Nunquam minus solus, quam qqum solus," as Cowley observes, ** is now become a vulgar 
saying: it has been in the mouth of every man, and almost every boy, since the days of Scipio." 
This sort of retirement and meditation strengthens us, and sends us out again into life more 
capable of opposing its evils, enjoying its true pleasures, and honourably executing our. 
sevecal engagements in it. And even here, when we begin to grow tired with close 


attention to truth, we have the boundkn regions of past ages in which fancy may expatiate, 
and take as extended flights as in those of futurity. After we have seen the Roman Eagle 
pitted in the southern provinces of our island, and several of the tribes of Britain con- 
tending for freedom upwards of 120 years, against the legions of the mistress of the world, 
our imaginations might be warmed with the contemplation of the celebrated barriers 
which extend from this place to the Western Sea — ^with the spectacle of the Emperor 
Hadrian, at the head of his legions, excayating his vaUum ; of Severus widening and 
strengthening it; and of the soldiers and an enervated peasantry, about the time of Gallic, 
sheltering their frontier from their northern invaders, behind the laborious, but cowardly, 
defence of walls and towers. And it is not difficult to raise in one's mind an idea of some 
robust Pict, in attempting to scale the battlements of Pons ^lii, perishing on its glacis, by 
the javelin of a Roman soldier, and thus rendering the spot, on which we now stand, sacred 
to liberty, as the establishment,* which at present occupies it, has, in latter times, conse- 
crated it to literature. 

This pursuit, however, distinguishes itself into two very difierent kinds. The vulgar an- 
tiquary, while he walks among the ruins of a city, is struck with wonder, and fixes his 
observation most upon their extent, their state of preservation, the largeness of their 
columns, and the difficulty of lifting the massive blocks of stone into the several situations 
they occupy : he is an admirer of coins on account of their rarity, their age, the beauty of 
their rust, or from some accidental variety which marks them : he values his collection of 
manuscripts, or rare editions of books, merely because they are old, or that they issued 
from the presses of Faust, Caxton, or other early printers. But the judicious antiquary 
considers the various objects of his contemplation with a learned eye; and imposes a value 
upon them in proportion to the quantity of light they throw upon the several departments 
of the history of the people to which they belong. He seizes hold of objects ready to perish, 
and gives them ** a local habitation and a name." 

Perhaps in this country, our ideas of an antiquary are somewhat confined, and the ridi- 
cule, to which the attacks of Scriblerus, and other satirists, have exposed the character, 
have abridged it of its just proportion of public regard.f 

* Thii Eisay was read in one of the rooms of the Literary and Philosophical Society, in Newcastle, 
with which we were kindly accommodated by that body, till the Corporation honoured us with apart- 
ments in the Castle. 

f Blount, in his Microcosraography, tells us ^ an antiquary is a great admirer of the rust of old monu- 
ments, and reads only those characters where time hath eaten out the letters. He will go you forty 
miles to see a Saint's well, or a ruined abbey ; and if there be but a cross or stone footstool in the way, 
he^ be considering it so long, till he fbrget his journey. His estate consbts much in shekels and Ro- 
man coins ; and he hath more pictures of Caesar than James or Elizabeth. Beggars cozen him with 
musty things which they have raked from dung-hills ; and he preserves their rags for precious relies. 
He loves no library but where there are more q}ider*s volumes than others, and looks with great admi- 
ration on the antique work of cobwebs. Printed books he condemns, as a novelty of this latter i^ 


Under the influence of first reflections on the siibfect» we should perhaps define him to be 
one who collects and explains the use of such objects of human skill as belong to past ages, 
fiuty I think, a nearer examination of the case will discover his empbyment to consist in 
the illustration of the general history and pursuits of mankind in ancient times, from visible 
objects. The historian draws his materials from fiicts, transacted in his own times ; and the 
annals of every country are complete or imperfect, in proportion to the complement of 
fiu^ts thus recorded, and the regular succession of its historians. The antiquary attempts 
to illustrate and confirm the pages of history by contemporary objects. If history leaves 
OS deficient in the date of a battle, the age of some public building, or the death of an 
emperor ; some medal or inscription, perhaps, records the required information. But it is 
not merely in the labyrinths of history that he walks. He is not satisfied with ranging in 
one department of literature. The policy, laws, religion, and manners of bid times, engage ; 
his attention; and he loves to examine into the arts, and define the boundaries of ancient 
empires ; to follow the emigrations of the early families of the world ; and to show how, by 
little and little, they spread over the surface of the whole globe. Truth, in combination 
with mystery, doubt, uncertaitity, and superstition, he laboriously searches afler, and scru- 
pulously analyzes: He ranges through the world at large, meditating upon men and things 
as they existed in past ages. 

The restorers of letters in Italy, among the many other excellent qualifications which Uiey 
possessed, were all profound antiquaries. While some of them travelled in search of ancient 
manuscripts, others were employed in writing commentaries upon and editing them $ and many 
in collecting the coins and statues, and studying the architecture, and reanimating the 
arts of Athens and of Rome. The eyes, indeed, ef many of these able men never became 
sufficiently strong to look on truth in its native brightness. While every sentence of 
the works of Cicero was made to comply with the rules of the rhetoric and logic, which 
prevailed at that time, the pages of natural history were darkened with astrological super* 
stitions, and their criticisms, on matters of antiquity, were often polluted with the cabalistic 
and other childish mysteries. The hammers, for instance, hatchets, arrow-heads, and 
other instruments of stcme, used to this day by people unacquainted with the use of metals, 
and which are often dug up in various parts of Europe, were by Gesner, Agricola, and 
others, confounded with meteoric stones : though they might have found knives of stone 
mentioned by Moses and in the book of Joshua, as employed in the rite of circumcision, a 
use to which they are said to be still applied by the people of Alnajah, a nation of Ethiopia.* 

But though our employment must be of a mote humble nature than that of the early 

but a MS. he pores on everlastingly, especially if the cover be all moth-eaten, and the dust make a 
parenthesis between eveiy syllable. He would give all the books in his study (which are rarities all) 
for one of the old Roman binding, or six lines of TuUy in his own hand.*' 

« Ludophus' JEthiopic Hist book 3, chap. L quoted by Parkhurst under n. See also Gent. Mag. 
Sept. 1789, p. 799. 



SKtifUBria ;— 4bcQ^ in^ can tcarcely hofe to have tbe jiopour «f dmoamtaog and pdblioh- 
mg any valaable maaiiscripty or of dliistratiog antiqnhtes equal ia kitereit to liMae of Aam 
Minor, or of fuly ; yet the lour coontiet, to whicb our labonn are to be prtmanly imotad, 
present us with a field rich in Roman, Saxon, Danish, Nei'inn, and nMoastic Antaquitiet; 
and in which, numerous objects connected with the manners, property, and general faittocy 
flf its inhabitants, are as yet very inadequately explained. The remains of the Romaa 
Wall, though largely described about the middle of the last century, by the lecantfe and 
judicious Horsley, are still but slightly investigated ; aad the receiwed opinions reapectiBg 
the constructors of the several parts of it, seem to be foimded on very inaocumie criticism. 
The same ^ybservaftioas are applicable to the state of owr information on tib^ casties and 
camps wi^ which ^ interesting district of the borders aboimd. Hie popdfer sqperstitiflna 
of the common people, now, it is to be hoped, fast vanishing away beiaee the light af trath^ 
are also worthy of our attention ; and nrach curious naatter in j^ilology might be glf nad 
from well selected Ksts of vulgar words, and liie names of larra-liouses, glens, broolDS, and 
especially of fields. 

The prosperity of this Society altogether dopends upon iti wenrfiera. If onr mectiagi 
be taicen up merely with conversations, and our attention directed obfy to oofiectiag books 
and trifling curiosities, it will either die in its infancy, or, at beet, drasr out a feebie enh* 
lenoe. But if any real gratification is to arise to us as individuals, or respectability to 
attach to us as a body, they can only be efieeted by eveiy member eealously oontributing 
his portion of knowledge ; and each «f us certainly has it in his poiner, by adding some* 
thing to the common gtock df information, to furllier the designs of the insdlutsan* JShotdd 
it, unhappily, be discovered, that dnmes have been admitted into the hiive*-4hat we hove 
members among us that neither desire nor endeavour to promote its interest and honour, 
watchfulness will be necessary to guard against any accession of their niunbers. In a con- 
stellation, however dim, there may be stars of different d^rees of brightness, and even 
some that shine with borrowed lustre ; and in literary societies, it is to be expected, Chat 
there will be fiersons, not only of various gradations of capacity and attainment, but even 
some that can delight themselves with gilding their names with the reflection of other men^ 
celebrity. The meanness of such a spirit need scarcely be pointed out, and, I trust, it will 
be long before it shew itself here. In prosecuting the bufiiness we have undertaken, we 
must not confide in numerical strength ; our industry must be directed by intelligence, and 
by endeavouring to deserve the support and countenance of ;the distinguished personages, 
who patronise and preside over us with such munificence and fatherly attention. For, 
should any unhappy circumstance withdraw from us the light and honour we derive from 
this source, our sustenance and good report would too certainly fail ; but because the glory 
of ancestry — the reputation so justly due to families, who, in spite of the infatuating nature 
of wealth, have preserved their names and properties through a long series of ages, cannot 
but fill the minds of their possessors with high reverence for every thing allied to the 


history and times of their worthy fore&thers, we may never doubt of flourishing under the 
auspices that shine upon us, while our labours are assiduously employed in the objects of 
the Society. 

I conclude this incoherent essay with obsenring, that it is only by a retrospect into past 
ages, that we know whether the world be improving in refinement, or at a stand ; and 
though this study never ought to be put in comparison, in point of utility, with many of 
the pursuits of the human mind ; with such, for instance, as relate to our moral and phy- 
sical wants ; yet, when I contemplate the vast advantages, that must ever accrue to society 
by a due cultivation of the simplicity and experience of the early ages of the world, I can- 
not, I think, too severely stigmatise that insatiable appetite for variety and novelty which 
disgraces the learning, manners, and religion of these days, or too cordially agree with 
Cicero, that antiquitas proximo ad deos accedit, both with respect to time and merit. 



Some Accormt of a Set of Gold Beads, presented to the Antiquarian 
Society of Newcastle upon Tyne, by His Grace THE DuKE OF NORTH- 
UMBERLAND, in a Letter to Thos. Davidson, Esq. O. M. from the 
Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary. 

DATA. — ^^ These 15 beads were found under a cairn in Cbesterhope 
Common, in the Manor of Ridsdale, in July, 1814. 

** What has been the use of these I cannot tell, though I remember to 
have seen an ancient sword, that had some gold beads, somewhat 
similar to these, which were placed loosely upon the bar at the back 
of the pummel of the sword, as an ornament." — Extract from His 
Grace's letter to Mr. T. Davidson, Uth May, 1815. 

'^ I shall be curious to know the use formerly made of that piece of 
antiquity I took the liberty of sending the Society, as well as of the 
sera to which it belonged. I confess the shape and length of the bar 
of metal on which the beads are placed, and in which condition I 


understand they were found, puzzles me to conceive how it could be 
adapted to the human body, as an ornament, and I mentioned the 
possibility of its having served as the bar or guard behind the handle 
of the sword, from having seen something similar, so affixed to an old 
Saxon sword, at the Society of Antiquaries in London^ several years 
ago, which was exhibited there." — Extract from His Grace^s letter to 
Mr. T. Biavidson, June 19, 1815. 

The Common of Chesterhope, in the county of Northumberland, is 
crossed by that branch of .Watling-street, which traverses Redesdale 
into Scotland; and the Roman station Habitancum, or Risingham, 
is contiguous to it. Numerous remains of antiquity have been dfs- 
covered in this station and its environs: and were it not for the^ 
circumstance that Roman antiquities are never, as far as I am ac- 
quainted with the subject, found under cairns, I should without 
hesitation have pronounced these beads to have belonged to that 
people, both from their contiguity to Roman works, and from the ex^ 
cellence of their workmanship. 

I would not, however, advance the circumstance of their being found 
under a cairn, as an exclusive evidence against their Roman origin ; 
for cairn burial has been in use from the earliest ages of the world. 
Joshua " burned" the body of Achan " with fire," and then raised over 
him a great heap of stones, which remain to this day,"—" And' the 
king of Ai he hanged on a tree until eventide; and as soon as the 
sun was gone down, Joshua commanded that they should take his body 
down from the tree, and cast it at the entering in of the gate of the 
city ; and raise thereon, a great heap of stones, that remaineth to this 
day/'* — ^Sometimes they buried the body, and immediately after 
threw a cairn over it : " and they took Absalom and cast him into a 
great pit in the wood, and laid' a very great heap of stones upon him."f 
And th^ following quotation from E^ekielJ: "The passengers that 
pass through the land, when aDyseeth a man's bone, then shall he set 
• Joshua, vii^ 26; and viii. 29. f 11 Saiii«z?iiL 17. t xzzix. 15. 

op a sign by it, till the buriers have buried it in llamon-gog," pro- 
bably refers to the practice, which in some parts of the Highlands of 
Scotland prevails to this day, of persons, as they pass by a cairn, add- 
ing a stone to it: indeed, in that country, it is not uncommon for 
persons attending a funeral, to take each a stone with them to throw 
upon the grave of the deceased ; and, if he was a person of considerable 
respect, of adding another, each time they come near his grave. 
Shaw, too, in the preface to his travels, says, that he often met with 
heaps of stones in Barbary, Arabia, and in the Holy Land, which have 
from time to time been raised over murdered travellers, for the Arabs, 
from a superstitious reverence for the dead, have a custom of casting a 
stone upon them every time they pass by them ; on the contrary, ac- 
cording to Sandys, the pillar of Absalom, which *^ in his life time he 
had taken and reared for himself in tlie king's dale,"^ is still standing, 
and the Turks, from motives of abhorrence to his memory, throw a 
stone at it each time they pass it, so that it is now more than half 
buried amongst stones. 

Dtodorus says, that the Baleares, a people of Minorca, threw heaps 
of stones over their dead ; and Armstrong, in his history of that island, 
notices certain cairns there, from 80 to 90 feet high. Pausanias re- 
lates, that when Laius was slain by his son OEdipus, stones were heaped 
up over him and his companions. The Bogri of the Russians, which 
are both circles and heaps of stones, are abundant in Siberia f and 

TorphoBus tells us that Odin introduced into Scandinavia the custom 
of burning the dead ; and cairns are exceedingly numerous in that 
<iistrict, especially in Norway. 

King, in his Munimenta Antiqua, strongly contends that all the bar- 

rows and cairns, so numerously scattered over the different parts of 

this island, are of British or Celtic origin ; and escapes the difficulty of 

attributing those barrorvs^ in which evident Roman antiquities are 

found, to Roman origin, by ascribing them to British officers in the 

* ii Sam. xviiL 18. f Strahlenberg's Description, Ac. 

B 2 

Roman service^ for there are very many instances of coins, armour, 
jewelry, &c. bearing Latin legends and inscriptions, being found in 
these artificial mounds of earth thrown up over the dead. 

Whether all the cairns of England belonged to the Celtic or Druidi- 
cal Britons, ; or some part of them are to be attributed to that race of 
people, and the rest to the nations that migrated out of Germany, 
Denmark, and Norway into this country, after its desertion by the 
Romans, does, however, in a great measure, depend upon the contro* 
verted point respecting the identity between the Celts and the ancient 
possessors of the Cimbric Chersonesus. This difficulty I shall not take 
upon me to remove ; but certain it is that both in Norway and Bri- 
tain, the contents of these tombs bear the strongest similarity : they 
consist of armour, beads of glass and amber ; spear-heads of cast brass ; 
axes, hammers, and other instruments of stone ; a circumstance, which, 
if it proves nothing else, very evidently points out the common pro- 
pensities and common helplessness of each nation, at the time when 
such implements were in use. In all the countries, from Britain to 
Tartary, this mode of burial has, at one sera or another, very com- 
monly prevailed. 

Any attempt to fix the aera of the antiquities in question, drawn 
from the use of ornaments of gold, will be liable to equal difficulties 
with that deduced from the history of cairns. About I860 years be- 
fore the time of Christ, we find the steward of Abraham pr^>enting an 
ear-ring and bracelets of gold to Rebecca. The ear-ring weighed 
about Ai dwts. and the bracelets about Ai oz. That the bracelet was 
of a flexible nature is pretty evident from its Hebrew name, Jemid^ 
which implies that it was worn with a hasp or some such fastening. 
The same remark is applicable to the golden chains, which Moses took 
from * the Midianites, and to that which was found upon the arm of 
Saul after his death. All these appear to have been either chains or 
beads of solid gold, especially the princely gift presented to Rebecca. 
It was not, however, from any ignorance of the ductile properties of 
gold that the ancients often formed it into such massive ornaments. — 

Moses, in many instances, speaks about overlaying wood with gold. 
Homer describes the manner of gilding the horns of a bull, destined 
for sacrifice, with gold-leaf; and Pliny remarks that Homer's men 
plaited gold into their hair, a custom, which he could not determine, 
whether or not they had derived from women : He also tells us that 
cloth, interwoven with gold, was called attalicus^ from Attains king of 
Pergamus, the inventor of that species of splendid attire. The kind of 
rolled gold, which most resembled that of which the beads of Chester- 
hope cairn were made, was called Prcmestina bractta at Aome, from 
an image of fortune being overlaid with it at Prseneste. 

The custom of burying valuable articles with the body of their pro- 
prietor, is also very ancient. Ezekiel speaks of *' the mighty that 
are fallen among the uncircumcised, which are gone down to Hades with 
their weapons of war, and that have laid their swords under their 
heads." The rtjt1i^«r «y«ii/*«1« of Euripides, were probably the favourite 
arms or ornaments that were buried with the bodies of their owners.— 
Herodotus says, that the old Scythians had such plenty of gold, that 
other metals were not in esteem among them, and that they interred 
vessels of it with their dead. And Torphaeus says, that Odin, with 
the custom of burying the dead> taught the people of Scandinavia to 
bury with them the most costly things they possessed at the time of 
their decease. Agreeably with these historical notices, we find the 
cairns and barrows, through almost all parts of the world, abounding 
with Jewelry, armour, implements of war, and domestic utensils. The 
celebrated barrows in Tartary are in all probability the tombs of 
the Scythian Kings^ ; though a modern writer in the ArchsBologia 
has with great plausibility contended, that they belong to the latter 
end of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century. In 
one of these, a golden chain of several links, set with rubies, and 
bracelets of gold, were found upon the body of a queen, which 
was partly covered with a robe, and laid between two plates of 
fine gold. The king's body was also laid between sheetsof gold, 

* See Herodotos, Melp. dinp. 78. 


and was folded in a robe embroidered with gold, rubies, and eme^ 
raids. The four sheets of gold weighed 40 lbs. The Bogri in 
Siberia and Tartary also contain plates and trinkets of gold, and 
weapons of cast brass of that kind, which are commonly called Celts. 
In Norway, where the agriculturalist has not been tempted to remove 
them, cairns are still exceedingly numerous; and when opened, are 
found to contain ashes and bones, sometimes in urns, at others in 
kisvaens, and generally accompanied with armour, trinkets, drinking 
vessels, and even with axes and hammers of stone. The trinkets con- 
sist of beads of glass and amber, and a great variety of ornaments of 
gold. Drinking vessels of that metal, in the form of horns, are not 
unfrequently discovered ; there are several of them in the Museum of 
Antiquities in Copenhagen ; and in that of the Military School, in 
Christiania, there is a great variety of smaller articles in gold, collected 
from various parts of Norway, but chiefly from the cairns in the 
neighbourhood of North Bergen: indeed, as far back as records reach, 
gold has been in high estimation among the inhabitants of Norway* 
The gilded and jewelled helmet of king Hagen Athelstan, in his great 
battle with the sons of Eric Bloodax (about A. D. 939), gave occasion 
to a very remarkable proof of his valour*; and, even to this day, the 
country people in the dales of Norway, whose language bears a very 
strong affinity to the dialects of the northern counties of England, 
have a strong passion for ornaments made of thin gold and silver. 

By a reference to the Indexes of the Archaeologia, it will be found 
that the cairns and tumuli of Great Britain abound with as great a 
variety of the works of art, as those of the countries already enume- 
rated ; but beads of gold have been rarely taken notice of amongst 
British sepulchral antiquities. Thirteen were found in a tumulus, in 
the parish of Upton Lovel, in Wiltshire, in 1803: they were in the 
shape of a drum, (^j^ having two ends to screw off, and perforated 
in the middle. Several other articles of pure thin gold, beads of amber, 
a lance head, &c. were found with them. The circumstance of amber 

* Sn. Sterlfwi's None Kronikc. 

beads being so plentifully found in the old tombs in England^ I think, 
evinces a correspondence to have existed between the people of this 
country and those of the shores of the Baltic, where amber is prinri- 
pally found, at the time when these tombs were constructed. 

" Dr. Pocock exhibited, 1755, a drawing of a gold bracelet, found 
about thirty years before, in Waterford county, near Whitfiella, the 
seat of William Christmas, Esq. under a heap of stones, near Lisnekil 
church. On the top of this heap, which was removed to be employed 
in building, was a stone set upright, and under it a cavity, in which 
was the bracelet. It is very thin, two inches five-eighths long, three 
inches diameter, and somewhat less in the middle than at the end ; and 
near it stood a small urn, about six inches high and four at the mouth, 
containing bones and ashes."— -^/rcA^ro/. vol. v. p. 41. 

Since Christianity finally prevailed in England, cairn-burial has not 
been in use. In 1016, Canute, after a great battle with Edmund Iron- 
side, threw up four hillocks to commemorate the event, two of which 
-were opened, and produced great quantities of bones, and chains like 
bridle bits ; but even in that age, we shall find no instance of indivi- 
duals, who died by the common visitations of nature, being buried 
out of church-yards. Barrows of a later date are the tombs of slaugh- 
tered armies, or set up in memory of battles. Three mounds were 
raised after the battle of Culloden, in 1746. 

The method of burial amongst the early Saxon christians in England, 
was nearly the same as that which prevails at present. The venerable 
Bede relates, that as soon as St. Cuthbert died on Fam Island, his 
body was put into a boat and taken to Lindisfame ; where it was taken 
up by a large concourse of people, and by companies of singers, and 
buried in a stone coffin, on the right side of the altar, in the church of 
St. Peter *. St. Benedict, the founder of the monastry of Monkwear- 
mouth and Jarrow, was buried near the altar of the church of the for- 
mer place ; and, sometime after his interment, the abbot Huaecberct 
took up the bones of St. Easterwin and St. Sigfrid, successors of St. 
Benedict, and deposited them near his remains j*. 

* Vit. & Cttdb. t ^>Bd. Hiit. Abb. Uuirem. ft Gyrr. 


We know^ however^ that Druidtsm continued to linger in England^ 
witli great obstinacy ^Tong after the time of Bcde; for a law of Canute 
says : — *' Prohibemus etiam serio, quod quis adoret ignem vel fluvium, 
torrens vel saxa, vel alicujus generis arborum ligna."* And, at the lat- 
ter end of the sixth century, we find that an interdict had been found 
necessary against similar practices in France : *^ Veneratores lapidum, 
accensores facularum, et excolentes sacra fontium et arborum admo- 


Had the Chesterhope cairn produced any other remains besides 
these beads, additional data might have been afforded to judge upon 
concerning their use, the people they had belonged to, and their 
date. At first sight, I took them for an armilla or bracelet ; and have 
sometimes imagined them to have been a pendant, one of that sort 
of ornaments which are among the common deposits of tombs, and 
which were not uncommonly suspended upon the breasts both of men 
and women y and at others, worn on the fronts of helmets, and on the 
brow-bands of horses' bridles; — (see Judges viii. 21. — viii. 26.) But 
from the information contained in the Duke of Northumberland's let- 
ters, especially from their having been placed upon a bar of metal, and 
having perforations about one*fourth of an inch in diameter, &c. to 
receive it, I am inclined to believe that they have belonged to the sword 
of a chieftain ; for the metalic bar, and the largeness of the perfora- 
tions for receiving it, are sufficient evidence that they were ornaments 
to some thing in which considerable strength was required: indeed 
the bar of metal, which his Grace mentions, and the shape and 
length of which seem to have determined his judgment, would, 
I suppose, greatly assist in one's forming an accurate opinion as 
to their use. If the bar be lost, it is unfortunate that a drawing 
of it had not been taken, and that the kind of metal of which 
it was composed had not been ascertained. That the beads were 
ornaments of some kind of armour, may, I think, be pretty 
strongly decided upon; and I would rather attribute them to a 
Saxon, a Norwegian, or a Dane of the Teutonic family, than to a 
• WUkini' Leg. Aqg. Sax. p. 194. f Condi Turon. A. D. 567. 

person of the Celtic race; but I tfahik it impossible to determine 
whether tbej belonged to thote German tribes who had settled m 
Britain long prior to Caesar's time, or to those who inundated this 
country after its desertion by the Romans, about A. D. 448. The 
instances I have given of the antiquity of the use of cairns, and of 
thin ornaments of gold, indeed sufficiently shew the difficulty of ciMn«- 
ing to any accurate conclusion respecting their date. If niplements 
of brass had accompanied them, the probability would have been that 
they had belonged to very early settlers : iron weapons would have 
been an evidence of a more modern date. I repeat my persuasion, 
that they have been ornaments to a weapon of some kind; and, if I 
were pressed for a more decided declaration of my opinion, I should 
say, that they had belonged to the hilt of a sword. But as I am 
merely a tyro in the study of antiquities, I beg that you will receive 
my remarks with considerable doubt and hesitation. I feel disap- 
pointed that I am unable to give a decided opinion respecting the 
beads ; but I am sure that in the circle of your acquaintance, you will 
be able ' to obtain an account of them from persons much better 
skilled in such matters than I am. 

Believe me to be, dear Sir, your's, very sincerely, 


Extract qf a- letter from the Duke of Northumberland, to Thomas 
Davidson, Esq. of Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Sim, 16th Jufy, ISIS. 
My Dear Sir, 
I have received your letter, inclosing one from Mr. Hodgson, con- 
cerning the gold beads upon the bar, and am sorry he cannot give a 
more decided opinion respecting them. He is perfectly correct as to 
the antiquity and universality of cairns. Many exist in Cornwall, by 
the same name, and the same custom is rigidly preserved, of the pas- 
sengers, as they go by, flinging up a stone to add to the heap. Cairns, 


I am assured, likewise are frequent among the Cossacks^ in Tartary, 
and even in parts of the Elast Indies, and the custom of adding a stone 
to the cairn is also constantly practised, and looked upon as a kind of 
religious duty, in all these different parts. It is therefore probable 
that the cairns had their origin in the east, and travelled westward, 
with those hords who inundated Europe, or have been previously 
brought into this island by the Druids. 

Adieu, dear Sir, and be assured I ever am 
Your's, most sincerely, 


TTiomas Davidson^ Esq. 


Communications respecting Implements of ancient Brass. 

On the 18th of February, 1815, Mr. Bramell presented to the So- 
icety an ancient sword blade, accompanied with the following letter 
from Mrs. St. Paul, of Ewart, in the county of Northumberland. 

EwartPark, Nov. 14, 1814. 
In consequence of a letter my son had the pleasure of receiving 
from you, I have forwarded to you one of the swords found at Ewart 
in the beginning of February, 1814, and request you will be so good 
as to present the same to the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle, whose 
views to preserve and illustrate the antiquities of the county of North- 
umberland I have much pleasure in endeavouring to promote. 
I am. Sir, your obedient humble servant. 

To John BrumeUy Esq. ANNE ST. PAUL. 

Mr. CuUey, of Akeld, favoured the Society with drawings of two 
swords found near Ewart, and in a letter addressed to Mr. Adamson, 
dated November 23, 1814, gives the following account of their dis- 
covery :— 

The originals, from which these drawings were made, were found 

last February at Ewart Park, near Wooler, and are now in the 

possession of Mrs. St. Paul, the Lady of the Manor, by whose obliging 

permission these drawings were taken. The earth having been turned 

c % 


up to the depth of six inches, on a grassy knowl hitherto unemployed, 
discovered the handles, the blades having been forced into the earth 
in a perpendicular manner, apparently for the purpose of concealment. 
The earth is a dry gravel, to which may be attributed their fine pre- 

Whether the blades have been used as swords, or as points to long 
spears, cannot be ascertained, as every vestige of the materials com- 
posing the handles is gone. As swords they are unwieldy to the arm> 
and unfit either for cutting or pushing with advantage. 

The colour and weight resemble our mixed metal, called brass ; but 
whether possessing the same component parts can be ascertained by 
analysis, to which there has been no opportunity of subjecting them. 
I leave to more able antiquaries to determine to what period or people 
they may have belonged. They do not possess that hardness which 
we are led to believe the ancients could impart to that metal, and 
yield pretty easily to the knife. Time may, however, have deprived 
them of that quality. It may not be amiss to mention, that they 
were found sufficiently near to have belonged to the stragglers from 
the fatal field of Floddon, who might disarm themselves for a more 
speedy flight. Grose, in the 2nd volume of his Antiquities, page 372, 
being in that part wherein he treats of ancient armour, describes four 
weapons of this description, and denominates them ^' ancient brass 
swords". — One was found on the borders, the place unknown ; two in 
Duddingston lake, a little way south of Edinburgh, under water; and 
one near Peebles, in Scotland. They were in the possession of John 
Mc. Gowan, Esq. of Edinburgh. He also gives engravings of them, in 
plate 60, of the same work, which bear a pointed resemblaQce> in every 
respect, to the subject of the present memoir. 

I remain. Sir, your obedient servant, 



In consequence of a communication from the Rev. J. Hodgson, Sec. 
the Rev. W. Wilson, Rector of Woisingham, permitted several articles 
of ancient brass, in his possession, to be exhibited before the Society ; 
and also fiivoured them with the following letters, addressed to Mn 
Hodgson :— 

Woisingham^ 6th February^ 181 6, 
Rev. Sir, 
I received the favour of your letter, requesting information respect- 
ing some Roman spear heads, &c. in my possession. They were found 
by a labourer, upwards of four years ago, in the parish of Stanhope, 
in the county of Durham, under some large rough stones casually 
scattered upon the declivity of a mountain, and covering nearly an 
acre of land. The place is at a little distance from the river Wear, on 
the south side, near a small farm house called Hag-gate ; iomiediately 
opposite to a village on the north side, and near the river, called East- 
gate. The place is well marked. They had probably been hidden 
there by some deserter, and, in my opinion, are the arms, &c. of a 
single Roman foot soldier, one of the velites, consisting of five spear 
heads or hastae, in sequences of different sizes, part of a sword, frag- 
ments of a pectorale, or breast plate, together with all the tools or * 
accoutrements for repairing, sharping, and burnishing these arms. L 
consider them as great curiosities ; for I never heard that so complete 
a set was ever found before together. Single ones have been found, I 
believe; and antiquarians have given such opinions respecting the 
uses of what they called celts, as were never satisfactory to me. They 
seemed to be too far fetched. The principle that 1 assumed for the 
purpose of discovering the uses of the smaller articles was this. I 
conceived that a Roman soldier being often at a distance from camp, 
and seldom having the convenience of an armourer or a carpenter to 
repair his arms when broken or injured, would be obliged to carry 
about him such tools as would enable him to repair the lesser acctdenta 


himself, and to keep the arms in bright order. I conceive also that 
these tools would be made as light as possible, consistent with a due 
degree of strength, and would be made hollow ; the same tool serving 
for different purposes. You will judge how far these principles and 
suppositions are illustrated by the following description. All the arti- 
cles are of fine brass, have been cast in moulds, and the tools are 
coated over with a curious metallic mixture, the invention probably 
lost. One ingredient I think is tin. 

Five spears — hast^e for war or chase. 
No. Inches. oz. din* 

1. Spear, perfect - • - 9i 9 15 

2. Ditto, little wanting - - 8 J 7 3 

3. Ditto, perfect - - - 6} 6 2 

4. Ditto, perfect - . . 6 4 1 

5. Ditto, part wanting. 

6. Sword, fragment - - - 3J .25 
- 7; The sharper, perfect - . gx 2 4 

The use of this is obvious. The spears and edge, tools had been shar- 
pened by it. There are two holes nearly tpgether on the same side, 
for hanging it by a thong to the body. The same side smoother than 
the other on that account. Some antiquarians supposed that these 
instruments were used by the priests, as a knife, for flaying the beaste 
for sacrifice. But that metals were used by the ancients for sharpening 
metals is clear, from Proverbs xxvii. 17 — ^^ Iron sharpeneth iron," &c. 

1^0. Inches. oz. dn. 

8. Chissel, perfect - - - 3i 8 8 

9. Ditto, part wanting. 
10. Ditto, part wanting. 

N. B. No. 8, 9, 10, chissels, for forming and polishing wood, when 
new shafts were wanting for spears, &c. A thong waij probably put 
through the loop or ear, and suspended to the body. It is singular, 
that one side of most of them is smoother than the other, as if by such 


suspension. I do not think it could happen from that side being 
Undermost when found ; because the spears and tools, without loops, are 
not so. I am still more confirmed in my opinion of this being used 
as a tool, from recollecting that it does not appear among the Roman 
arms, either in the Trajan or Antonine pillar. This instrument and 
the Roman spear heads are commonly found together. 

No. Inches, oi. dn. 

11. Burnisher for shield, broken and some wanting 4| 1 12 
and exactly fits the space between the bosses or buttons of the shield 
I conceive also, that this had been used as a bottle to hold oil for 
burnishing. The cavity is large, and extends the whole length. I 
was confirmed in that opinion by the following circumstance : — ^When 
found, the close end was smooth, and the edges sharp, without any 
appearance of fracture; but, on examining with a knife, I picked out 
. some strong cement, like putty, which plugged up a concealed hole. 
This cement, I suppose, had been put in to make it hold a liquid. 
The tool had certainly been much used since it was put in, as that 
part was as smooth as the other parts. 

No. faichei. oz. dn. 

12. Burnisher for spears, perfect - 2i 19 
The groove of which fits upon the ribs of the spears, and the convex 
part opposite fits the hollows between the ribs and the feathers. This 
opinion was confirmed by observing the coating of the groove and that 
of the opposite convex to be much thinner, as if by rubbing, whilst 
the coating of the sides of the groove were very thick, and further 
proved by drilling small holes in the coating. 

^o. lochei. ox. dn. 

13. Burnisher for sockets and feathers of spears > ^ 
and swords, broken and some wanting 5 

A part of one of the sockets burnished by it, to shew the effect It 
performs that office well. It might also occasionally be used as a 
stake (small anvil), or sometimes as a hammer. 



14. Pectorale, or breast plate, a few fragments^ the rest lost The 
^dges of both the holes are round and hollow on both sides. A thong 
or small chain had probably been put through them, and hung round 
the neck, like the gorget of a British officer* It might be in two parts 
to cover each breast. 

1 am. Rev. Sir, your obedient humble servant. 

To tlw Rev. J. HodgsM, Jarrow. W. WILSON^ 

Wolsingham, 29/A Fehrwary, 1816. 
Rev. Sir, 
As the carrier is going soon I have little time to answer the favour 
of yoMjr's, and ta return you thanks for your observations and qoo4i»- 
tion from Homer, &c. »/ o/ufoxoi xoc^inf 010 muhoi might be translated, studs 
wbiAe with tio ; which confirms our idea of that metal being used by 
the aociente in the Ibrmatioa of their arms. The editor of my Livy 
baa given this note on the passage you allude to^ respecting the arms 
of the Roman velites — ^^ Hastis. velitaribus inest/* Hastae veKtares 
eranjt jacijlAtoriaex id[ est, quibus eminus jaculabantur, proinde levi- 
ores. The sleeve of mail armour I have sent you, was found fifty or 
sixty years ago^ I believe in Hatherbnrn Cave, near Stanhope-; a cave 
tihat extends, it is said, a mile in length. I believe it to be Roman. 
Probably the sleeve of woven brass wire is Norman, and, I think, 
what they caUed avant bras« It was found under the thatch of an old 
hpi^ c|t Wolsingham, about tea years ago. 

I am. Rev. Sir, your obedient humble servant, 

Aw* /. Hodfism. W. WILSON. 


An Enquiry into the JSra when Brass was used in purposes to which Iron 
is note applied, by the Rev. John HODGSON, Secretary. 

Having stated in a conversation at the meeting, at which the brazen 
sword from Ewart Park was presented to the Society, my opinion that 
arms of that kind were not in use among the Romans for a long 
time prior to the occupation of Britain by that people; I now, 
in compliance with the wish of some of the members of this body, 
endeavour not only to substantiate that opinion, but to shew from 
Hebrew, Greek, and Roman testimony, the aeras in which brass was 
Used in warlike instruments by these and some other nations of anti- 
quity, and to draw some such general conclusions respecting the intro- 
duction of brazen arras into this country, as are deducible from the 
intercourse, generally allowed to exist, between the Britons and the 
people inhabiting the islands and the borders of the Mediterranean Sea, 
prior to the Roman invasion. 

In the Mosaic, antediluvian age, Tubal Cain is said to have been 
the ** instructor in every artificer of brass and iron". I forbear any 
discussion on this text, from the apprehension of carrying myself into 
too wide a field of difficulty, thinking it sufficient to remark, that with 
respect to the present appearance of the surface of our globe, the 
Bible and the record |eft upon the face of the earth strongly illustrate 
each other. 

The order of creation is exemplified by the organic remains disco- 
vered in the successive strata of rock from the lowest to the highest : 
and the alluvial soils found in all the mountains of the world, below 
the line of perpetual frost, are a record of the catastrophe that pro- 
duced them. I think I am accurate in this distinction ; because by 
assigning the organic remains found in the stratified minerals to the 
agency of Noah's deluge, I could not account for the total disappear- 
ance of.the bones of the antediluvians, and of their works of art. But 
I think, the vertiginous fury of that wave, which has thrown heaps of 


gravel and rounded stones of great size upon the sides of mountains, 
as high as the sea can, by the ordinary laws of nature, flow without 
being arrested by frost, and which has covered the whole surface of 
the globe below that line with a stratum every way dissimilar to those 
below it, both with respect to form and materials; I think such a 
wave an agent of sufficient power to have obliterated all remains both 
of the people and the arts of the predecessors of Noah. At least 1 
have heard of no remains of the human species> or of any works of art, 
discovered under circumstances that appear to justify their being attri- 
buted to antediluvian origin. 

The Egyptians attributed the discovery of metals to their first kings*, 
and the earliest account, we have of the use of brass, is connected with 
that people. In constructing the tabernacle, Moses *^ made the laver 
of brass, and the foot of it of brass; of the mirrors of the women 
assembling, who assembled at the door of the tabernacle of meeting*'f . 
In the same year the Israelitish women were presented with " vessels 
of silver, and vessels of gold, and raiment" by the Egyptians J. From 
both which passages it is evident, that the use of these metals at that 
time, 1491 years before Christ, was well understood. And a passage 
in Job II, affords a sort of explanation of the kind of brass, which was 
used in the mirrors of which the laver ati^its pedestal were made : ** Hast 
thou with God spread out the strong airs like a molten mirror". If the 
comparison lie here in the strength and similarity of brightness which 
are found in the sky and metal mirrors, the latter may well be sup- 
posed to have been of a very pale colour : and we accordingly find in 
Pliny, that there was a metal in high estimation for making mirrors in 
his time, called Egyptian silver, which was composed of three parts 
brass, and the rest sulphur and silver in equal proportions. He also 
says, that the Brundusian mirrors, which were in high repute, were 
made of copper and tin §. When the latter metal is about two to one 

'* Phot Bib. col. 134*1. f Exod. xxxviii. 8. - 1 E^od. xiii. 37. 

II Cftp. xxxviii. 18. ^ Nat. Hitt. xxxiii. 9. xxxiv. 17. 


or nearly one-third of the Moy, the compound is of a very beautiful 
white, and takes a deep and exquisite polish. It is called speculum- 
metal, and is used in telescopes. 

And as a further proof, that the Egyptians were acquainted with 
brass at an early period of their history, and at a time when their arts 
were in an infant state, we may add the testimony of Agatharcides, 
out of Photius. He says, that in a mountain in Upper-Egypt, not 
&r from the Red Sea, there are ancient gold mines, *' in which, even 
in our times, wedges of brass, Kit^opu^ /«fr x*xiuuj are found ; because 
when these mines were wrought, men were no way acquainted with 
the use of iron"*. The chain or torques of gold, which Pharaoh put 
about the neck of Joseph, was a badge of honour, which sereral anc^t 
nations seem to have adopted from the Egyptians. 

The wealth of Abraham consisted in ^^ flocks and herds, and silver 
and gold* and men-servants and maid-servants^ and camels and asses" f . 
Brass and iron had not then, as in the time of Joshua, been admitted 
into the catalogue of men's wealth ;{;. They, however, wrought gold 
into ear-rings, bracelets, and chains, for the neck, as in the instance 
of the jewels given to Rebecca |. And silver, at that time§, was so 
commonly used as the circulating medium among merchants, that the 
word, in the Hebrew, translated money, through all parts of the scrip- 
ture, signiiies silver. 

The high antiquity of the book of Job is^ I think, universally con- 
fessed. Authors of credit and great learning have placed him in the 
time of Jacob, about 1730 years before Christ; and he alludes to the 
art of fusing metals, as a thing generally known in his ume. ^* Surely 
there is a vein for the silver, and a place for gold where they fine it 
Iron is taken out of the earth, and brass is molten out of the stone." % 

* Phot. Bibliotheca, col. 1S44^ f Gen. xiii. 2. xxt. 35. 

X Josh. vi. 19. xxii.9. || Gen. xxiy. 22.58* 

$ Gen. xvL 12. IS. xx. 16. xxiiL 15. 16. xBL 25. 35. xliiL 12. 15. 21, kc 

^ Cap. xxviii. 1. 2. 



He also alludes to an ancient method of writing upon lead with an 
iron style^^ and mentions a weapon of ironf ; but has no allusion to 

Brass was one of the metals used in the construction of the taber- 
nacle, and of several of its utensils. The altar of burnt-offering, and 
all its vessels and implements were wholly of that metal;];. Moses 
made a serpent of brass, during the sojournment of the Israelites in 
the wilderness || ; and after the conquest of the Midionites, we find 
directions given for the purification by fire, of every thing made of 
gold, silver, brass, iron, tin, or lead§. One of the excellencies of 
the Land of Promise was, that its stones were iron, and that brass 
might be dug out of its hills %. This metal is also alluded to a few 
times in the Pentateuch, in a figurative sense^^ ; but concerning its use 
in offensive armour, during the Mosaic age, I have not been able to 
discover th^ slightest hint. No warKke weapon, nor im{>lement of 
domestic use has its name from it: for though the root, tffrti^ a 
serpent, or to observe, both as a verb and a substantive, is used in a 
variety of senses in the writings of Moses, and other parts of the Old 
Testament, yet there is no instance of its being metaphorically applied 
to any thing^ of the nature of an edge-tool. 

It is, however, plain, that brass had its -Hebrew name either from 
some supposed resemblance it bore to a serpent, or from its being 
commonly used in fabricating idols, resembling some animal of that 
genus. The kind of serpent, of which Moses bore the resemblance 
on his standard, was called Seraph, that is, burning ; and the emblem 
itself rvsH) t^i nehesh nehesbet, the brazen serpent: and this con*- 
tinned in use unto the time of Hezekiah, who called it Nehustan; and 
destroyed it, because the Israelites in* those days burned incense ta 

♦ Cap. xix. 24 f Cap. xx. »• 

X Exod. xxxviiL 2. Ac. H Numb. xxL 8. 9* 

§ Numb. xxxL 22. f Deutviii.9^ 

*• Levit. xxvi. 19. Deut xxviil. 23. and xxxiii. 25« 


it*. The rod of Moses, so frequently mentioned in the book of 
Exodus, was a staff of brass, in the form of a serpent f. 

Sampson had his eyes put out by the Philistines, and was con- 
demned to grind corn in a prison in Gaza, bound in fetters of brass :{;• 
In this passage, the word in Hebrew, which is translated, fetters of 
brass ||, and in some other places fetters § and chains f, is the term for 
brass in that language, changed into the masculine plural, and might 
be rendered brasses, with as much propriety as/we call chains and fet- 
ters, irons, from their being constructed of iron. Brass is also in one 
place put for a chain. 

The most remarkable passage in the Bible, connected with the sub- 
ject under inquiry, is that which contains the description of the armour 
of Goliah, the giant of Gath. *^ His height was six cubits and a span. 
And he had a helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a 
coat of mail ; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of 
brass. And he bad greaves of brass upon his legs, and a target of brass 
between his shoulders. And the staff of his spear was like a weaver*s 
beam ; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron : and 
one bearing a shield went before him."** 

The combat between David and Goliah is generally dated 1063 
years before Christ, in the time of Codrus, king of Athens, and of the 
first Peloponnesian war : and the account of it affords the first positive 
historical notice on record, of brass and iron being forged into armour. 

I have quoted the description of the giant's armour from the autho- 
rised version ; but the sense of it may perhaps be better collected from 
a translation strictly literal. 

His height was six cubits and a span. And a brazen helmet was 
upon his head, and he was clothed with chains like scales ; and the 

* ii. Kings, xviiL 4* f Ezod. iv. 3. t JHC^;es» xvi. 21. 

n nvndi, in brass; D^vndi, in brasses; which the Septuagint translates v wAu^ 
%mkMm. See also ii. Kings, xviL ?• 
§ ii. Chron. xxxvi. 6. Jen xxzix. 7. % Lament, iii. ?• 

♦* i. Sam. xviL 4 — T. 

weight of the chains was five thousand shekels of brass ; and greaves 
of brass were upon his legs ; and a lance of brass between his shoulders ; 
and the staff of his spear like a weaver's beam ; and the flame (or 
blade) of his spear six hundred shekels of iron ; and one bearing a shield 
went before him. 

The English translators following the authority of the Septuagint, 
the Vulgate, and several eminent critics have rendered the noon HTpi 
a target; but I think it will not be difficult to shew» that it ought to 
have been translated javelin. In Junius andXremelius it is humerale. 

This word occurs in five* other places in the Bible, in none of 
which it can, consistently with good sense, be rendered target, or made 
to mean any kind of defensive armour ; and in three of which it is 
spear, in the English version; and in two of them in the Septuagint, 
yoiTK, a heavy dart ; and in the third, C^vrv, a boar spear. Junius 
and Tremelius have rendered it, in the four first of these places, lancea ; 
and in the fifth, haHa. The passage in Joshua determines its meaning 
at once, ** Stretch forth the spear that is in thine hand towards Ai : — 
And Joshua stretched forth the spear that was in his hand towards Ai/' 
And Diodati, on the passage in question, says, <^ Some understand the 
Hebrew word, keedoany for a kind of pike, carried croesways upon 
the shoulders." And, besides the argument in favour of translating 
keedoQfiy a javelin, drawn firom the meaning it bears in other parts of 
the Bible — whoever went to battle with a shield before him, and a 
target upon his back ? That it was some kind of offensive armour is 
evident from the words of David : *^ Thou comest to me with a sword 
and with a spear and with a keedoon^ or dart": — none of the defensive 
suit are here enumerated — ^neither the helmet, which covered his 
head ; nor the coat of chain armour, that clothed his body and his 
thighs ; nor the greaves of brass, which encased his legs and feet. 

There are also proofs in Homer of the great antiquity of going out 
to battle armed with two spears : — 

* Joshua TiiL 18, 19« Job» xxxix. 23. Ixi. 29. Jer« vi» t$* 


Now Alexander from the Trojan ranks * 
Advancing comes, god-like in form ; a leopard's skin. 
His sword, and bow upon his shoulder slung ^ 
Two spears he vibrates, bright with brazen points. 
And dares the bravest Grecians to the fight *. 

In the splendid description of Agamemnon arraying himself for 
battle, we are told that last of all. 

Two mighty spears he seized, their heads of bronze 
Keen-edged and strong, that dazzling brightness cast 
O'er heaven f . . * 

Two spears are enumerated among the arms of Nestor;): . Hector 
also went out against the Grecians with two spears §; having, 
according to some R, one of them in his right hand, and the other under 
his shield, in his left. Asteropaeus was ambidexter, and threw both 
his spears at once at Achilles^ . And Pallas, speaking to Telemachus 
about hiB father, pictures him thus **" : — 

'^ Could he now appear 
There, at yon portal, armed with helmet, shield. 
And grasping his two spears, such as when first 
I saw him,*' & 

Ishbi-benob, another giant of the Philistines, carried a spear, *' the 
weight of which was three hundred shekels of brass in weight'*. Mr. 
Parkhurst thinks that the word, Jp, translated spear in this place, 
means a helmet: but originally it means any reed, cane, or hollow 

♦ IL ill 8, t IL zL 48. 

:( n. X. 76. ' $ IL ziL S9i. 

II SchoL per VOloisoiu See abo Montfrucoii, toL iv. plate 4, %. 1. 

f ILxxL 162. 

** Odys. i. 296, aod these qpeert ate mettdoned in other pam cif the Odyssy. 

ft Cowper*a Trattthction, Sd Edit 


stalk. Canes in ancient, as well as modern times, have been much 
used as shafts of spears and darts ; and the Septuagint in this place 
has iA/>w *. About this period we also find mention of ** bows of 
brass", nB^H3 — FSIffpi which, in our translation, is rendered** a bow of 

steer t- 
The account of the large quantity of brass, used in many of theuten* 

sils and ornaments of the Temple of Solomon, affords decisive evidence 
of the high estimation in which that metal was held in the zenith of the 
Jewish Monarchy. Many of the vessels were of very extraordinary 
dimensions. For instance, the brazen altar was thirty feet in length 
and breadth, and fifteen feet high ; the brazen sea forty-five feet in cir- 
cumference; and supported by twelve oxen of brass ; and there were 
two pillars, each twenty-seven feet high, and six feet in diameter^ and 
having capitals of seven and a hal&feet in height To mark the 
greatness of the quantity used, it is said that the ** bra3s was in 
abundance, without weight" J. 

Iron is not mentioned in the history of the Patriarchs, nor among 
the metals used in the construction of the tabernacle; but it occurs 
in the list of the six metals already quoted from the book of Num- 
bers: and in the same book, ** an instrument of iron," such as might 
be used for committing murder, is mentioned. In the passage which 
relates to one man accidentally killing another, by the head of his axe 
flying off, the word, translated the head, means the iron, in the ori- 
giiuil § ; and the same inaccuracy occurs in the second book of King&4 
** as one man was fellipg a beam, the axe head" — berzily the iron — 
" fell into the water"||. Og's bedstead was " of iron" %. £gypt> on 
account of its oppressive treatment of the Israelites, is compared to a 

* ii. Sam. xxL 10. f il. Sam. xxii. 25. Job. xx, 24^ Ps* xfiii* S4. 

X L Kings vii. and ii. Chron. iv. § Numb. xxz. v. 16. 

II Deut xix. 5. cap. vi. 5. 

% Deut. iiL U. The Lacedemonians made beds, which they consecrated to Juno, of the 
iron and brass utensils which they found in the city of PlatsBc. Thucyd. lib. iiL 


furnace of iron *. Mines of iron are mentioned f ; and altars on Which 
no tool of iron had been laid J : and slaverjr is represented " hy a 
yoke of iron upon the neck'* Q. All which expressions and allusions 
sufficiently shew tl^at the Hebrews, in the time of Moses, were well 
acquainted not only with the method of smelting iron, but that it was 
then manufactured into masons' and carpenters' tools, and into diffe- 
rent kinds of household furniture. 

Immediatdy after the Mosaic age, we find frequent mention of 
chariots of iron used in war by the people of Canaan §. Goliah's 
spear head weighed six hundred shekels of iron ^. Saws^ thrashing 
instruments, and axes of iron, are mentioned in the second book cf 
Samuel **. One hundred thousand talents of iron f f were prepared by 
^' David, for the nails for the doors of the gate, atnd for the joinings" 
of the temple ; but the stone of that edified was *' made ready before 
it was brought thither; so that there was neither hammer nor axe, nor 
any tool of iron heard in the house while it was building^^. Jeremiah 
speaks of an iron style |||. In the book of Psalms, rods, fetters, and 
bars of iron are mentioned ; and Isaiah tells of *^ cutting down thickets 
of the forest with iron". 

In the time of Ezekiel, Tarstiish traded to Tyre in silver, iron, tin, 
and lead ; Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, brought vessels of brass into 
ito market^ atid Dan and Javan supplied it with bright iron §§. 

In tracing the connexion between ancient implements of brass dis- 
covered in Britain, and the mercantile people along the shores of the 
Mediterranean Sea, it will be necessary to direct our attention to the 
information which the ancients have left us concerning their know- 

« Dent. iv. 90. f Deut, viiL 9. 

X Deut sunriL 5* «Bd Jdthua viiL SL || Deut. acx?i& 46. 

f Mkxoi zviL 16, 1& Judges i. 19. if. 8, IS. 

f 1 Sam. zviL 7. «« C9p.mU IS. 

tt 1 Chron. xxix. ?•. t$ 1 Kings, vL T. 

P Cap.xTii. 1. . f§ Esdc ixrii. 12— IS. 



To Diomed, Tydeus son, they went. 
Him, circled by his sleeping friends, they found 
Before his tent in arms: their heads reposed 
. Upon their fields. Their spears, in earth infixed. 
Erectly by their handle end^ from heads 
Of bras^ shone fiu* as Jove's own lightning gleams. 
The hero, also slept himself, oat stretched 
Upon a wild bulFs hide, with tapestry broad 
Of splendid workmanship beneath his head. * 

j^iad made himself a sword which had two edges, and was of a 
cubit (18 inches) in length. Its blade, in Hebrew, is called leeb^ a 
word which is applied to the spear-head of Goliah, and occurs in the 
same sense in Nahum : in its primitive application it signifies flame or 
brightness :«^^^ -the shaft went in after th^ blade, le^y and the fat 
closed upon the blade'' f. It is also probable, that the jword of Go- 
Uah was som^hing similar in size to that of Ehud, as David, a man of 
ordinary stat^ure, used it in decolating Ooliah ; and, afterwards, when 
he was presented with it by Ahimalech|, he pronounced it a match- 
less one. If it had been large in proportion to the weight of the 
giant's other armour, it would havis bee^i useless to David. 

Swords are frequently mentioned in the writings x>f Moses, under 
the same name that they bear in the other parts of the Bible, which 
name is from a term, Vn, choreby which signifies, to consume or de- 
solate: and, it is remarkable, that in the passage, where Moses is 
commanded not to build an altar of hewn stone— *^ for if thou lift up 
thy tool, upon it, thou hast pointed it", the word translated tool, is 
choreb in the original, which might, with great propriety, have been 
rendered, thy sword. In Joshua, the sentence translated — '^ make 
thee sharp knives," is in the original, make thee chorebuth Jeriifi, 
swords of stones. From this latter expression it would appear, that 
the Israelites, notwitbstandiqg their knowledge of inetals in the time 

« Horn. n. X. 153. t Judges, iii. 16-^. tlS*m<ni.9. 


of Moses, were not far removed from an age when their predecessors 
used weapons made of stone. 

Under the Mosaic age> and in the time of liie kings of Israel, men? 
tion occois of axes with irojEi heads^ used for hewing wood^. In both, 
the passages alluded to, the word translated head, as I have before 
noticed, meoM iron in the ori^^nal; and, in the first, the sentence, 
** the bead slipped from the helve", shonld have been— the iron slip^ 
petih &om the w6od« Axes of this kind are also mentioned in other 
places f J aqd from 1 Kings, vi. 7) appear to have been used in hewing 
stone as well as wood. 

The Philistines triumphed so completely over the Hebrews, in die 
time of Saul, as to carry away all the smiths out of the country, which 
was done, '^ lest ^e Hebrews make them swords and spears'^ They 
badi even to go to their enemies to get their agricultural implements 
repmred. A simiUr catastrophe seems to have befaUen them in the 
timetif Deboreh j;. 

The persons who were employed in the construction of the taber^ 
naole were, a member of the tribe of Judah, who had the direction of 
the metallurgical department of the work, and one of the tribe of Dan, 
who excelled in die arts of engraving and weaving. When the temple 
WW buiH, Hiram, king of Tyre, sent a man, whose mother was » 
Danite, and his firthei* % T3rrian, and described him to Solomon as one 
^ skiUbl to work in gold, and in ^Iver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and 
in timber; in purple, in blue» and in fine linen and in crimson > also 
to grave any manner of graving, and to find out every device, which 
shall be put to hiin with thy dunning men, and with the cunning men 
of my lord David tbf father.*' 

The languages of the Phoenicians and (ihe Hebrews are acknowledged 
lo have been neaHy alike : and the similarity between the names of the 
Hebrew and Greek letters, is a strong proc^ of the advantage which 

•D6ut.xhu5. SKiDg^yn.7. f 1 KingiB, Vi. 7; ^KatkgBfU.S* bmiLS. 

I Judges, V. 8» 1 Ssul ziiL 19, ftd 


the Greeks derived from their intercourse with the people of that part 
of Asia. 

It is not necessary here to bring any arguments to show that grtet 
numbers cf the inhabitants of Canaap, after the conquest of tbeir 
country by the Israelites under Mjiffj settle in various . parts of 
Greece; and that the Phoenicians, from time Ho time> establishf^d vari- 
ous colonies on the islands and shores of the Mediterranean Seaw It is 
sufficient for ihe purposes of this essay to shew, that the Pboenicians 
commonly traded into Greece in Homer^s time; and that part ^f ^keic 
traffic was in metals in a manufactured state. He calls them «ien 
skilled in nautical aflairs, and sharpers, bringing cargoes of toys; 
among wiiich wei^ necklaces of gold, set with amber ^. Sidon is 
called ** rich in brass", «nd one of the prices -at the funeral games of 
Patroclus, was a large silver bowl, made by ah ingenious Sidoniiui> 
and carried to Lemnos by a Phoenician merchan); f . Their females 
are described as skilled in elegant work, such as making beautiful 
apparel J. 

From this manner of describing the Phoenicians, it is, I think, &ir 
to infer^ that they were civilized before the Greek9-*-that in Homer's 
time the Phcenicians dealt in the arts and luxuries of life, while the 
Greeks were employed in petty wars and pastoral pursuits. And 
from a survey of tbe uses to which brass atid iron appear to have been 
applied in Greece, in die days of Hom6r> and in Palestine, in the time 
of Moses and Solomon, the inference in favour of the early superiority 
of tl^ knowledge of the Hebrews and Phoenicians^ over that of the 
Greeks, will be greatly strengthened. 

That the art of .manufacturing brass preceded that of iron, appears 
pretty evideirtly from some of the terms which beloAg to the metal- 
lurgical art. Homer caJls the smith who mt^de iren axes, uvuf ^okhivq^ 
literally a brasier ; a smithy, x^*^*'^'!!; ^h^ ^^^ ^( working metals' in 
general, x<^^^vf(r§ . The fire, too, in which metals were heated, was 

« Od^. iv. 288. Z¥. 814. 424. 459. f D. xziii. 744. 

% Odyg. XV. 816. H. vi. 290. || Odys. ix* 891. § Odys. viii. 278. 


calted x^etrKy a word which^ in its literal sense> means a furnace, or a 
crucible, in which metals ^re melted*^ It is, however^ evidently im- 
plied, in the account of Vulcan making ready to fabricate the shield of 
Achilles, that the metals he used were first heated and then hammered* 

He said, and parting, to his bellows went : 

These to the fire he placed, and said, ** be worked". 

On furnaces, full twenty bellows blew. 

Blasts breathing out of all degrees of strength ; 

Dispatch now suiting, now its counter part. 

As Vulcan wiHed, and as his work required. 

Brass indestructible, and tin he put. 

And precious gold, and silver in the fire. 

Then on its stock the anvil huge he placed : 

One hand the hammer took, the fire^tongs one. 

Tho«igh tongs are used for lifting crucibles out of furnaces, it is, 
however, evident from this passage, that the furnaces mentioned here 
were . only the ordinary fires of a smith, otherwise for what purpose 
were the hammer and the anvil ? In the third Odyssey, the same 
kind of tools are mentioned as used in the art of beating out gold^ for 
gilding the horns of a bull, destined for sacrifice. 

Then the brazier came. 
His brazen armour bearing in his hand-— 
Anvil and hammer, fire-tongs neatly formed. 
Tools of his art, with which the gold he worked. 

From this description it is, I think, quite conclusive, that the Greeks, 
about this time,, were very ill acquainted with the art of manufacturing 
iron ; because it cannot be supposed that their hammers, anvils, and 
smith's tongs would have been made of so soft a metal as brass, if 
they could have easily procured iron for the same purposes. 

* ILxtiii.47a 


But that the proof that brazen implements preceded those i>f iron, 
both in mechanics and wair, amongst the Greeks, doed not rest on 
inferences and conclusions that may be doubted ^ it will be easy to 
shew, by inquiring into the several uses to which brass, iron, and tin, 
appear to have been applied in the time of Homer. 

There are numerous references to hewing down trees, and carving 
wood with brass, in which no mention is made of the kinds of instru- 
ments used for that purpose *. Other passages supply us with their 

When Caljrpso dismissed Ulysses, ^' she gave him a large brazen 
axe, ^nhvivr, fitted to the hands, sharp on both sides, and having a very 
beautiful helve of olive wood, skilfully carved". Then also she gave 
him a ** well-polished adze'^ vxtmufv^r t«4o«r. Having felled twenty trees, 
^ he shaped them out with the brass, fln^juciotr i' ocfti x^'^j polished them 
skilfully, and adjusted them with a measure^'f . At a former time she 
advised him '^ to hew beams of timber, and form with brass a broad 
bark'' t- 

On the word twti^ra^ror, the scholiast says : " wool, from its covering a 
lamb, but in this place some read a spear, or nither an aixe sharp on 
botii sides**. That it was some sort of carpenter's tool is clear, from 
the above passage ; and fVom the comparison betweeh the hissing pro*- 
duced by burning out the eye of Polyphemus, and the noise arising 
from plunging hot iron into cold water ||, it appears that this instrument 
and the ^txtxwc were indifferently made of iron or of brass. The great 
value put upon th^n may be inferred from the skill employed in beau- 
tifying the handle of the one, and in polishing the head of the other. 

Concerning the ^xficwc there is a variety of other incidental informa* 
tion in the Iliad and the Odyssey. The following simile occurs twice § : 

* n. L 236. xiii. ISa Odys. v. 152. xxiii. 196. 

f Odys. V. 2S7. %. Odys. v. 162. 

H Odyt.ix.891,&c. 

§ II. xiii. 991. xvi. 484* See also IL ilL 61, rdtpectbg its uie by shipn^ai'peDters. 


^ He fell like an oak, or poplar, or lofty pine, which a carpenter fells 
for ship-tiniber, in the mountains, with new-whetted axes, viKixw^t 
rtifx«ri." It is also stiled uKfl\9fAH ^, wood-ielling, in the account of the 
preparation for the funeral rites of Patroclus ; where it is also said, 
that the wood for the fire was cut down with brass f . It was like- 
wise used in close fighting j;, and fpr killing oxen |. There are a 
few scattered hints respecting its shape. Ten axes and ten half-axes 
comprised one of the prizes, at the games given by Achilles, at the 
funeral of Patroclus. 

By which I understand that the axe had two mouths, or, as it is ex- 
pressed respecting the one given by Calypso to Ulysses, was o^f olifwOir 
m,fttx/AU9fy sharp on both sides 3 and that the half^aes had only one 

The carved handle of the flnx«Kuc has been already noticed. The 
method of fixing it may be collected from, the several references in 
the Odyssey, to the game of shooting an arrow through the helve-hole 
of twelve axes placed in a right line, and at stated distances from each 
other. These holes are expressly mentioned in the twenty-first 
Odyssey, line 486th; and the axes, which Ulysses kept in his treasury 
for that purpose, were made of iron. 

The following Epigram, attributed both to Simmia of Rhodes, and 
to Bion, is called irtxcituc, and composed in lines, so arranged, as to 
represent the form of an axe and its handle. 

«n.xnii.ll4. flLzxiiLlld. 

tILxT.711. llOdy8.iii.4M. 


Among the several arts that wer^ attributed to Miaerva, and undei- 
her protection, that of the carpenter was one :— 

And as a line divides a vessel's plank 

In some good workn^an's hand, who knows right well 

The whole of wisdom by Miqerva's rules^ 

So straight the line of fight and battle seem'd. * 

And, on this account, the poet lays all the turn and point of his ver^s 
in their form and in the praise of Epeus, who, under the guidance of 
Minerva, constructed the wooden horse, which gained him such 
applause, that he rose, according to Plautus and Marcus Varro, from 
the capacity of a cook, to the dignity of a nobleman of Greece. 

The flt^irn, or battle-axe of Menelaus, was of " excellent brass, with 


an olive-wood handle, long and well polished'* ^ : and the same weapon 
is mentioned next to the timxvc, in the description of the attack which 
the Trojans, under Hector, made upon the fleet of the Greeks. 

Jav'lins now no more 
Might serve them, or the arrow-starting bow, 
B«t close conflicting, and of one mind all. 
With bill and battle-axe t> with ponderous swords. 
And with long lances, double-edged, they fought j 
Many a black-hilted falchion, huge of haft. 
Fell to the ground, some from the grasp, and some 
From shoulders of embattled warriors hewn. J 

The blade of the Homeric sword, lif oc ||, was made of brass, and is 
called sharp §, and sharp on *both sides ^ ; under which latter term it 
is frequently joined with the spear called ty^*^ **• This sword was 
suspended over the shoulder ff in a belt Xtf ^^^ hung by the thigh |||t 
in a sheath4§« which was sometimes made of ivory f ^, and at other 
times of a black substance *^ The epithets applied U> it are silver- 
studded t% large JS brazen ||'-hilted§', and long-bladed f '. The hilt 
of it was sometimes made of silver **, near which the blade was apt 
to break f *. The sword of Menelaus was shivered into several pieces, 
on the helmet of Paris J*. 

* n. xiii. 612. f 0|in in xOiixgn-t, tuu «(ini^ /m^^vt*. IL.xv. 711. 

i Cowper'8 Trans, p. 4*71, first Ed. || U, ilL 335. xvL 136. Odys. x. 262, &c. 

$ILiv.5S0. fILxxLllS. Odys.xvL80. xxi. 336. 

♦♦IL xiii. 147. xiv. 26. xv.278. xvi.637. Odys. xx. 526, &c. 

+t n. V. 45. Odys. x. 261, Ac tj D. viL 305, 

811 Odys. he. 300. §§ II. i. 194, &c. 

^ Odys. viiL 404. ♦' II. xv. 715. 

t'ILiL45, ui.334,drc t'ILi.22a 

||» Odys. X. 261. J' II. xvi. 332. 

f ' Odys. xjriL 443. ** Odys. viii. 403, 

t* a xvi. 839. t* II. iii. 363. 

F 2 


Swords are also described under two other names^ aof and ^aryafopy 
both of which appear to have been synonjrmous to {if^. 

For the ««f, hung by the thigh *, was brazen f , or all of brass J, 
long-bladed II, sharp §, and great; and with such a one Hector cut 
asunder the shaft of the spear of Ajax Telamon %. 

The aof which Euryalus gave to Ulysses was all of brass, its hilt of 
silver, and its sheath of new-carved ivory**. The very same weapon 
is afterwards, under the name itf^c, called silver-studded, and described 
as worn (in a belt thrown) over the shoulder ff. 

The fouryapor was also made of brass, and was sharp on both sides {{• 
Among other epithets, it is styled silver-studded, beautiful, Thracian- 
made nil, and black-sheathed and hilted§§. In the eleventh book of 
the Odyssey, the same weapon is in one place called forymvof 9^ ^^, 
and in another afyufon^^t *^ -, and Peneleus and Lycon, after their spears 
had both missed their aim, closed with their swords, &f«^i f ^ Lycon 
struck the horse hair cone of the helmet of Peneleus^ and his sword 
^•rywffy broke at the hilt|^: in these two instances, the terms are evi- 
dently synonymous and mutable ; but they seem to be applied to distinct 
kinds of weapons in the fifteenth. Iliad, where the srixwivc, a^w, (ifK, tyx^ 
and f a^aror, are classed together, as weapons used in close fighting ||\ 

The /u«x^<* seems to have been some sort of a brasen knife, which 
was worn in a sheath by the side of the sword. *' Atreides, drawing 
with his hands the knife, /<ax^'r^^ ^^at always by the sheath of his Inige 
falcheon hung, cut the hair from the forehead of the lamb." §' It 
occurs in the same sense in the nineteenth Iliad %\ The instrument with 

*axTL49S. xxi.l7S. Ody8.x. 439. f <Myi. xix. 341. 

\ Odys. viiL 403. || H xiv. 385. xn. 473. 

JILxxL173. fIl.xTLll5. 

•* Odys. viii. 403. ft W. L 406-416. 

XX Odyi. xxiL 79— 9a H || H. xxiiL 807. 

§§ D. XV. 713. f f L. 94. 

♦* L. 96. t' !!• xvi- 335. 

:('Id.339. See aUo U. XX. 469, Ire. ||'L.710,&c - 

$' n. iiL 271—292, and xix. 252. f * L. 252* 


which the broken arrow was extracted from the thigh of Eurypylus, 
has the same name*: and the youths described in the. picture of the 
Cretan dance, upon the shield of Achilles, had golden knives hanging 
in silver belts f « It was an instrument of this kind which Egeus hid 
under a large stone, and by which he afterwards discovered Theseus, 
while in the act of carving with it, to be his son :|;. 

The tyxoc had an ashen shaft, and was headed with brass ||, which is 
sometimes called sharp §, and sometimes two edged %. Its lower point, 
by which it was fixed in the earth at the bivouac of a general, was 
called travf^nrf **, and >ffi»x^ tt* ^' ^ ^^^^ often styled long, and that of 
Hector was eleven cubits in length, and its brazen head Xt ^^ encir^ 
cled with a ring of gold. The same sort of spear is also called /vv||||, 
a name which seems to be nearly equivalent to our word shaft, or 
pole §§, and under which the spear is frequently called brazen ^^, and 
has many of the same epithets applied to it which are applied to «yx*c. 
MiKsa *% so called on account of the shafts of spears being made of 
ash, and ^vfoc f, are also synonyma with t7X*^9 ^^^ ^^^ brazen heads |\ 

Helmets, scale-armour, and cuirasses of brass, occur in almost every 
page of the Iliad. Brass constituted a part of the shields of Achilles, 
Hector, Ajax, and several of the other heroes. Nor does Homer for- 
get to embellish his poem with descriptions of the brilliance of brazen 
armour ; the flashes that proceeded from them as the troops changed 
their positions; and especially their dazzling splendour after being 
newly cleaned. 

♦ 11. xi. 843. + B. xviii. 597. 

i Plut, voL 1 , p. 1 1 . II 11. V. 655. xxil 828, &c. 

^§ U. X. 135. % n. xiv. 26, &c. Odyt. xvL 474*, &c. 

•« D. X. 153. tt ^ ^ii- *44, &c 

:tt n. vi. 820« viiL 495. |||i See D. v. lines 660—664. 

§§ In IL XV. 410, &c. ship timber is called )«pv yjiiay. IL xv. 410, &c. the wooden horse 
of Epeus was called jmiA«v J»pv, from its being hollow and made of wood« 

f f n. xiii. 247. ♦' xx. 272 and 277. xxiL 326 and 328. 


X^ See for the first word IL xxil t25^ 328, Ac ; for the second, D. ly, 469. xi. 260. 


The spears long, ruthless, sharp, with horror filled 
The battle. Brazen splendour in their eyes. 
From gl it' ring casques, and cuirass burnished fresh. 
And shining shields, with dazzling splendour shone, 
As the host thickened. 

Arrows, with brazen heads, are frequently mentioned in connexion 
with shooting them out of bows. Under the name pitpc, we have the 
epithets brass-headed*, three pointed f, long pointed f; under m, the 
arrow is called heavy-with-brass||, and three-pointed § ; and the prac- 
tice of poisoning the brazen heads of arrows is alluded to^. 

Chariots were ornamented with brass ** ; the fellies and spokes of 
Juno's tt» *°d the axle of Neptune's were of brass JJ. Brass was also 
used by the Greeks in their leg armour, as they are called in the 
the 7th Iliad (line 41), brazen-greaved, KOKnoKrnfitJU. Whether they 
shod their horses with any kind of metal is very doubtful^ though the 
horses both of Jove1||| and Neptune §§ are called brazen-footed, which 
indeed may be only intended to mean strong hoofed, without reference 
to any practice of shoeing horses with brass in Homer's days. 

The trade in brass amongst the Greeks, in Homer's time, was so 
common, that he alludes to it as a matter of common occurrence ^^. 
And when enumerating the articles of which the cargoes of ^hips con- 
sisted^ brass, gold, well-wrought iron, and raiment, form the general 
catalogue of valuable commodities *'. This metal is also very com- 
monly found in the accounts of the wealth of his heroes, with gold, 
raiment, wrought-iron, and beautiful women f . He also says, that it 

♦ n. xiiL 650. 668. t^-v-393. 

t II. viii. 297. " || II. xv. 465. 

{I1.XL507. fOdy8.i.261. 

♦•ILiv.226. x.S22,&c. +tn*v.725. 

:^ j: n. xiiL so. HH H. viiL^l. 

§§ adi. 23. f f Odys. v. 38. xiii. 136. 

♦'Odjr8.xv.324.. xvi. 231. 

f ' H.ii. 226. vL 47. ix. 265. x. 379. xi. 133. Odys ii. 338, &c. 


was carried to Greece from Temesa, a city of Cyprus ♦ ; near which 
place, according to Strabo f , there were numerous mines of brass ; and, 
in Pliny's time J, the Romans obtained much of their best copper out 
of that island, from which I apprehend the terms a/prum, a/prius, and 
copper^ are derived. 

Plutarch tells us why Homer calls brass tvtirofcL and rofOTrcL, The hun- 
ters, says he, when they have taken a boar or stag, and have to send 
it from a great distance to a town, thurst into it a spike of brass, .as a 
remedy against putrefaction, which eflTect it would appear to have 
from its styptic properties -, hence physicians use the rust of brass in 
cases of that nature. Persons too, affected with inflamed eyes, when 
employed in brass mines, grow better of their complaint; and such as 
have lost their eye-lashes, have the hair restored. For the fine dust, 
which arises from the ore of brass, falling imperceptibly upon the eye- 
lashes, so dries and braces them up, that they no longer emit rheum 
or tears. Hence Homer calls brass, tvnvof<t. Aristotle, , also relates, 
that wounds made by spears and knives of brass, are less painful, and 
heal sooner, th^n those made by iron weapons; because brass has in 
it a certain medicinal quality, which it communicates directly to the 
wounds ||. 

One of the prizes at the funeral games of Patroclus was 

A mass, self*fused. 
Which erst Eetion's mighty strengh could hurl. 

« « ^ « • « 

How distant far, the winner's fertile lands, 

* Some critics have contended that this Temesa is the same as that mentioned by Livy» 
xxxiv. 45, which was a town of the BruttiL See EusUth. and the Venet* SohoL 

f Li. vi. and xiv. 

X Nat. Hist, xxxiv. 2, &c. 

II Symph. iiL 10. Edit. Hen. Steph. an. 1572. vol ii. p. 1169 and 1171. See ako Ma- 
crob. Saturnal. vii. 16. where this passage out of Plutarch is quoted. The passage alluded 
to in Aristotle, may be found in his Problems, sec. i. 35.. vol. iL p. 829. Bd^ 1596. 


It him shall serve iu using full five years; 
For herd or plowman wanting iron none 
Of his shall seek the town, but deal it out. 

This self-fused mass was probably one of those balls of native iron, 
which are formed in the higher regions of the air, by the aggregation 
of gaseous atoms of iron and of some other metals, and hence have been 
called aerolites, and meteoric stones, the use of which, I conjecture, 
first suggested to mankind the idea of attempting to make ores of iron 
malleable by roasting. Be that, however, as it may, it is here inti- 
mated that shepherds and husbandmen, in the time of Homer, used 
iron, but in so sparing a manner, that a lump which one man could 
hurl further than all his competitors. 

Far as a herdsman throws his tapering staff. 
That whirling flies the herding beeves between, 

was more than sufficient to serve all the purposes of a considerable 
estate for five years*. 

The next prize proposed was, ten double mouthed and ten single- 
mouthed axes, made of iron fit for arrows, which, I apprehend, was 
such as had been properly prepared for the purpose of being formed 
into edge-tools, f 

In the description of Ulysses putting out the eye of Polyphemus 
with a burning stake of olive wood, the poet, as if it were by inci- 
dent, throws into a simile a philosophical observation on the art of 
tempering iron : 

As when a smith a hatchet or huge axe 
Loud hissing, plunges into water cold. 
In tempering (thus the strength of iron comes) y 
So hissed his eye around the olive stake %. 

From this passage it is quite clear that the early Greeks were well 
* U. xxvii. 125, &c. \ Id. 850. % Odjrs. ix. S92, &c. 


acquainted with the cause, which gives to iron its temper; but the 
term f a^^oaawr, healings which stands for the process, leads one to infer, 
that they imagined iron had some sort of an imperfection of the 
nature of a disease, before it was plunged into cold water. I have 
before noticed, that this comparison affords a sort of proof that the 
a-ixfitvc was indifferently made of brass, or iron ; and I would here add 
my conviction, froin the iron axes of Ulysses being laid up in his 
treasury with so much care, and the great regard with which the poet 
uniformly mentions this metal, that it was esteemed in his time as 
much more valuable than brass. 

That it was not in general use in the Homeric age, there is abun- 
dant testimony. Excepting in the club of Areithous,* and two 
notices, which induce the belief that it was used in arrow heads, f it 
does not appear to have been forged into any sort of warlike weapon. 
Juno's chariot wheels are, indeed, said to have been of iron, and where 
Ulysses instructs Telemachus how to apologize to his mother's suitors for 
removing the arms out of the hall, the concluding reason is : — ^because 
the sight of steel provokes men to use it : mt\o^ yaf ef fXKcrou a?{/ji« ininfoc J, 
Here tnikfn has precisely the same import that ferrum frequently has 
in Latin Authors, and means a sword or oflFensive weapons in general. 

The passages in Homer, which afford proof that iron in his time was 
scarce, and reckoned among valuable commodities, are numerous. 
Adrastus, imploring life at the hand of Menelaus, told him that his 
"father's house was well stored with brass and gold, and highly-wrought 
iron §. It is also, under the same epithet, classed among the riches in 
the treasury of Ulysses J. Sometimes it is called atomoc, white or 
shining ^ ; and with this denomination is enumerated by Achilles 

With gold, red brass, and women trimly zoned **. 

• n. VB. 341, 344s t !!• i^* ^23. xxSi. 850. 

X Odys. xvi. 294. xix. IS. § ILvi.48. See also ILx. 379, and lUxi. 133 

II Odys. xiv. 324. xxi. 10. f Odys. xxL 3 and 81. xxiv. 167* 

»♦ Il,ix. 365. xxm.261. 


The Greeks, at the siege of Troy, bought wine with brass, iron, 
oxen, hides, and captives, Iliad vii. 473 ; where it is euiau vtAifQ with 
shining, or polished iron, as it also is in Iliad iv. 484, where it is 
spoken of, as quoted above, as used by coachmakers for felling poplars. 
The Taphian merchants sailed to Temessa, trading for brass with 
shining iron, * which in one place is made an emblem of bravery f . 
Persons of obdurate dispositions are said to be possessed of '* iron 
minds" J. 

Apollo is introduced, Iliad iv. 510, exhorting the Trojans to battle, 
and telling them that the bodies of the Greeks were neither stone nor 
iron, that they could sustain the shock of their brazen weapons : and 
the sky is called tnJnfur «</crtr, the iron heaven, probably from bearing 
some resemblance in colour to polished iron§. 

Tin is mentioned several times in the Iliad ; but never, as far as I 
have observed, in the Odyssey, Its Greek name, Kamlifpc has been 
variously derived. One author says it has it, ^ofa to fla(r<ror rufurBett, 
because it is more easily melted than other metals. But the root 
x«<w«, a harlot, because tin appears to be silver and is not, is, per- 
haps, the most rational origin in the Greek language to which ««r(rfli/»«r 
can be traced. I have, however, an opinion that the Greeks derived 
their name for tin from the Phoenicians, who sold it to them for silver, 
which metal in Hebrew is called rp5; for we have the testimony of 
Homer, that the Phoenicians practised deceptions upon the simplicity 
of the early Greeks, by palming upon them toys and jewelry, for 
more valuable commodities; and Bochart has shewn that K«r(r/Jy«c 
must have been of Phoenician origin, " quia Chaldaei et Arabes stan- 
num appellant vocabulis huic simillimis. Hie Num. 31, 22. pro He- 
braeo SlD, et Graeco noffv/lifM, Jonathan habet m>DDp kastira, et Jeroso- 
lymitanus interpres inttD>p kistara, et Arabs n>n7p kasdir. Et in tractu 
Talmudico Sanhedrin fTHB^BOp kasterion est Stannum." 

* Odyi. L 184. f !!• »»• 872. 

X Odys. V. 191. xxiii. 172- J Odys. xv. 328, aad XTii. 665. 


The corslet of Atrides was given to him by Cinyras, king of Cyprus, 
and was made of ten rods of cyanite, twelve of gold, and twenty of 
tin ; and had three caerulian serpents on each side, entwined round its 
neck *. The shield of the same hero had twelve orbs of brass, twenty 
bosses of white tin, and one boss in the centre of dark cyanite, upon 
which Gorgon, with Flight and Fear, were carved f . 

In constructing the shield of Achilles, Vulcan is said to have made 
use of gold, silver, brass and tin j;. This piece of armour had two 
folds of brass, the two interior ones of tin, and the innermost one of 
gold §. One of the devises upon it was a vineyard, the fences of 
which were made of tin || ; and in the picture of the beeves, lialf the 
herd were made of the same metal ^. The greaves of Achilles were 
also made of " ductile tin **, newly-wrought" f f . 

The corslet, which Achilles took from Asteropeus and gave to 
Eumelus, was made of brass and edged round with shining tin || ^ and 
the chariot of Diomede was ornamented partly with gold, and partly 
with tin HH. 

There can be no question but the propriety of the names which 
Hesiod has given to the successive tribes of men, which he supposes 
have existed upon the earth, consists in the comparative estimate be* 
tween the purity of morals, which each of these races of men possessed, 
and the relative value of each of the metals, to which the several ages 
are compared. As gold, silver, brass and iron, in Hesiod 's time, bore a 
regular decrement in value in the order they stand ; so the successive 
generations of men sunk in value from the first ; and, therefore, he styles 
them the golden, the silver, the brazen, and the iron age. But these 
names were also probably given with some allusion to the order in which 

• n. xl 20, Ac. t ^- **• ^^f ^^ 

t ILxviii.474. $n.xx.271- 

II IL xviiL 56&, f H xviii. 574. 

♦* IL xix. 612. tt D. xxi 592. 

1 1 n. xxiii. 561. II II IL xxiii. 503. 

G 2 


metals were discovered. For this poet tells us that, in the golden age^ 
golden chains were worn round the body^ ^ and amongst the brazen race. 

Their arms were bronze, their houses bronze, the tools 
They worked with bronze : no iron black was then f. * 

Even in his own time, iron does not seem to have been in such 
abundance as to render it inferior in value to brass; for in his descrip- 
tion of the plough, then in use, he directs that the share be made of the 
wood of the ilex tree J. He speaks, indeed, about whetting iron|[, 
and felling wood§ with it, and says, that *^ Hercules put upon his 
shoulder iron, the aid of battle, but the quiver, which was full of arrows, 
he cast upon his back'*^. We have seen from Homer, that, in the 
time pf the Trojan war, the sword was suspended from the shoulder 
in a belt. Are we then, from this last passage, to conclude, that the 
ttfifc a\KTnf (ri<Aff0r was an iron sword, or a quiver full of iron-headed 
arrows ? I incline to the latter sense ; because in his description of 
the shield of Hercules, he mentions a sword of brass ** ; and because 
he expressly says, that the spears of Hercules, Cygnus, and Mars, 
were made of brass ff. 

That iron had come into a certain degree of common use in edge^ 
tools, in Hesiod's time, there is, however, a remarkable proof in the 
lines which direct, that *^ in the feast of the gods the withered part of 
a five-fingered branch should never be cut from the green part with 
sable iron** J J. Every one knows with how much care the guardians 
of religion, under the Greek and Roman mythology, laboured to pre- 
serve their ceremonies from every kind of innovation : and there are 
numerous allusions, in ancient authors, to the use of instruments of 
brass about the altar, after similar instruments intended for civil and 

♦ Op. et Di. 74- t W. 140. 

t Id. 434. II Id. 385. 

§ Id. 418. f Scut. Here 128. 

♦* Id. 221. tt Id. 135,414. 

XX Op.etDi.741. 


military purposes had, for many centuries, been made of iron. The 
Scholiast, upon the following line in Theocritus, 

Says, " that brass was much in use, in religious matters, amongst the 
ancients, especially in all expiations and purgations, as Apollodorus 
has shewn in his treatise concerning the gods." Plutarch also relates, 
that in the night before the great battle between P. iEmilius and Per- 
seus, there was a total eclipse of the moon, during which the Romans, 
according to their usual custom, made a great noise upon vessels of 
brass, and held up burning faggots and torches till her light was 
restored. Similar accounts are also recorded by Livy and Tacitus, and 
Manlius says. 

Ultima ad Hesperios infectis volucris alis 
Seraque in extremis quatiuntur gentibus aera. 

Sophocles describes Medea cutting poisonous plants with a brazen 
hook, having her hands behind her back, lest she should be injured 
by their noxious smell; and pouring the juice of these herbs into 
brazen vessels: and Macrobius, after observing that Virgil unques- 
tionably took the idea of his brazen falces from this passage in Sopho- 
cles, adds, " that brazen things were almost exclusively used in divine 
matters, there is abundant evidence: and they were chiefly used in 
those sacred rites, iw expiations, in the consecrations, and in driving 
away any disease, which may be seen in the second book of that very 
curious and learned author Carminius, respecting Italy, where he says, 
" The Tuscans, as I find in their Tayetan mysteries, formerly used a 
brazen ploughshare when they intended to build a city ; and amongst 
the Sabians, the priests were wont to be shaved with razors of brass/'f 

I am not able to point out the precise age, in which the use of brass 
in arms began to give way to that of iron : it was probably gradual : 
* Idyl. iL 36. f Saturn, lib. v. EcL Zeuoix, p. 552. 


it certainly prevailed among the Greeks long after the time of Homer 
and Hesiod. The Carians and lonians, people of Asia Minor, used 
brazen arms in the year 670 before Christ. During the joint reign of 
the twelve kings in Egypt, an oracle had declared, ** that whoever of 
them should perform a libation, in the temple of Vulcan, from a 
brazen cup, should be sole monarch in Egypt" " Upon the last day of 
a certain festival of that God, when they were going to perform the 
libation, the chief priest reached to them the golden cups, which they 
were accustomed to use in that solemnity ; but, mistaking their num- 
ber, gave out only eleven instead of twelve. Psammitichus, who stood 
the last, not having a cup, took off his helmet, which was of brass, and 
from it poured his libation." His colleagues in office, fearing this cir- 
cumstance might be taken for the fulfilment of the prediction of the 
oracle, abridged him of a considerable part of his power, and confined 
him to the marshy district. He resolved, however, to be revenged 
upon them for this ignominious treatment ; and, therefore, " sent to the 
oracle of Latona, at Butos, upon the veracity of which the Egyptians 
place the greatest confidence, and received this answer:-- -'That 
revenge would rise from the sea in the appearance of brazen men.' 
This prediction he treated with the greatest incredulity. But not long 
after, certain lonians and Carians, while engaged in a piratical voy- 
age, were driven into Egypt, As they landed armed in brass, an 
Egyptian ran to inform Psammitichus, who was then residing in the 
marshes, {for the man had never before seen men armed in brass) that 
brazen men had risen from the sea, and were ravaging the country. 
The king perceiving the prediction of the oracle to be complete, 
formed an alliance with the lonians and Carians, whom he gained 
over by splendid promises ^ these, with the Egyptians under him and 
other auxiliaries, overturned the kings; and he thus became sole 
monarch of Egypt." • 

Pindar, who flourished about 470 years before Christ, very fre- 
quently introduces his gods and heroes clad in brazen armour f. 

♦ Herod Euterpe 147, 151, 152. f Olymp, Od. it. Nem. Od. i, ix, xL 


He mentions brazen spears,* and styles them brazen-cheeked f : 
calls Mars x^^^^^ ^^^ x^^^^^^'^ t * speaks of limbs wounded with 
shining brass §; of brazen axes||; brazen shields^; and the bra- 
zen bows of the Amazons**; and has numerous other references 
to the use of brass in warlike weapons. It is further remarkable that 
he mentions an anchor with brazen cheeks; and brazen implements 
as used in ploughing ; but there are reasons to suspect that he often ia- 
troduces brass more in allusion to the manners of the heroic age, and 
for poetical effect, than from any just ground of authority he had 
for embellishing his poetry with it, on account of its general use in his 
own time, 

Sophocles, 450 years before Christ, in his tragedies, all of which 
that ^re extant are founded upon transactions connected with fabu- 
lous or heroic history, mentions the dedication of spoils all of brass to 
Jupiter Tropaeusff ; axes all of brass JJ; and calls Mars brazen* 
voiced §§, probably from trumpets being made of brass. 

The Massagetae were a great and powerful nation, whose territory 
bordered upon Scythia, and stretched beyond the Araxes, a river that 
empties itself into the eastern side of the Caspian sea. It was in a 
battle with this people that the elder Cyrus was slain, 528 years before 
Christ; and Herodotus, after describing the circumstances attending 
that event, gives the following account of the Massagetae : — " In their 
food and clothing they resemble the Scythians. Their forces consist 
of cavalry and infantry, both of which are powerful : they are divided 
into distinct companies of archers, spearmen, and axe or halbert-men. 
They u^ gold and brass in every thing. For in such things as belong 

♦ Oljrmp. Od. i. Nem. Od. x. Pytlu iv. ' 

-I* Nem. Od. vili. 

X Olymp. Od. x. Isth. Od. iii. viL See also Nem. Od* i. and Olymp. Od. xiiu 

§ Olymp. Od.i. || Id. v. 

f Id. ix. ** Nem. Od. iii. 

tt AnUg. 147. tt Elect. 198. 

§§ Oedip. Col. 1101. and Ajax 17. Elect 713. 


belong to their spear heads , the points of their arrows j and their battle 
axes, they make use of brass : but their helmets^ their belts, and their 
breast-plates they adorn with gold. In like manner they put cuirasses 
of brass upon the chests of their horses, while their ' reins, bits, and 
trappings are decked with gold. They neither use iron nor silver, for 
neither the one nor the other is found in their country ; but of brass 
and gold there is abundance/' * 

There was, in the time of Herodotus, at Exampaeus, a cityof Scy- 
thia, between the Borysthenes and the Hypanis, " a vessel of brass, of 
the thickness of six digits. It was capable of holding, at the least, six 
hundred amphorae ; and the natives say that it was made out of the 
heads of arrows ; for when their king Arantas wished to kiiow the 
number of the Scythians, he commanded each person, upon pain of 
death, to bring him an arrow head. Thus a very great quantity of 
arrow heads were collected, and this vessel composed of them in 
memory of the transaction." f This account, however, offers a remark- 
able contradiction to an assertion the author has made in a preceding 
chapter t of the same book: for he there asserts that the Scjrthians 
were acquainted with gold ; but never used either silver or brass. 

Herodotus also, in his account of the ^Ethiopians says, that *' their 
prisoners are all bound in golden chains ; because brass amongst them 
is, of all other metals, the rarest and most precious** §. Why he 
should thus introduce the fact of the scarcity of brass in ^Ethiopia, 
I do not conceive, unless he intended it to be inferred that chains 
were made of that metal amongst the Greeks in his time. The Athe- 
nians, however, in the age preceding that of Herodotus, with the 
tenth part of the ransom of certain prisoners, purchased a chariot of 
brass for four horses, and placed it at the entrance into the citadel, 
with an inscription upon it, which mentions a chain of iron, '^ fw^oK 

* Clio c 215. t Herod. Melp. c, 8L 

% The 71st. § Thalia cap. 23. 

U Herod. Terpe. c 77. 


In the time of the elder Cyrus there were in the circuit of the walls 
of Babylon one hundred ancient massy gates, which, with their hinges 
and frames, were wholly made o£ brass*; besides several s;naller ones, 
which led through the walls to Hie river f . The brazen gate of the 
temple of Belus too, remained there in the time of Herodotus j;. But it 
would be endless to enumerate the various objects of brass, connected 
with the temples of the ancient heathen nations. 

Perhaps the saying of Cleomenes to Crins of iEgina : " Come tip 
your horns with brass, that you may be prepared to meet a great 
calamity," was intended as a threat, and had allusion to fighting with . 
weapons of brass If. 

Several of the nations, who composed the army of Xerxes, 478 years 
before Christ, had helmets of brass ; but no mention is made of their 
carrying any kind of offensive armour of that metal, though iron spears 
are particularised. The Sagartii, however, it is said, " are not accus- 
tomed to carry any sort of arms, •^r^«, either of brass or iron, except 
daggers," § a mode of expression which seems to fiivour the suppo^ 
sition, that it was not uncommon for the soldiers, which Herodotus had 
been accustomed to see, to wear weapons both of brass and iron. 

Hippocrates, who flourished 410 years before Christ, says, that ^* the 
Amazons burnt off the right breast : for while the girls are yet in£uits, 
their mothers apply to it a brazen instrument, with which it is seared/' 

The passage in Aristotle which relates, ^^ that wounds made b^ 
spears and knives of brass sure less painful, and heal sooner, than those 
made by iron edge-tools," seems to imply, that edge-tools of brass 
were stiU in use in his time. Indeed Strabo gives the same account of 
the armour of the Massagetae % as Herodotus had done, four hundred 
years before his time ; and also asserts, that some of the people of Lusita- 
nia pointed their spears with brass: ^^ rmc J% Km <f$fa1t xf^/ltu, unlofalilu h 

* Herod- CU. c. 179^ f Id. c. 180. 

j: Id. c 181. II Herod. Erato, c. 50. 

$ Herod. Polym. c. 85. f lath «r. c. ii. p« 352. 



;^axi^ai * : but I have met with no authority in any Greek or Roman 
author to justify me in supposing that any kind of edge-tools of brass 
were in use, excepting in religious matters, either in Egypt^ Greece^ or 
Italy ^ or any other civilised nation within the Roman Empire, for the 
space, at least, of two centuries before Christ. I shall, therefore, close 
this part of the enquiry with a remark of an eminent philosopher of 
the present age, which, though not immediately connected with my 
subject, is, nevertheless, allied to the history of ancient brass. 

Theophrastus, in speaking of the manufacture of glass, states, as a 
report, that ** x«^k«c was used to give it a fin6 colour; and it is 
extremely probable, that the Greeks took cobalt for x^^^^* ^ have 
examined some ^Egyptian pastes, which are all tinged blue and green 
with copper ; but though I have made experiments on nine different 
specimens of ancient Greek and Roman transparent blue glass, I have 
not found copper in any, but cobalt in all of them/'f 

Gold, silver, and copper have been discovered, in various parts of the 
world, in a malleable state J. Of iron, capable of yielding to the 
hammer in its native state, we are, I think, unacquainted with any 
well authenticated examples, excepting in the form of meteoric stones. 
We have seen that there was a time when the Egyptians woriced their 
mines with tools of brass, and, consequently, when they were destitute 
of iron ; but that its use was extensively known, both to them and to 
the Hebrews, in the time of Moses. It was not used in the tabernacle, 
probably for the same reason that it was excluded from the religious 
ceremonies of the Heathens. 

While the speculative and commercial people of Egypt and Phoe- 
nicia, however, enjoyed the numerous advantages, which iron affords 
to society, we have seen sufficient proof from the writings of Homer 
and other Greek authors, that its use in arms was either altogether 

* Lib. iii. p. 106. f Sir H. Davy in Philofl. Trans, for 1815, p. I09« 

i Goguet's Origin af Laws, bk« iL cbapw it. 


tti^nown^ or extremely confined, in the Grecian states, for more than five 
centuries after the death of Moses. The Egyptians attributed the 
invention of iron arms to Vulcan, and the Phoenicians to two of their 
most ancient heroes^ who were brothers *. According to the Arunde- 
lian Marbles f , iron was discovered 136 years before the Trojan war, 
which account is also given by Strabo and other authors |, who assert 
that the burning of the wood upon Mount Ida, 73 years after Deucalion's 
flood, or lil38 years before Christ, lead to its discovery. This Mount 
Ida according to some was ia Crete, hut others say it was in Phrygia and 
inhabited by the people called Dactyli Idaei, who, as Diodorus Siculus 
writes, '^ not only found out the use of fire, and of brass and iron, 
but the art of working in these metals, in a place called Berecynthus." H 
The same author, in his Historic Library §, attributes to them only 
the art of forging iron, and adds, that they received it from the mother 
of the Gods: Pliny gives He^od as his authority for attributing this 
invention to the same people : He sdso asserts, that the Cyclops were 
the first who wrought in iron:—" fabricum ferrarium invenere Cy- 
clopes*' ^. Other authors give the merit of this invention to the Chaly- 
bes, a people who lived upon the southern side of the Euxjne Sea^ and 
from whom iron, prepared for the purpose of edge-tools, was called 
Chalybs. Arrian, in bis Hiflttory of Alexander the Great, says '* it has 
been accounted a crime to the Chalybians that they were the first who 
forged iron'*. Callimachus, 540 years before Christ, had made an allu- 
sion to the s£ane fact *^ -, and Catullus in his ode, De Coma Berenices, 
has imitated him in the following lines : — 

** Chalybon omne genus pereat : 
Bit qui principio sUb terra quaerere venas 
Institit, et ferri frangere duritiem/' 

* SeeGoguetOng.ofLftW8,&c, VoLLp. 160. tEp.z. 

X Strabo Lib. x. and xiy. ApoUonius the Scholiast. Natales Comes, Lib. ix. Seneca 
£p. 90. Clem. Alex. Sromb.liaei. Yisg. JEsl etB^-^SiO. 
II Re. Antiq. Lib. v. § Lib. xvii. 

f Lib.vii.scap.56* ** See ApoUon. SchoL L 2. Ettsth, in Dionjs. 



This country is mentioned as producing iron in the last chorus of the 
Alcestes of Euripides; and Ammianus Marcellinus also expressly 
ascribes this art to them in these words : — ^' Chalybes per quos erutum 
el domitum est primitus ferrum'* *. Zenophon, who passed through 
their country 400 years before Christ, says, " they subsisted chiefly by 
the manulactory of iron" f ; and, 200 years before that time, the Pro- 
phet Jeremiah, where he asks*— *^ shall iron break the northern iron and 
the brass,"{ probably alludes to the iron of the Chalybes, andthe brass of 
their neighbours theTibareni and Moscbi, who, under the name of Tubal 
and Meshech, are described by £zekiel, as trading in the markets of 
Tyre, in vessels of brass |t. Virgil calls them ** Chalybes nudi,'* who 
dealt in iron §. Eudoxus says, theil* country affords iron celebrated for 
the excellency of its temper; and Daimachu^ Poliorcettcon contains the 
following remarkable passage :— «'^ Different sorts of steel are produced 
amongst the Chalybes, in Sinope, Lydia, and Laconia. That of Sinope 
and the Chalybians is used in smiths' and carpe«tef*s ^toob; that of 
[^aconia in files, drills for iron, stamps^ and mason's tools ; and the 
Lydian sort is manufactured into files, sabres, razors, and knives.''^ 

Lycurgus.had recourse to a remaricable expedient to counteract the 
luxury and avarice of the lAcedaemonians. ^^ He abolished the use 
of gold and silver money, and ordered that iron money only should 
pass, giting to a great weight and bulk of it only a small value ; so 
that a sum of the value of ten minse, would occupy a large apart*- 
ment, and take a yolk of oxen to remove it. By this severe measure, 
many sorts of vices were banished from Lacedaemon. For who would 
steal, or be bribed, or cheat, or rob, when the object of his avarice 
could neither be hid nor make him happy in its possession, nor be 
applied to any useful purpose? For it is said, that. by slaking hot iron 
in vinegar, it is deprived of its useful properties and strength, and 
rendered unfit to work with and to be' worked.'*^ « 

* Lib. xxii, c. 8. ed. BiponU Yd. Lp. Ma ■ f HetDMiiUy.p^ 549. 

% Chap. XV. 12. n Chap. xxyu. 15. 

f Gewi. i 58. f See Bochart's Phale^ p4 908. 


This sort of iron money continued in use till the time of Lysander^ 
about 400 years before Christ, when, according to Plutarch, that gene- 
ral sent a large sum of gold and silver money to Lacedaemon, which 
greatly offended the Spartans. A party of them, therefore, but unsuc- 
cessfully, endeavoured to get it decreed, '* that no gold nor silver money 
should be received into the city ; but that that of the country should 
continue to pass. This was of iron, but before it was issued it was 
dipped, while hot, into vinegar, by which means it could not be forged, 
for by the dipping it became unfit for edge-took and brittle. Per- 
haps of old all the money was of this kind, the brass and iron 
being formed into obelisks, whence it continues to this day, that much 
of the small money in circulation is called oboli, six of which make a 
drachma, a term which means as many as the hand can grasp/' * 

The pier of the Piraeus at Athens, in the time of Themistocles, was 
constructed of stones cramped together with iron and leadf : and 
we are told that Nitocris, queen of Babylon, and a person whose 
chronology is very doubtful, built a bridge in that city, the stones of 
which were similarly compacted J. Iron was also one of the articles 
among the stores sent to the siege of Nissea || : and bricks and iron are 
enumerated among the materials collected for the purpose of circum- 
vallating Syracuse, before Christ, 415 years §. 

Herodotus says, that it was written, in Egyptian letters, upon one 
of the Pyramids, how much money was laid out in the progress of the 
work in radishes, onions, and garlic foe the workmen; and which his 
interpreter, if he rightly remembered, said amounted to one thousand 
six hundred talents. If this was true, it would be scarcely credible if 
one were told how much more was expended in iron necessary to 
carry on the work, &e« in food and clothing for the workmen ^. This 
account proves, at least, that Herodotus considered that iron was 
necessary in the work tools and machinery employed in carrying on 

* Hut. Life of Lysanden f Thucjd* lib. i. 

X Herod. Clio sec. 1^. || Thucyd. lib. iv. 

§ Id. lib.^ f Euterpe, sec. 125. 


any great building, and consequently, that it was used in such things 
in his time. 

Alyates, a king of Lydia, who died 562 years before Christ, made 
an offering at Delphi of "a silver cup, with a stand for it, made of iron 
welded* together. It was as worthy of observation as any of the things 
at Delphi. It was the work of Glaucus the Chian, who first of all found 
out the 'method of welding iron.'* f ** The joinings of this stand were 
not made with clasps or rivets, but welding was the only fastening. 
In form it nearly resembles a tower rising from a broader base, into a 
narrow top. Its sides are not wholly continuous, but consist of trans^ 
verse zones of iron, like the steps in a ladder. Straight and ductile 
plates of iron, diverge from the top of each bar, to the extremity." { 
This stand was the only offering, made by the Lydian kings, which 
remained at Delphi in the time of Pausanias. 

The phantom which appeared to Xerxes and Artabanus, urging the 
expedition agcunst Greece, seemed to threaten to burn out the eyes of 
Artabanus with a hot iron. And about 540 years before Christ, the 
Phocssans, in their way to Cyrnus, *' bound themselves by horrid 
curses never to forsake each other ; they further threw a mass of red 
hot iron into the sea, and swore they would never return to Phocaea 
till it should appear again'* tl- 

Pausanias tells us, that there was at Delphi a Hercules a^d the 
hydra made of iron, the work of Tisagoras, and observes, that " to make 
statues of iron is one of the most difikult and laborious things imma- 
ginable ; but this performance of Tisagoras, whoever he was, is really 

* I am not sure that x^xxauu when applied to joining two pieces of iron together, always 
signifies *^ to toeU;^* for I have been told that the Chinese have a method of soldering iron 
toith iron, and even of repairing cast iron vessds, by filling up holes and cracks with iron solder. 
I am further inclined to this belief, firom the supposition that the several white heats required 
for the numerous joinings of this stand would have destroyed the quality of the iron ; and 
from tuxxth when it refers to odier metals, being equivalent to our word solder, and meaning 
the substance applied in a liquid state to joining two pieces of metal together. 

f Herod. Clio. 25. t Paus. Phoc. c. xvL sec. 1. 

11 Herod. Polym. sec. 18. Id. Clio. sec. 1^6. 


worthy of admiration. There are also in Pergamus iron heads of a 
lion and a boar, of admirable workmanship" *. 

Aristotle had Tieard, ** that the iron of the Chalybes and Mysiceans, 
was collected out of the sand beds of rivers," and says, " that some 
report, that after simply washing it, it is smelted in furnaces ; and 
others, that after frequent washing3 the residuum is cast into the fire, 
and purified by adding to it a portion of the stone called pyrimachusf , 
which abounds in that country. This kind of iron is much brighter 
than others, and though it has only been once purified in the furnace, 
it gets a silver-like appearance : it is the only pure sort." 

There is an edict of Paulus iEmilius, which forbids either gold or 
silver to be wrought in Macedonia ; but gives permission for working 
iron and copper {• Dionysius Periegetes has a line ||, which mentions 
the fine edge of Aonian or Boeotic iron. And Strabo speaks of vast 
mines of brass and iron in Euboea in former ages §. 

These observations only refer to what is said respecting the disco- 
very of iron among the Greeks, and its general use among them. I 
shall now draw together a few notices respecting its particular appli- 
cation to arms. 

In the time of Croesus king of Lydia, Lichas a Spartan, was on a 
visit atTegea, a city of Arcadia 3 and during his stay there, happening 
to step into a smithy, he observed them forging iron, and was in admira- 
tion with the sight of the process^. This city, in after ages, accord- 
ing to Virgil, was famous for its manufacture of swords. 

" Tum lateri atque humeris Tegeaeumsubligat ensem"**. 

It would be too much to infer from these authorities, that it whs 

** Phoci(^, ci^. xviiL sec. .5. 

-f See Tbeo[^ura8tu8 de Lap. and De Laef s note on pyrimachusy from which it appears, 
that that stone was employed as a flux. 

:tLivy,lib.l.v, || The 476th. 

§ Lib. X. f Herod. Clio, 28. 

*♦ Virg. viii. 459. 


the art of making swords which Lichas so much admired at Tegea^ 
but it is plain enough that there was something eitlier in the process, 
or in the excellency of the workmanship^ which he had not been 
accustomed to see at Sparta. 

Plutarch and Stobasus have preserved a beautiful fragment of a 
poem of Bacchylides on the praise of peace> from which the following 
lines are nearly a literal translation : — 

** O'er shields, with iron circles bound, the webs 
Of sable spiders hang. The metal-pointed lance. 
And double-edged sword with rust consume. 
No more the brazen trumpet's voice is heard ; 
Nor honey-bearing sleep, that soothes the heart. 
Is from the eyelids driven." 

If the poet drew his descriptions from objects that he had really 
seen, it is fair to conjecture that, in an age when iron made a part of 
the ornament and strength of a shield, it would be forged into offen- 
sive weapons, on account of its being better adapted for that purpose, 
when smelted and forged with charcoal, than brass ; and his mention 
of the points of spears and the blades of swords, being corroded by the 
action of rust, is satisfactory evidence of his allusion to spears and 
swords of iron and steel. 

Anacreon, A. C. 530, mentions iron in conjunction with fire, in the 
proverbial way that we say, " by fire and sword ;" and says that the 
arrows of Love were pointed with iron. And Pindar, A. C. 470, 
describes an abundant country as overwhelmed in calamity by the 
destructive force of fire and iron * : he also calls the spear which 
Achilles, when young, used in hunting, ** fifCLxy<nJ'€Lfor axor7«," a short- 
ironed dart f . In another place he uses the expression " iron war" J. 
The iron throne, upon which he used to sit and sing the hymns, which 
he composed in honour of Apollo, was in existence, in the temple of 
that god, at Delphi, in the time ofPausanias||. 

* Olymp, od. X, | Nenu od. iii. % Id. v, 1| Phoc* xxiv. seo. 4, p. 2^ 



Atys, son of Croe^s, was uninteilti<>nally kiUed by a boar spear, 
having an iron point, by ^rfaicb fetent^a dream of his fether was fill- 
filled. In the account of this part of the history of Croesus, the words, 
** vV« iiyjAK «Af€>fc," occur three times ♦. ' 

In the description of the forces which composed the army of Xerxes, 
478 years before Christ, Herodotus has the following notices of iron 
armour. The Persians wore ttmics on which iron scales were sewed, 
so as to reseipble those of fishf ; the helmets of their horsemen were 
ornamented with plates of brass and iron* The Indians had arrows 
made of reeds, and pointed with iron J. The Assyrians carried clubs 
headed with iron \. And the Arabians had short arrows, made of reeds, 
and pointed with sharp stones, such as seals are cut with, instead of 
iron%: I have before noticed from Herodotus, that the Sagartii used 
no kind of weapons eitlier of iron or of brass; which seems to imply that 
both iron «ud brass were in use in arms in his time : by a similar in- 
ference, from his noticing that the arrows of the Arabians were pointed 
with stone instead of iron, one would be led to conclude, that iron was 
-exdusively used among the Greeks, in his time, in arrow heads. 

*' There was a house of king Cyrus, in Cyprus, which was built of 
white and black stones, bound with gold, and in which were innumera- 
ble iron lances^ windows of silver, and on its roof tyles of green-stone.*'^ 

The Thracian soldiers, who fought under Perseus, at Pydna, 
m the year 166 before Christ, ** were men of terrific countenance, 
and exceedingly tall; their shields were white and glistering; their 
legs were armed with greaves; they wore sable vests, and as they 
marclied, their long pikes, which had heavy heads of iron (^ y'*^ *'* 
fifi^fU9t^ fitLfwraHifm') shook upou their right shoulders." In the place from 
which I have quoted this account, Plutarch is describing the order in 

« Herod. Clio, sec 34, 88, 39. f Poljnii.iec.61,85. 

]; Id. sec. 64. ||Id.sec.69. 

^ § Id. sec 69. 

f Luc AmpeliuB* Liber Memorialis, edited at Leydeo, by Salmasitis, tt the end of 
Elznrer's Fforus, in 1738. 


which the soldiers of Perseus marched out to battle. The last which 
quitted the camp was a Macedonian regiment, called from their brazen 
shields, chalcaspides : when these came out^ ^' the field was filled with, 
the splendour of steel and the shining of brass, and the mountains with 
the shouts and the tumult of the men cheering one another''. At the 
first onset of the battle, neither the shields nor the cuirasses of the 
Romans could withstand the force of the Macedonian pikes. Plutarch 
quotes a History of Perseus, written by one Posiodonus, in which " a dart 
wholly made of iron {'w<$\Tor i/ua-mif 9\wJiff*y^ is stated " to have fallen 
upon Perseus. The point,, indeed, did not touch him; but glancing 
obliquely past his left thigh, in the track of its descent, it pierced his 
garment, and blackened his flesh with a bruise, the mark of which re« 
mained for a long time.'' From these accounts it is plain, that not only 
the offensive arms both of the Greeks and Romans were, at that time, 
made of iron ; but th^t the heads of the Macedonian pikes were of an 
excellent temper. The metal of whick their swords were made, is not, 
indeed, mentioped : it is merely stated, that the short swords of the 
Macedonians were of no avail against the long shields oi the Romans, 
while the weight and stroke of the Roman sword pierced through all 
the armour of the Macedonians t.a their bodies. It must, however, be 
inferred, from the pikes being of iron„ that the swords were also of that 
metal; and this deduction is, I think, strengthened by the account 
which Plutarch gives of the Macedonian armour, in his beautiful 
description of the triumph granted to ^milius for this victory : *' On 
the second day came the most beautiful and highly finished of the 
Macedonian armour, carried in many waggons. These were refulgent 
mth brass and iron, newly cleaned : and though they were arranged 
with the greatest art and taste, they yet appeared to have been thrown 
together carelessly and as chance directed ; helmets upon shields, cui- 
rasses on greaves; Cretan targets, Thracian bucklers and quivers, mixed 
with the bits of bridles ; and the blades of naked swords bristling up 
amongst them and taller than these the Macedonian pike ; all too haying 
such due liberty to play in, that, as they were drawn along, their 


united clank was so harsh and terrible^ that, though they were the 
spoils of the vanquished, they were looked upon with fear." The 
brass that glittered was the body armour -, the steel was the swords 
and pikes. 

" The helmet of Alexander the Great was of iron, the work of 
Theophilus, but it shone like pure silver. To this was joined a collar 
also of iron, set with gems. The sword, which he commonly wore in 
battle, was admirable for its temper, *C«fj, and lightness ; the gift of the 
king of the Citieans. The Rhodians honoured him with the belt which 
he used in engagements; it was the workmanship of old Helicon, and 
more superb than any of his other armour.'* * The metal of which this 
sword was made is not mentioned ; but the word '* fiafn" which in its 
primitive sense, signifies a dipping or immersion, and here, in a figura- 
tive way, the temper, is a sufficient proof, that the blade was composed 
of steel : for, if it had been of brass, Plutarch would have described its 
temper, by the word %fMif or /t4'c, which are employed to signify that 
kind of temper or degree of hardness, which is obtained from mixing 
one metal with another; and implements of brass derived their tem- 
per from alloying copper With different proportions of tin or lead. 

When Tyre was besieged by Alexander, its inhabitants distributed 
arms among the youth, and filled the workshops with artificers, with 
which their city abounded : but when they put the iron into the forge 
and were blowing up the fire, a sort of red stream rose under the 
flame, which resembled blood, and which they interpreted as a bad 
omen to the Macedonians. This account is from QL Curtiusf : the 
following relation is from Diodorus Siculus : — ^The soldiers of Alex- 
ander, during the siege, were annoyed from the walls by showers of 
sand, made red hot in shields of iron and brass. Large red hot plates 
of iron were, also, thrown upon them out of machines, and their ar- 
tillery were broken, and their men killed, by grappling irons and crowsj. 

The reason which Agathatcides assigns for brazen tools being used in 

* Flutarch's Life of Alexander. f Lib. iv. c 2. 

X Died. Sic lib. xvi. 2. Curt. lib. iv. c 8. 



gold mines in Egypt^ in the time of the first kings of that country, 
namely, because iron was then scarce, is a conclusive proof, that iron, 
in his time, was plentiful and commonly used in mining tools, and 
that brass was not then applied to that purpose. 

I think I have now sufficiently proved, from Hebrew and Greek 
writers, some of them contemporary with the use of brass in arms and 
edge tools, that, in very ancient times, several of the nations, whose ter- 
ritories border upon the Mediterranean Sea, formed a great variety of 
implements of brass, which they afterwards made of iron. My next 
object shall be to shew, that when any of these ancient brazen im- 
plements fell under the notice of the learned Greeks of succeeding 
ages, they attributed them to an aeira in which iron was scarce, and 
to a date either prior, or very little posterior, to the wars of Troy. 

Diodorus says, that the Egyptians had among them a tradition that 
the art of forging copper and gold was discovered at Thebes ; and 
that they were first made into arms to extirpate wild beasts, and after- 
wards employed in agriculture*. This testimony is corroborated by 
that of Agatharcides, already noticed in ditferent parts of this essay : 
" There are found, even in our days, in the old workings of gold 
mines, in Upper Egypt, stone-chissels of brass, (which were used in 
these ages on account of the scarcity of iron) and incredible quan- 
tities of human bones, which show too clearly that great numbers of 
persons perished in these loose and extensive excavations." Th^ 
author flourished about 180 years before Christ f. 

Plutarch relates, that *^ the Athenians were directed by the oracle 
of Apollo to take up the bones of Theseus, which were buried in the 
isle of Scyros, and to deposit them honourably among themselves. 

« La>. L p. 9. 

t Tadtus mentlond a dilute between the LacedemoniaDt and Messenians, reqpectin^ 
the right each party claimed m the temple of Diana at Limns, wtdch was referred to 
Augustas ; and in winch the Messenians appealed to the testimony of records on stone and 
ancient brass— ^ JE^repmco''.^— Anna!, iv. 4S. EIz. p. 174>. See Fausan Lecon chiqp. u. 


But it was diflicult either to discover his tomb, or take up his remains 
on account of the inhospitable and fierce disposition of the barbsfoms 
inhabitants. Cimon, however, having conquered the island, felt a 
desire to find the bones ; and seeing an eagle^ on a certain elevated 
spot, beating the ground with her beak, and scratching it up wkh her 
claws, a sort of divine impulse directed him to^ open the place, where 
he found the coffin of a large body, and a spear head of brass, and a 
sword lying by it." This oracle was delivered while Phsedoi^ was 
archon, before Christ, 470 ; and Cimon died A. €. 449. This same 
story is related by Pausanias, and a simitar one respecting the bones 
of Orestes, which the Spartans had, by a certain oracle, been com-» 
manded to seek*. " Lichas, coming to Tegea, collected them as if 
they were deposited in the work-shop of a copper-smith. The manner 
of collecting them was thus : — as many things as he found in the 
brazier^s shop, he took them for the Delphic riddle, sryoc r$ u Acxf«#r 
fia/livficL — likening the bellows of the brazier to the winds, because they 
emit a violent blast; the blow, was the hammer; the thing beaten, 
the anvil; and the emblem of man*s destruction was ironf; because 
it fiaic began to be used in war : for if the god had delivered this with 
respect to those called lieroes, the destruction of man would have been 
brass ; for, that all the arms of the heroes were of brass. Homer is 
my authority, where he speaks of the axe of Pisander, and the spear 
of Merion. My reasoning is further confirmed by the spear of Achil- 
les, laid up in the temple of Minerva at Phaseus, and the sword of 
Memnon, in the temple of Esculapius; for the head and pike, ' jJ atxjiti 
Kai i cAvfarnf,^ of the spear and the whole of the sword were made 
of brass : and these things we know to be so.*' 

Pausanias derived this account from Herodotus, who relates it in 
the following manner : — " At this time a commercial relation existed 
between the Tegeans and the Spartans ; and Lichas, while at Tegea, 
coming into a brazier's shop, * u ;t«xiti»/«r,' and seeing him beating 

* Laconics, cap. Hi. sec. 6. Edit. Fac. v. 1, p. S41. 
f For the words of this oracle, see Herod, i. sec. 68. 


out iron, was greatly struck with the sight of the process. The smithy 
^ X^^i^^/ perceiving his astonishment, paused from his work and 
said : ^ Since you so much admire the method of working iron, you 
would, O stranger of Sparta, be surprised, were I to inform you of a 
circumstance with which I am acquainted 4 for as I was making a well 
in this building, in digging, I fell upon a coffin seven cubits long; 
and, because I could never, believe that men were formerly larger 
than they are at present, I opened it, and found a body of the same 
length as the coffin,- which, after I bad measured it, I reburied.' 
From this account Lichas was induced to believe that he had met 
with the fulfilment of the oracle respecting the body of Orestes : for he 
thought that the pair of bellows which he saw, might be the two 
winds ; the anvil and the hammer, form opposing form ; and the act 
of beating out iron, mischief heaped on mischief; founding his con- 
jecture on this, that iron was discovered to the injury of man.'* This 
transaction is supposed to have occurred about 560 years before Christ, 
and Herodotus flourished about a century afterwards. 

Some hints and inferences may be collected out of Pausanias, respect- 
ing the state of metiUlurgy in the time of the^Trojan war, and the 
process employed in forging the arms of the heroes; for he informs us 
that the first statues of brass consisted of numerous pieces joined toge- 
ther with nails, in such a manner that they had the appearance of a 
woven garment The oldest of this kind was one of Jupiter, in Sparta, 
said to have been made by Learchus, of Rhegium, who, according to 
some, was the scholar of Dipoenus and Scyllis ; but according to others, 
of Daedalus *. This method continued till long after the fall of Troy, 
for our author, speaking of a statue of Minerva, said to have been 
found among the spoils of that city, says, he could not be brought 
into the belief of the account, because the Samians, Rhoecus and 
Theodorus, were the inventors of the art of casting brass f ; and, in 
another place he professes to believe, " that the sceptre or spear of 
Agamemnon, which, In his time, was preserved at Chaeronea, was the 

♦ Paus. vol. i. p. 406. ii. 392. f !<*• ^^^* '^ ^^* 


only work of Vulcan, that the poets bad sung upon, or had descended 
to posterity with the praise of other men, that was deserving of credit 
as genuine. For though the Lycians, in the temple of Apollo at 
Patarae, have a brazen cup, which they exhibit as a work of Vulcan; 
yet they are not aware that Theodoras and Rhoecus were the first 
who wrought in melted brass." We have, therefore,, in these passages, 
the authority of Pausanias, for the conclusion that the warlike weapons 
used in the time of the Trojan war, were made of hammered brass*; 
which strengthens the inferences. I have already drawn from Homer's 
description of implements used in making the shield of Achilles f: but 
the testimony of Pausanias respecting the discoverers of the art of 
casting brass, is applicable only to the Greeks: for many of the im- 
plements of the tabernacle of the Hebrews were founded in brass 
and silver J, 300 years before the Trojan war. 

Pliny says, that '' Cinyra, the son of Agriopa, both invented tyles 
and discovered mines of brass in the island of Cyprus ; and that Ari- 
stotle supposed that Lydus, a Scythian, found out the art of smelting 
and tempering brass ; though Theophrastus attributes these discoveries 
to one Dela, a Phrygian. Some attribute the trade ia brazen utensils 
to the Chalybians, soma to the Cyclopians." || 

The evidence I have been able to collect respecting the use of brass, 
in edge-tools among the Romans, is neither so full nor so decided, as 
that I have advanced respecting its similar application among the 
Greeks. It began to be disused in Italy long prior to the age of the 
most ancient Latin authors, whose works have descended to us. We 
have, however, both the testimony of history and the remains of anti- 
quity to prove, that there once existed in Italy a state of society 
somewhat resembling that of the heroic age amongst tlie Greeks, with 
respect to the use of that metal. 

I have already shewn that the Sabines and Etruscans used implements 

* Id. vol. iii. 134 and SOI. t See p* SK 

4 Exod. XXX. 27, 28. H Nat« Hist. vi« 56. 


of brass in their religious ceremonies. It was the same in Rome. The 
high priest of Jupiter cut off his beard with brazen scissors*. Romu- 
lus, about 750 years before Christ, marked out the boundaries of 
Rome, in a circle round the tomb of hb brother Remus, with a plough 
upon which he put a brazen share, " i /*«iit/mc tjuSaxw ofora ;^axx)fr Sfm, 
&c." t ^^^^ ceremony was performed by Etruscans, who had an 
ancient ritual, which they always used in founding cities, temples, 
altars, walls, and gates, as may be seen in Festus, and in the authority 
already cited from Macrobius* Among the spoils which Romulus 
carried from the city of Cameria, was a brazen chariot, which he 
consecrated in the temple of Vulcan. 

Plutarch enumerates only eight of the trades, which Numa incor- 
porated in feome, the only two of which connected with metallurgy, 
were goldsmiths and braziers J, the college of the latter of which, 
according to Pliny, was the third in the order of institution : " collegio 
tertio serarium fabrorum instituto" J. It is, however, probable, that the 
* X»^^-9 mentioned by Plutarch, included blacksmiths^ as the Greeks 
expressed under that term such as wrought in iron as well as brass. 

It has been asserted, on the authority of Livy and Dionysius Hali- 
carnassus, that copper, amongst the Romans, supplied the place of 
iron for many ages, in arms and all kinds of tools and utensils §. Livy 
says, that Servius TuUius, when he instituted the census at Rome, 
divided the people into classes and centuries, and ordained that the 
first class should have " a helmet, shield, greaves, and coat of mail, all 
of brass, as a Covering for the body ; the offensive armour should be 
darts, a spear, and a sword^'. % The words of Halicarnassus are, ^* he 
commanded them to bear Argive shields, spears, helmets of brass, 
breast plates, greaves, and swords". ** But the evidence here, that 
the spears and swords were of brass, is, at best, of a negative kind 

* Serv. on iEnicL i. 448. f Fhit. Life of Ron. 

:^ In his Life of Numa. || Nat Hiat. xxxir. L 

$ Goguet Orig. of Lawf, vol. i. p. 157. f Lib. i. chap. 43« 
*• Oxford Edit. 1704. yoI. i. p. 212. 


Indeed, I think, that it amounts to a sort of proof that they were of 
iron ; for if they were not, and Livy did not intend to convey such an 
idea to a Roman ear, why does he tell us that the defensive armour 
was of brass ; but not particularize the sort of metal of which the 
oflFensive armour was made ? There can be no dispute but that shields, 
helmets, and the like, were indifferently made of skins, cloth, and vari* 
ous sorts of metals : most commonly of leather, brass, or iron. He, 
therefore, to record a direct historical fact, mentions the particular 
substance of which the *' tegumenta corporis" were made ; but that of 
the " tela in hoste, hastaque, et gladius,'' is not mentioned, because 
every person in his time would naturally infer that they were made of 

That the inhabitants of Italy did, however, in some period of their 
history use brazen arms, is confirmed beyond all question, by the 
great numbers of all sorts of warlike weapons which have, from time 
to time, been dug up in that country. 

" We may assuredly say," says a celebrated antiquary, *' that of 
old, even after the use of iron was known, they made use of brass for 
arms, and other things, which at this day are all made of iron. A 
heap of brazen arrows was found at Rome, the number of which was 
so great, that several boats were loaded with them. They also made 
use of brass nails in boats, of so hard a temper, that they could drive 
them as well as. iron ones: of this kind 1 myself brought one from 
Italy, taken from the ruins of Porto.*'* Two-edged tools, of the kind 
called celts, were found in Herculaneum. 

The same observation is also applicable to other countries. Brazen 
swords, spear heads, chissels, and augers, of various shapes, have been 
discovered all over Europe, as well in parts which were once com- 
prised within the Roman dominions, as in those to which it never 
extended. Count Caylus says, that fourteen celts were found under 
a stone twelve leagues from Paris, on the road from Versailles to 

* Mont&ucon's Antiq. ExpL toL it. p. 87. See also Le Recuel d'Antiq. par M. le C. 
de CayluB, vol. i, p. 237f 238, 261, and 262, af quoted by Goguet, vol. i. p. 157. 



Hoadan, and that some of the niudi>er appeared as if they had nerer 
been used. Many have also been found near Lyons *. Others on a 
mountain in Spain, between Lamas del Mauro and Carcalai^ about 
twelve miles from Oviedo, in 1760 f. I could also bring numerous 
authorities for their having been found in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, 
and in various parts of Germany and Russia; but the fact is too well 
known to stand in need of proof. 

But I know of no account in any ancient author, of any of these 
nations using brazen armour. Strabo does^ indeed say, in his descrip- 
tion of the armour of the Lusitanians^ that ^^ some of that people used 
spears, headed with brass'' X » ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ MassagetaB used ^* battle 
axes of brass'' ||. But, I conceive, that he gives the latter account on 
the authority of Herodotus, and not from any knowledge he had, that 
the Massagetae^, in his time, continued to arm themselves as they had 
done 450 years before. As to '' some of the Lusitani using spears 
with brazen heads," there is no such account in the continuation to 
Caesar's Commentaries, or in any other ancient author, with which I 
am acquainted. And Diodorus Siculus, afler describing their shields^ 
expressly affirms, that '' they use bearded iron darts," and " have 
helmets and swords like those of the Celtiberians," who " wore 
brazen helmets, having plumes of a hand breadth in height, and 
two edged swords, the blades of which were made of the very best 
steel" §. 

Any difficulty that would arise in this part of the inquiry respecting 
the brazen falces, mentioned in the fourth i£neid, as used for cut- 
ting herbs with for incantations, has been sufficiently removed by 
shewing out of Macrobius, that Virgil borrowed his notions on that 
subject from Sophocles. Indeed, there could have been no need of 
illustrating that passage, if brazeu implements for cutting with had 
been used in the time of Macrobius^ or had commonly occured as such 

♦ Archaeol. v. p. 1 17. f W. p. 1 18. 

t Lib. iii. p. 106. H I^ P* 3^^* 

§ Rer. Antiq. 1. v. c* ix. 

. .67 

in Latin authors ; but there was a Mystery in it^ aiid the commentator 
could clear it up only by advancing a sort of pariallel custom out of 
the tragedies of Sophocles and the amcient books of the Tuscan and 
Sabine priests. Ovid also intitMfaices Medea xtt^ng bcazen fakes in in- 

Bat this was not the "Only thing in which the ingenuity €>f Virgil 
applied his knowledge of the ancient use of brass to the purpose of 
embellishing his poetry. He was not content that tJie steel armour of 
his time should gleam alone through the i^neid ; but he sometimes in- 
troduced the corruscations of the brazen swords of Homer, as in this 
verse : — 

" j^ratde micant peltas, micat sereus ensis" f . 

But the poet probably used the word " aereus'* here entirely for the 
sake of quantity; for I cannot discover any other place in the i£neid 
where either swords^ spears^ or arrows of brass are mentioned. The 
shields and body armour are conunonly of brass, the swords and spears 
of iron. In the following lines, 

*^ Vestibulum ante ipsum primoque in limine Pyrrhus 
Exultat, telis et luce coruscus ahena." { 

The *' lux ahenOy" I think, was given from the defensive armour only. 
But in the account of the Amazon Camilla and her attendants, one 
of the heroines is introduced armed with a battle axe of brass ; 

" a^ratam quatiens Tarpeia securim*^ ||. 

Here, then, are three instances produced from Virgil, of his men- 
tioning implements, intended for cutting with, as being formed of brass: 
one of them used in incantations ; the second a sword, where it is proba- 
ble that Virgil wrote ** areui* instead of ferreus for the sake of quan- 
tity ; and the third, the b^tle axe <^ a race of heroines, who, perhaps, 

♦ Metam. vii. 228, f -*». m 743. 

t Id«ii.470. H «». xi. 656. 



never had any other existence, than that which poetry and fable have 
given to them. 

This is the only information I have met with, respecting the use of 
brass in arms and mechanical implements among the Romans, before 
their conquest of Britain. It contains no authority for the conclusion 
that they used brass in edge tools, in the Augustan age. It indeed 
appears to me, that there is no decisive evidence respecting the aera 
in which they applied it to such purposes. The notice of the brazen 
plough share, used in the Tuscan ceremonies at the foundation of 
Rome, affords no proof that brass, in that age, was employed in agri- 
culture ; on the contrary, I think, Plutarch, by particularising the 
metal of which the share was made, and connecting it with the reli- 
gious rites of a people celebrated in antiquity for the use of such mys- 
teries, meant to convey an opposite idea. But the great quantity of 
arrow heads of brass discovered in Rome either proves that brass was 
employed in arms, after the foundation of that city, or that it had 
been the scite of some ancient town or fortress before the time of Ro- 
mulus. Again, brass was certainly out of use when ^' Porsenna, in 
his treaty with the Romans, after the banishment of their kings, ex* 
pressly forbade them the use of iron, except in agriculture :" for the 
prohibition of it in every other thing but agriculture, implies the previ- 
ous use of it in other things. 1 have already noticed two similar 
occurrences in the history of the Hebrews *• 

Pliny, too, as far as I could discover, in an attentive perusal of his 
Natural History, has no allusion to brazen implements, though he has 
several on the methods of making brass, and the purposes to which it 
was applied in his time; for it was a great article of luxury in the 
height of Imperial Rome, being then made into candelabra, capitals 
and pedestals of columns, the feet of tables, couches, and beds : also 
into the doors, statues, and various ornaments of temples. Perhaps 
the objection to Camillus having brazen doors to his house was of 
a religious kind, because it was considered an act of impiety to 

* See p. 29. 


emulate the splendour of the temples in the ornaments of private 
houses *. 

I have already given my reasons for supposing that the Romans 
made their arms of iron before the time of Porsenna, above 500 years 
before Christ. The words of Pliny are> *' In foedere, quod^ expulsis 
regibus^ populo Romano dedit Porsenna, nominatim comprehensum 
invenimus, ne ferro nisi in agricultura uterentur. Et stilo inscribere 
intutum est, ut vetustissimi autores prodiderunt." I know of no other 
Latin author who has noticed these facts : they were probably concealed 
because they sounded harshly on a Roman ear. Pliny, however, was 
a native of Verona, which city was founded by the Tuscans ; he was, 
therefore, perhaps glad of an opportunity of shewing that Tuscany 
was once in a state to dictate terms to Rome. But these are not the 
inferences which apply to my present purpose. The humiliation of the 
Romans was so complete, that they were forbidden the use of iron even 
in the style ; it was then unsafe to use it. Nothing, therefore, can be 
more plain than that iron styles were then in use as well as iron 
armour: indeed Valerius Maximus tells us that Mutius, when he 
entered the camp of Porsenna, was " ferro cinctus/* and the conditions 
of the treaty confirm the probability of his assertion. 

It were easy to collect out of Latin historians and poets> the most 
irrefragable testimony that the people of Rome, through all the ages 
of their authentic history, were in the habit of forging iron into all 
kinds of tools and implements. The word ferrum was synonymous to 
armuy and meant any weapon or tool made of iron. But I shall omit 
all evidence of this kind, and content myself with bringing a few proofs 
from Pliny, and other authors, respecting its general use, and the 
places in which it was procured in Italy, and in the countries of Europe 
most contiguous to Britain. 

♦ Pliny xxxiT. 3. Tac. Anal. iii. Ed. Gron. L 231. Cic. Ep. ad Attic. Lib. iL Ep. I. 
TtLCk Hist. iL where he mentions brass and lead as being used in cramping large stones to- 
gether. There are cramps of brass in Tnjan*s column. 



" Iron," says Pliny, " is both the best and the worst article of 
human life : for with it we till the ground, we plant shrubberies, we 
set fruit trees, and by cutting away their decayed parts, force the vines 
into a sort of perpetual youth. With this we build houses, we hew 
stone ^ We apply iron to all other u^es. But it is the instrument of 
wars, and slaughter, and depredation ; not being used hand in hand 
only, but in a missile way and feathered -, now shot from engines, 
now thrown from the arm, now winged : which I esteem the most 
execrable artifice of human ingenuity. For that death m^y come more 
quiddy to man we fledge it, and give wings to arrows. But the blatne 
cannot be laid upon nature : numerous experiments have proved, that 
the physical properties of iron are innocent." 

" Mines of iron are found almost every where, inastnuch as even 
Elba, an Italian Inland, produces it. They are discernible without 
the smallest difficulty, being distinguishable by the dolour of the earth. 
But the same means are used in smelting all sorts 6f ofes. In Capa- 
docia only there is a question whether it be more allied to water or 'to 
earth, since the earth, washed in a certain river, without any other 
preparation, gives iron from the furnace. 

" The diflferent sorts of iron are numerous : the first consists in the 
kind of soil or climate that prckluces it : some yield a metal that is 
quite soft and akin to lead: some a brittle and brassy sort, to be 
particularly avoided in the use of wheels and in nails, to which the 
former sort is suitable. Another kind only answer!? in small things, 
such as nails sind the studs of greares ; another is more readily suscep- 
tible of rust ; and all these are called stricture y a word applied a strin- 
X ^endo acie, of which other metals are not capable. And there is a 
great difierence in furnaces : for in these, the best of the iron (nucleus 
ferri) is refined for edge-tools7 and by a diflferent process is solidified for 
anvils, and the heads of hammers : but the greatest diflFerence is in 
tlie water into which it is dipped while hot ; this being in some 
parts more useful than others, has rendered certain places fiunous 
for the excellency of their iron, as Bibilis and Turloso in Spain, and 


Como io Italy, though there are no iron mines near them. But the 
palm of excellence is due to the Chinese iron before all other kinds: 
they send it with their garments and furs. The second in excellency 
is. the Parthian : no other kinds of iron but Uiese are formed of pure 
steel: in the rest it is mixed. That in our part of the world welds 
more kindly. In some places the ore gives this goodness, as in No- 
rica: in some the mode of manufacturing, as by the waters of Sulmo: 
folt there is even a difference between whetstones for oil and those foe 
Water in sharpening, the edge becoming finer with oih It is also- 
iltrange that, when the ore is smelted, the iron becomes liquid like 
water, but, after cooling into spunge-like masses, is brittle. The prac- 
tice is to temper the lighter sorts of iron tools in oil, lest, if dipped in 
water^ they be hardened to brittleness." 

^ Iron heated in the fire, unless har<fened by blows, is spoiled. It 
is not fit to be hammered while it is red, not before it begins to grow 
white. Besmeared with vinegar or alum, it get^ the appearance of 
brass. It is defended from rust by ceruse, and gjrpsum, and liquid 
pitch. This is the mixture which the Greeks call Aniipathea^. $<Hne, 
indeed, say that this may be effected by a sdrt> of- religious charm, and 
that there exists in the town called Zeugma, on the Euphrates, an iron 
diatn, with which Alexander the Great had fastened a bridge, the 
rings of which, that have been since repaired, lire infected with rust,, 
of which the original ones are free/' 

Aristotle^ speaking of Elba, says : *' It is. an island belonging Uy the 
Tuscans, which they now call i£thalia, and in which there are mines 
of brass, of the kinds of which their brazen vessels are at present ma- 
nufactured; but they have failed, and produce nothing at present In 
the lapse of time, these same mines have^ however, yielded, not indeed 
brass as formerly, but iron of that sort, which the Tuscans use, and 
which they call Poplianian,^* ♦ probably from, its having been manu- 
factured into different' sorts of implements at Populonia, a town in 

• Ai]ft.Op.voLi.p.lOM. 


Virgil, in enumerating the forces of Mneas^ has the following notice 
of Elba and its mines, in conjunction with Populonia: — ^ 

•* Sexcentos illi dederat Populonia mater 
Expertos belK juvenes: ast II va trecentos. 
Insula inexhaustis Chalybum generosa metallis." * 

Diodorus Siculus says, that '^ i£tbalia is in the Tyrrhenian Sea, op- 
posite the city of Populonia, and about one hundred stadia from the 
continent. It had its name from a general called ^thalia, who 
governed it* In it the stone, out of which iron is forged, is dug; for 
they quarry that sort of mines, with which the island abounds. The 
iron melted from these stones, in furnaces, is divided into pieces resem* 
bling large sponges, in which shape the merchants bring it to market. 
Of this iron, artificers make the various kinds of implements suitable 
for agriculture and the difierent arts." f 

Pliny only says of this island, that it is called i£thalia by the Greeki^ 
and that it has iron mines | ; and in another place, that iron is found 
in almost every place, for even Elba, an island of Italy, produces it. § 

Norica, a country at present included within the Austrian domi- 
nions, was, in ancient times, celebrated for its iron. Clemens Alexan. 
drinus attributes the discovery of making iron malleable to its inha- 
bitants ||. Its iron was of excellent quality^, find the swords made of 
it were in great repute, as appears from the following lines of 
Horace and Ovid : — 

quas neque Noricus 

Deterret ensis, nee," &c, ** 

** Modo ense pectus Norico recludere." f f 

** Durior ct ferro, quod Noricus excoquit ignis." Xt 

* Mn. lib. X. L 175. f LS). v. c. 5. 

^ Lib. iii. c 6. § Lib. xxxiv. c. 14. 

g Strom. 1. i. p. 365. f Plin. 1. xxxiy. 14. 

*• Hor. Od. lib. i. od. 16. ft Hor. Epod. xviii. 19. 

^ j: Or. Metam. lib. xir. 1. 7 12. Soe abo Zonar. Ea. ▼• fii. p. 125, 1. 58, respecting Ferrea. 


The Celtic tribes, who iuhabiied Spain, " used shields of the length of 
a man, and ornamented according to the fancy of the owner. Some 
bad them embossed with the figures of animals, in brass, slightly 
raised, as well for ornament as for defence. The head they protected 
with low brazen helmets, od whicb horns were stamped, or the 
figures of birds or beasts were carved. Their trumpets, after the man- 
ner of savages, were made to give a sbrill and alarming sound. They 
use iron cuirasses. Some, to whom nature only has given armsj fight 
naked. Instead of swords they wear hngish iron kfuves, hanging from 
their right shoulders in chains of brass. Some over their vests have 
belts of gold or silver. They also fight with darts, which they csJl 
lances, and which hAre iron heads bf about a foot and a half in length, 
and something less than two hands broad. Their swords are. not 
shorter than the boar spears of other countries ; and their boar speiEtrs 
are broftder at ihe point than swords ^ these they sometimes make 
straight, sometimes curved,; so thM they ' either strike or stab their 

*^ Some of the Celtiberians have light bucklers, others have round 
targets, of the size of shields. They twist greaves, made of hair, round 
their legs. They wear brazen helmets, with plumes. Their swords 
are two edged, and have blades of the very best iron, and with these 
they carry daggers, about a span long, which they use in dose fight. 
They prepare iron for arms after a manner of their own ; for they put 
thin iron plates into the earth, where they let them remain till the 
weakest part is consumed by rust : the stronger part remains, and of 
tiiis the most excellent swords, as well as other sorts of arms necessary 
in war, are made. No shield, helmet, or other sort of defensive armour 
is proof against weapons which have been febricated by this process." * 
Plutarch, in his treatise on Primitive Cold says, that " smiths throw 
marble and the chippings of stone upon iron that is hot and ready to 
melt, thereby preventing over much flux, and causing it to cool." I 

* Did. Sic Rer. Antiq. lib. v. c 9. 


suspect tliat thisi process, by supplying the iron with carbon, assisted 
in forming it into steel. * 

'^ The Lusitanians use small bucklers made of sinews. These they 
use with so much quickness, that they both ward off blows and arrows 
with them. Their darts are of iron and barbed. They wrar a helmet 
and a sword^ after the manner of the Celtiberians. They throw their 
darts to a great distance, and with exquisite skill." f 

That the Gauls w^re well acquainted with the use of iron, is suffix 
ciently eridaut from their using inch bolts of it in their ships, and iron 
chains instead of cables^ in Caesar's time |, who also informs us that 
the Bituriges, a people of Berry, <' drove mines under the mount, which 
his soIcKers raised against thdr city,'* and that '' they were the better 
skilled in that art, because they bad large iron mines amongst them ; 
and had the knowledge and use of all sorts of drifts'*. ^ A sort of stakes, 
with hooked iron heads, were used by the Romans at the siege of 
Alasia, and these they called Stimuli. || '< The people of Marseilles had 
a sword which they had preserved from the foundation of their city, 
and with which they executed criminals. It was indeed eaten with 
rust, and scarcely fit for its office : but it serves to show that even in the 
least matters, all the vigour of an ancient custom is to be preserved." % 

Plutarch, in his life of Cains Marius says, that '^ the Cimbrian 
cavalry wore helmets which represented ferocious wild beasts, with 
open jaws and of uncommon shapes : on these they fixed plumes of 
feathers to make them appear taller. They were also adorned with 
breast plates of iron, and their shields were white and glittering. Each 
had a double edged javelin, and in close fighting they used large and 
heavy swords."** These were the weapons of one of the German 

* Morals. Steph. ed. p. 1757. The same author also says, that iron is one of those things 
which, if dipped in water is madd more solid and compact by the cold in proportion to iu 
being hotter, p. 174S. Sed also the Cluet process of maidng steel in FhHos. Magasme. 

t Diod» Sie« Rer. Antiq. lib. ▼• c. 9. t ^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^* 

f Id.vii. 22. II Id,vii. 6S. 

II Val. Max. lib. ii. cap. vi. sec. 7. ** P. 767. 


tribes^ one hundred years before Christ Let us see how it answers to 
the descriptioiis of other hiBlorians. 

Tacitus filled an ofiieial situation under the Roman gov^nment in 
Germany ; we may, therefore, suppose him to have left us some account 
of the kind of metids which the Germans used in Uieir offensive ar- 
mour; and accordingly we find him relating, in his account of the 
manners of that people, that ^' iron did not abound among them, 
which he inferred from the kind of darts which they used. Swords and 
the greater lances were rare among them ; but they bore spears, which 
they cMed frame^^ having short and narrow iron heads, but so sharp 
and convenient, that, as circumstances required, they either closed 
with them or threw them a4 the enemy. Their cavaUry were content 
with a spear and a target. Each of their infiamtry has several missile 
weapons, which they throw to an immense distance.^ This he says of 
the Germans in general : there are a lew other scattered hints in his 
enumeration of their several tribes. 

^ The strength of the Catti consists of foot soldiers^ whom they, load 
not only with arms, but with ilron t(>ols and provisions-^uem super arma 
ferramentis quoque et copiis onerwit. The bravest of them, till they 
have slain an enemy, wear an iron ring, which they consider as an 
emblem of ignominy and slavery, and from which nothing but the 
blood of an enemy can absolve them." 

^^ The tribes of the iEstii inhabit the right coast of the Baltic Sea. 
They spedc a language somewhat resembling the British. Iron is 
rare among them, clubs being their chief weapons." 

These extracts are sufficient to prove, that in the time of Tacitus, 

brass weapons were not in use amop^ the Gennans. He has no allusion 

to them. But from Eecard and other German authors, it is evident that 

arms of brass were at one period common in that country, for several 

of them have been discovered in the Holsatian and other barrows, 

which also contain spear heads, hammers, and hatchets, all of stone ; 

and we know that the m^de of burial which had prevailed when these 

implements were committed to tombs, wm still common in the time of 



Tacitus. " Their fuoerals," says he, " were without ostentation. They 
attend to nothing more than burning the bodies of distinguished per- 
sons with certain kinds of wood. Neither garments nor perfumes ai*e 
thrown upon the pile ; but the arms of every one, and sometimes his 
horse, are committed to the flames. Earth composes the tomb. The 
pomp and laborious honours of monuments they reject as oppressive 
to the dead." * 

Having seen that arms and implements of iron were in common use 
among the continental nations of Europe, both. before and after the 
tjme of Caesar, it remains that some enquiry be made into the trade 
carried on by the ancients with Britain, and into the history of the 
use of brass, iron, and tin amongst its inhabitants^ prior to the invasion 
of their country by the Romans. 

. .Great Britain and its adjacent isles received the name of The Bret- 
taniclslesy from two words bret — an&Ci which in the Phoenician language 
signify The Land gf Tin : amongst the Greeks they were called the Cos- 
siterUjles for the same reiaaon, as is evident from these words of Mela, 
'^ quia plumbof abundant, uno omnes nomine Cassiterides appellant;" 
^nd these of Pliny ; ^' Cassiterides dictae k Grsecis k fertilitate plumbi." 
In what 8Bra the people who inhabited the shores of the Mediterra- 

* See Luc. Phan. lib. ix. 1. 175. and the account of the tomb of Chflderic, king of the 
Franks, m which his spear, sword, &c. were found* 

f The ancients, and especially Pliny, seem to have supposed that tin and lead were of the 
same species of metals, at least that they were both produced from the same kind of ore ; 
for in speaking of the metal which he calls black lead, he says ** Plumbi nigri origo duplex 
est :' aut enim sua provenit vena, nee quicquam aliud ex se parit : aut cum argento nasci- 
tur, mistisque venis conflatur : ejus qui primus fiuit in fomacibus liquor, itannum appella- 
tur: qui secundus, argentum; quod remansit in fomacibus, galena, quae portio est tertia 
addita vene ; h»c rursus conflata, dat, nigrum plumbum, deductis partibus duabis.*' From 
the same author it is, however, evident that by album plumbum, stannum, and candidum 
plumbum, tin was signified ; for in another place, speaking of lead, he says, ** it is of two 
kinds, the white and the black: the white (candidum) is the most valuable, and is called 
by the Greeks, CassHeron :** and ** the white (album) has got the superiority, and in 
the Trojan age, as Homer testifies, was called Cassiteron.*'~Nat. Hist xxxiv, 16. 


nean sea first visited Britain, is exceedingly uncertain. Pliny says, 
that '* Midacritus was the first, who brought plumbum from the island, 
Cassiterides." And Bochart observes, that this name should be read 
Melicartus or Melcarthus, that is, according to Sanchoniathan, the 
Phoenician Hercules, to whom his countrymen attributed the first voy- 
ages to the western parts : * for Midacritus is a Greek name, and the 
Greeks, as Herodotus ingenuously confesses, were unacquainted with 
the Cassiterides from whence the tin they used was derived. Many 
are of opinion that the Phoenician Hercules was a contemporary of 
Moses : Bochart thinks their first settlement in Spain was made in the 
time of Joshua, f 

That the ancients derived their tin from Britain and the Scilly islands, 
may be satisfactorily proved. The only thing which Herodotus was 
able to speak decidedly upon with respect to the Cassiterides was, 
that they were situated in the ocean, on the western side of Europe, 
and that the tin. and amber imported into Greece, came from these 
remote parts. Polybius, in the third book of his history, promises to 
give some account of the British islands, and the methods of preparing 
tin ; and, that he performed that promise in some of his books that 
have perished, is evident from a passage in Strabo, in which he com- 
pares and criticises upon the opinions of Pytheas, Dicaearchus, and 
Eratosthenes, respecting the extent of Britain. Strabo himself calls 
Britain a country rich in tin and lead. Diodorus Siculus says, that it 
is dug up in the island of Britain in rocky ground, and after being 
smeltedj^ is exported to Gaul; and Caesar mentions **" album plumbum" 
as a product of Britain. 

* An inscription discovered at Malta, on a piece of marble^ and written in Phoenician 
and Greek characters, mentions the Phoenician Hercules, and is thus translated by the 
AbbS Barthelemy : The Phoenician : — *^ We Abdassar and Asseremor, the sons of Assere- 
mor, the son of Abdassar, haying made this vow to our Lord Melcrai^ the tutelar divinity 
of Tyre: may he bless and guide us in our uncertain way.'' The Greek thus >— ** Diony- 
sius and Serapion to Hercules, sumamed Archegetes.'' See Boisgelin's Hist, of Malta, 
vol. i. p. 5. 

f Phaleg,lib.iii.p.l89. 


The fact that the ancients derived their tin exclusiTely from Britain 
and the Scilly islands^ furnishes us with a proof that these countries 
were sometimes called the Hesperides and theOestrymnides. Diony* 
si us Periegetes has the following lines : 

The stern Iberi's wealthy offspring dwell 

In isles^ Hesperian called, where tin abounds. 

These Iberi were the Silures, a people who, according to Tacitus, 
resembled the Spaniards. And Festus Avienus eyidently alludes to 
Britain and its islands, where he says, that *^ the Oestrymnides stretch 
far out into the sea, and are rich in mines of tin and leikd''. * 

I am, however, aware that both Diodorus Siculus and Pliny were of 
opinion that Spain produced tin. The words of Diodorus are " Tin is 
found in many places in Spain, not accidentally, as some authors 
assert; but the report is, that it is mined and smelted in the same 
manner as silver and gold. For over against Lasitania, y&ry much tin 
is dug up in islands of the ocean, not far dbtant from Spain, which 
from their tin are denominated the Cassiterides : much, however, is 

* Concerning the island called Atlantis, which Homer describes as a sort of terrestrial 
paradise, and which was afterwards largely written upon by Solon, though there are many 
fabulous things related concerning it in the writings of the ancients, yet it is certain fhat it 
was situated in the Atlantic ocean, and on die coast of Africa* Tlie Greeks dorlfed their 
accounts of it from the Egyptians ; for Solon, according to Plutardi, heard its history from 
Psenophis and Senchis, ti/o Egyptian priests* Aristotle says, that it was discoTered by 
the Carthagenians, and that it was many days sail from Cadiz. Plato makes it of greater 
extent than Asia and Africa ; but that it was swallowed up by the sea in one night and a 
day ; and Diodorus Siculus says, that it was discovered by certain Phoenicians, who, after . 
i>eing sMny dajrs tossed about by a tempest that overtook them on the coast of Africa, were 
at length driven to Ms island. Plutarch, in bis life of Sestorius says, they are two in num- 
ber, separated by a narrow frith of 10,000 furlongs from the coast of Africa. Th^y call them 
the Fortunate Islands. He gives a large description of them, and says that they are the 
same as Homer has described in the fourth book of the OdjBsey. Perhaps all the accounts 
of them are more or less mixed with fable ; but they shew clearly enough, that the Egyp- 
tians and Phcenicians at an early period were accustomed to make voyages in the Atlantic 
ocean at early periods of their history. 


taken from the island of Britain to the opposite shores of Gaul.'* What 
is to be inferred from this account ? Not that tin was really produced 
in the peDin9ula of Spain ; but in the Cassiterides, which he supposed 
to be islands of that country. Pliny's account is, that " tin was called 
by the Greeks Cassiteron, and was fabulously* reported to be found in 
certain islands of the Atlantic ocean, from which it was transported in 
wicker boats, covered with hides. It is now certain that it is produced 
in Lusitania and Gallacia." What he here asserts cannot be positively 
deniedf ; but if he had no better authority for saying that tin was found 
in Portugal and Gallacia in his time, than he had for pronouncing 
the report, that tin was found in islands of the Atlantic ocean, to be 
fabulous, his assertion is unworthy of credit. 

I have already noticed that the brazen mirrors, of which the laver 
and its foot were made J, were probably formed of a composition of 

* Fliny probably aimed this censure at TimaeuSy for in his account of Britain he says, on 
the authority of thatauthor, that " within six days sail from Britain there is an island, called 
Mictis, in which tin abounds. To it the Britaips sail in osier boats, corered with leather.'^ 
Diodorus* account, which was also probably derived from Timaeusy but more correctly 
stated, is, ** that after the tin was dug out of the rocks and smelted, it was carried, when 
the tide was out, in carts into the island, Ictis, whence it was taken in ships to Gaul, and 
thence on horses, thirty days journey, to the source of the Po ; also to the markets of 
Narbonne and Marseilles/^ I take both this Ictis and the Mictis of Pliny to be the same as 
the Vectii of other Eoman authors, and which is now called the Isle of Wight* That there 
diould be many contradictions in the early Greek and Roman writers, respecting the situ* 
tion of the country from which tin was then derived, is not to be wondered at, when we 
learn from Strabo, that a Phcenician captain, wrecked his own ship on shallows, in 
order that the same fate might follow a Roman vessel, which followed hun for the purpose 
of discovering the place from which that people derived their tin ; for the Cassiterides 
were then known only to the Phcenicians. 

f It is certain that tin is found in the White Ridge of the mountain Cresta di Gallo, 
about a league fVom Ronda; but both the mine and the manufactory for tinning iron plates 
have been for some time entirely decayed, on account of the plates costing more than they 
can be imported for into that country from England. The same ridge also contains almost 
every other metal except iron, which is found in great abundance in a limb of the same 
mountain, called the Red Ridge. See Jacob's Travels in the South of Spam» p. SSf). 


copper and lin ; and have shewn that tin is enumerated with gold> 
silver, brass, lead, and iron, as being in use 1452 years before Christ. 
Isaiah alludes to its being used in purifying the precious metals A. C. 
760; and Ezekiel, 112 years after, says, it was brought from Tarshish 
into the markets of Tyre. From which I infer that the Egyptians, 
before the Hebrews left their country, were acquainted with tin, and 
consequently, that they imported it, by the way of Tarshish, from 
Britain, as the only country where it was to be found, in the same 
manner as the Tyrians did in the time of Ezekiel. 

That the Tarshish or Tarsis of the Hebrews and Phoenicians, the Tar- 
tessus of the Greeks and Romans, and the Gadir or Gades of the 
Carthagenians, were all ancient names for the city at present called 
Cadiz, in Spain, there is no difficulty in proving. According to Eze- 
kiel's account we have seen, that tin was brought from Tarshish to 
Tyre : if the ancients, therefore, had tin from no other country than 
Britain, Tarshish must have been either in Britain, or in some inter- 
mediate country between Britain and Tyre. 

Polybius quotes certain treaties made between the Romans and 
Carthagenians, and which were existing in his time, on tables of brass, 
in the iEdile*s chamber, in the capitol at Rome : in the first of these, 
which was made twenty-eight years before Xerxes invaded Greece, it 
was agreed, that neither the Romans nor their allies should sail be- 
yond the Fair Promontory, which is a cape in Africa, a little to the 
west of Carthage. In another treaty, in which the Tyrians and Uti- 
. ceans were included, it was agreed that " it should not be lawful for 
the Romans to pillage, or trade, or build cities beyond Mastia and 
Tarseius," which were cities of Spain, as appears from the same author, 
where he speaks of the Spanish troops that were sent into Africa, in 
the time of Hannibal : these were *' the Thersitae, the Mastians, and 
certain mountaineers of Spain, called Olcades". 

Aristotle had heard, that the most ancient of the Phoenicians sailed 
to Tartessus ; and Strabo tells us that where the mouth of the river 
Bcetis, in Spain, divides into two parts, it is said that in ancient times 


there was a city, called from another name of that river, Tartessus*. 
The same . account is given by Pausanias, f who also mentions two 
bedchambers of Tartessian brass, as existing in his day, in the treasury 
of the Sicyonians, in Olympia. Appian says, that the temple of 
Hercules, which is at the columns, appears to me to have been built 
by Phoenicians, for Egyptian rites are used in it to this day; and the 
god of this people is not of Theban but of Tyrian origin. Diodorus 
Siculus relates that the Phoenicians, sailing in quest of wealth beyond 
the columns of Hercules, built a city, which they called Gadira : in it, 
among other edifices, they erected a temple to Hercules, which even 
to our time continued to be held in the highest veneration J. Arrian's 
account is that the Hercules which was worshipped at Tartessus was, in 
his opinion, the Tyrian Hercules : because Tartessus was founded by 
the Phoenicians, and the temple there is built in the Phoenician style, 
Pliny, from Timoeus, says, ** nostri Tartesson apellant, Poeni Gadir". Q 
Velleius Paterculus thinks they built it about the time of Codrus, or 
1080 years before Christ; and Philostratus and others "call it the 
ancient Gades". 

Bochart has collected authorities out of Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, 
Mela, Pliny, and other authors, to shew that Spain, and especially 
Tartessus, were famous in ancient times for the metals, which Ezekiel 
says Tarsis sent to Tyre. In the time of Solomon we know that the 
Sidonians and Hebrews carried on a lucrative trade in gold, silver, and 
other articles, which were probably . collected in trading voyages 
along the coast of Africa and Spain, and their cargoes being usually 
completed in the great emporium of wealth at Tartessus, it was, 
therefore, said that their ships went for these things to Tarsis, or as 
it is usually translated, to Tarshish. 

. Aristotle had heard that the most ancient of the Phoenicians when 
they sailed to Tartessus, purchased such large quantities of silver with 

♦ Lib. iiL p. 148, f Post. Eliac. xix. 

^ Rer. Antiq. lib. v. c* 7* 

y Lib. y. c. 22. In lib. iii. c L h^ says, ** Cartels, Tartessos a Gneds dicta.'' 



oil and other nautical trifles, that their ships were neither able to hold 
nor to carry it ; they were, therefore, driven to the necessity of making 
their anchors, and such other tackling of their ship, as could be formed 
of metal, into silver, before they quitted the place. 

Herodotus reports that the Phoceans were the first of the Greeks 
who made distant voyages, and that explored Iberia and Tartessus*, 
about 540 years before Christ ; and in another place says, that Coleus, 
a Samian, was accidentally driven beyond the columns of Hercules to 
Tartessus, a port at that time but imperfectly known f. 

After Moses, Homer is the next author who mentions tin J ; but no 
where, that I can recollect, with any reference to the country that pro- 
duced it, or how the Greeks obtained it. Amber, however, occurs three 
times in the Odyssey ||, and in one of the places a Phoenician merchant 
is introduced as endeavouring to sell a chain of gold set with that 
fossil §. Tin and amber also occur in Hesiod^; and Herodotus, speak- 
ing on certain geographical matters, observes : " I have nothing 
which I can relate with certainty respecting those extreme parts of 
Europe, which lie to the west ; nor can I assent to those who tell us 
of a river, which the barbarians call Eridanus, whence it is said amber 
comes, and which, running northward, empties itself into the sea. 
Neither have I any knowledge of the islands called Cassitrides, from 
whence tin comes to us, for the name Eridanus is evidently Greek, 
and not barbarous ; it was probably given by some poet. But though 
I have diligently enquired into this matter, yet I have not been able 
to meet with any one, who, from his own observation, could describe 
to me the nature of the sea which lies on that side of Europe : tin and 
amber do,^ however, come from these extreme parts." ** 

The Eridanus here mentioned, was probably the Rodaun, which, 
joining with the Motlau, falls into the Vistula near Dantzic, and on 

♦ Clio. sec. 169. t ^«'P* *«c. 152. 

X Seep. 43. II Odys. iv.73. xviii. 295. 

§ Odyf. XV. 459. % Scut. Here 142. 208. 
** ThaLsec 115. 


tfae banks of wbicfa abundance of ambefr is frequently foutkl« In the 
time of Diodorus Siculus and Pliny, many absurd notions prevailed 
about that river being the same as the Eridanus or Po, in Italy; and 
about the sisters of Phaeton having on its banks been changed into pop* 
lars, which annually shed tears that became amber; but they both ridi- 
cule these fables, and Diodorus affirms that ** amber was got in an island 
called Basilia, which was situated in the ocean, in a part of Scythia, be- 
yond Gaul. There amber is thrown tip in abundance by tempests, 
and it is found in no other part •of the world." Pliny, on the autho- 
rity of Philemon, says " it is a fossil, and is produced in two parts of 
Scythia. Sotacus believed it flowed from certain trees in Britain, which 
he called Electridse. Pytheas said, that there was an estuary of the 
ocean, called Metonomon, the borders of which were inhabited by the 
Guttones, a German tribe ; and in which there was an island, distant 
from the land one day's sail, and called Abalum ; thither the * maris 
rejectamentum' was carried by the waves and hcirdened : the inhabi- 
tants used it for fuel instead of wood; and sold it to their neighbours, 
the Teutones. Timseus was of the same opinion, excepting that he 
calls the island Baltia." From these accounts it is plain, (L) that from 
the days of Herodotus to those of Pliny the ancients believed that am- 
ber came out of a country on the north west side of Europe ; and their 
descriptions answer to the islands and shores of the Baltic sea * : (2.) that 
the Phoenicians traded into Greece with ornaments of amber before 
the time of Homer : (3.) and consequently that they had some sort of in- 
tercourse with certain people of Germany considerably to the north of 
that part of Britain which produces tin, one thousand years before the 
time of Christ. 

That the Britons did not use edge-tools of brass in Caesar's time, is, I 
think, clear, from the following considerations : — 1. Their neighbours, 
the Germans and Gauls, were acquainted with the use of iron; and 

* See these deductions still fSurther confirmed in Tacitus' accpiftnt of the EstiL 

M 2 


were in the habit of frequent intercourse with them. Many of th^ 
maritime parts of Britain were inhabited by Belgians. Divitiacas^ in 
Caesar's memory, was not only the most powerful prince in Gaul ; but 
had possessions in Britain ^. Some of the Belgians, when in danger 
from the Romans, fled into this country f. And the Veneti, who 
lived on the shores of the Bay of Biscay, were expert seamen, and 
both traded to Britain and derived succour from thence in time of 
war J. Tliese and several other notices in Caesar*s Commentaries 
prove, that there was a regular intercourse between the Britons and 
Gauls, and consequently, that the arts of each nation were reciprocally 
known to each other, before Caesar invaded Britain. 

2. Ca&sar says, " the Britons use brazen money and pieces of iron ||, 
adjusted to a certain weight, instead of money* The interior of the 
country produces tin, and iron is got on the sea coast, but in small 
quantities ; the brass they use is imported." Iron, therefore, of their 
own produce and manufacture, was in use among the Britons : the 
brass they had was supplied by foreigners : both were used in money; 
and if their arms were not sticks and stones, we are forced into the 
conclusion that their swords and spears were made of iron ; for it was 
better adapted for the purpose of arms, than brass, and cheaper, be- 
cause obtained at home. 

3. Herodian says, they wore iron rings around their bodies and necks 
by way of ornament, and as a mark of wealth. The German youths 
also wore iron rings till they had distinguished themselves in battle by 
killing an enemy. There are also several notices in Pliny respecting 
iron rings as used among the Romans §• 

4. If the Britons in Caesar's time had used weapons of brass, he 
could not have failed to notice it as a singular circumstance: but 

* De Bel. Gal. u. 4. f Id. ii. 14. 

X Id. ill. 8, 9. 

II Scaliger reads taleisferreis : some copies have laminUferreU^ and others annulujerreum 

§ Vide Tac de Mor. Gremn. and Pliiu Nat. Hist lib. xzxiii. c 1, and zxxvii. prooem. 


neither he nor Tacitus, though they frequently mention the spears 
and swords of the British, take any notice of the metal of which they 
were formed; and Tacitus married the daughter of Agricola, from 
whom he no doubt derived the accounts of Britain, which he has given 
in the life of that celebrated general. Herodian, Dio Nicasus, and 
other authors, in their accounts of the arms of the Britons, are also 
silent respecting the metals of which they were made: but Mela 
expressly says, that they were similar to those of the Gauls j from 
which I infer that they were of iron. 

5. Inscriptions to Jupiter Dolichenus have been discovered in 
Northumberland and Monmouthshire^ and that god, as may be seen 
in Reinesius, was worshipped ** ubi ferrum nascUur'\ In several parts 
of the county of Durham there are large heaps of iron scoria, especially 
to the west of Lanchester, and in North Tindal ; but whether these 
are the refuse of Roman or more modern furnaces, I have no evidence. 
Lanchester was, however, a celebrated station of the Romans. 

6. All ancient historians agree, that the Silures or ancient inhabi- 
tants of Cornwall were of Celtic origin, from the strong resemblances 
in national character which existed between them and the ancient 
Spaniards ; who perhaps settled there at an early period in the history 
of the world, for the purpose of working the tin mines, or were 
brought over by the Phoenicians for that purpose ; and we have seen 
that the Celtiberians were well skilled in the manufacture of iron. 
Besides which, how could the Phoenicians trade to Britain for any 
length of time without the use they made of iron, and its being supe- 
rior to brass in edge-tools, being observed by the persons with whom 
they traded ? 

We have seen from Caesar that the Britons imported the brass they 
used ; and this account is confirmed by Strabo, who says, that Britain 
** is a country rich in mines of tin and lead, and in hides, which com- 
modities the inhabitants barter for salt, earthen-ware, and articles of 


brass". * From the first of these accounts we learn^ that this imported 
brass was used as money : from the second, that it was brought into 
the county in a manufactured state, probably in kettles and other 
household titensils. 

In Ziphilin's Epitome of Dion Cassius it is said, that the arms of 
the British infantry are a shield and a short spear, on the lower end of 
which is a ball of brass, to terrify the enemy by its sound when shaken^ 
Much of the brass which the Britons imported in Caesar's time, was 
probably in bars ; for there are strong evidences that before his time 
they were acquainted with the art of casting it into implements 
of the kind called Celts, nearly one hundred of which were found on 
Earsley Common, twelve miles north west of York, " with a great 
quantity of cinders and several lumps of the same metal". Fourteen 
or fifteen of them, shewn to the Society of Antiquaries in 1750, were 
found in a pot, with pieces of metal which seemed to be the same as 
that of which the celts were made. Two masses of copper were also 
found with some celts in Norfolk. Ten pounds weight of them were 
found near Helsdon-hall, in the neighbourhood of Norwich, " with 
some pieces of copper, that appeared to have been broken oflF in 
casting." At Fifield, in Essex, in 1749, a large quantity of metid 
for casting these implements was found, and several of them, with 
fifty pounds of the metal, were sent by Earl Tinley to Mr. 
I^thieuUer. f 

It is further remarkable in the history of ancient brass, as connected 
with Britain, that the implements usually denominated Celts, and the 
spear heads, and swords, discovered in Britain, as well as the brass 

* Strabo also says, that when the Britons sued for peace and submitted to Augustus, 
duties were laid upon ** such commodities as were exported and imported from Britain 
and Gaul: such as bory, bridles, chains, vessels of amber and glass, and other Iflce cheap 
and interchangeable wares*'. — GoughU CanuUn^ viol. iv. p. 200l 

t Arch. V. 114—116. Genu Mag. for 1789, p. 799. 


coins of the Greeks, Romans, and Gauls, were generally made of a 
composition of tin aaad copper.. 

M. Dize, in 17J)6, published in the Journal de Physique, an account 
of an analysis of twenty-five grains of an ancient dagger, which con- 
tained tin and copper ; and made several experiments on eight diffe- 
rent sorts of coins, Greek, Roman, and Gallic, from which it appeared, 
that they contained from five-twelfths of a grain to twenty-four grains 
and a third of tia in 100 grains to each of the old metals, but no other 
metals but copper and tin. * 

Dr. George Pearson^ in the same year, gave an account in the Tran- 
sactions of the Royal Society, of certain experiments upon several an- 
cient weapons and implements, one of which was a spear head, which con- 
tained nine parts of copper to one of tin, and a very small proportion 
of silver, which had probably been added accidentally. Three of the 
other instruments were Celts, one of them from Ireland and another 
from Cumberland, and each contained ten parts of copper and one of 
tin : the third had seven and a half of copper to one of tin^ 

" Copper, alloyed with certain proportions of tin, affords a metal 
sufficiently hard and strong for chopping tools for many useful pur- 
poses. Of such proportions,, namely, about eight or nine parts of 
copper and one part of tin,, there is very little doubt all the ancient 
nations, who were acquainted with the alloys of copper by tin, gene- 
rally made their axes,, hatchets, spades, chisels, anvils, hammers, &c. 
These metals united in these proportions, I believe,, would afford the 
best substitute known at this day for the instruments just mentioned, now 
contuBonly made of iron. Accordingly, before the art of manufactur- 
ing malleable iron from cast iron was known at all,, or at least prac- 
tised extensively, that is, till within these last 4 or 500 years, the 
alloys of copper by tin must have been generally employed. Accor- 
dingly these Celts may be considered as specimens of the kind of metal 
tools in general use, before the art of manufacturing iron in the man- 
ner just mentioned was discovered. And it is no §maU confirmation 
of this opinion, that by analysis and synthesis we have found these 
* FbiloB. Trans, xviii, 57. Joum. de Physique, 1796, p. 272^ 


metals to contain^ in perhaps, most instances, the proportions of tin 
which renders them most fit for the uses to which they were applied. 
This proportion being considered to he about one part of tin and nine 
parts of copper." * 

Humbold, speaking of the bronze implements used by the Mexicans, 
says " that several men of great learning, but unacquainted with chemi- 
cal knowledge, have maintained that the Mexicans and Peruvians pos- 
sessed a particular secret for tempering copper and converting it into 
steel. There is no doubt that the axes and other Mexican tools were 
almost as sharp as steel indplements, but it was by a mixture of tin, 
and not by any tempering that they acquired their extreme hardness. 
What the first historians of the conquest call hard or sharp copper^ 
resembled the x«^*«c of the Greeks, and the aes of the Romans. The 
Mexian and Peruvian sculptors executed large works in the hardest 
green stone (griinstein) and basaltic porphyry. The jeweller cut and 
pierced the emerald, and other precious stones, by using at the same 
time a metal tool and a siliceous powder. I brought from Lima an 
ancient Peruvian chisel, in which M. Vauquelin found 0*94 of copper 
and 0*06 of tin. This mixture was so well forged, that by the closeness 
of the particles its specific weight was 8*815. While, according to the 
experiments of Briche f, the chemists never obtain this maximum of 
density but by a mixture of ten parts of tin with 100 parts of copper." J 

The same author further remarks, that it is a singular coincidence 
that tin, which is so little spread over the surface of the globe, should 
have been used by both continents in hardening copper ; and that tin 
and copper are no way found in the mine naturally mixed, but at 
Wheal, in Cornwall, where they are in equal quantities. || 

* Dr. G. Pearson in Philos. Trans, vol. xviii. p. 

f Journal des Mines, an, 5. p. 881. 

X Polit. Essays, iii. 115. Also his Vues des Cordeldres, Sec. p. llS, 1^1, 122. 

II Polit. Essays, iii. 116. Dr. Berger, in his account of the Phjrsical Structure of Corn- 
wall and Devon says, there are ** thirteen mines producing tin and copper ; of which there 
are four in Redruth, four in Gwenniq;), three in St* Agnes, and two in St. Neot.'* See the 
Transactions of the Geol. Soc. vol. i. 


It would^ therefore, appear^ that, to nations unacquainted with the 
use of iron, tin, on account of its property of giving hardness to cop* 
per, was much more valuable to the ancients than to the modems. 
And if tin was used by the Romans in the sestertii and dupondarii, 
which were all either of brass or bronze (or of copper alloyed with 
some other metal than zinc or tin), while the ases were entirely of 
copper, it will follow, that, even among them, tin was of double the 
value of gold ; for the Sestertium, which weighed an ounce, was worth 
four ases, each of which weighed half an ounce. * 

But the ancients were acquainted with other alloys for hardening 
or altering the colour or the properties of copper besides tin. Aristotle 
says, " they report that the brass of the Mossynaeci is the brightest 
and the most white, not being mixed with tin, but with >an earth pro- 
duced in their country, with which it is smelted." Strabo also speaks 
of a *^ silver-like metal, found near Andrea, a town of Phrygia, which 
was mixed with copper to imitate orichalcum." " The best mir- 
rors of our ancestors," says Pliny, ^^ were made at Brundusium, and 
consisted of tin and copper : now those made with silver are preferred. 
Praxatiles was the first that made them, in the time of Pompey the 
Great. The most ductile copper, live sulphur, and silver, are mixed 
together to form these.^' f He also tells us, that o^d household brass 
was used with copper in casting statues ; in other cases, given propor- 
tions of lead, and silver yielding lead, were used : for *^ lead added to 
copper, gives to the robes of statues a purple colour". J Much may 
also be seen in the same author respecting cadmia and chalcitis, which 
were either compound ores, which produced brass, or certain minerals, 
used as alloys of copper. 

^ See Pinkerton's Essay on Medals, vol. L p. 132, &c. Respecting the metals of which ' 
the sestertium and the as were made, the words of Pliny are, ** Summa gloria [seris] nunc 
in Marianum conversa, quod et Cordubense dicitur. Hoc k Liviano cadmiam maximS 
•sorbet et orichalci bonitatem imitatur in sestertiis dupondariisque, cyprio suo assibus 

f Nat. Hist, zxziii. 9. 

X But this author sometimes evidently confounds lead with tin and other metals. 



The late Bishop of Llandaff in melting a Celt found, that '* when in 
a state of fusion it emitted a blue flame, and a thick white smoke> 
which are esteemed certain marks of zinc/^ In melting it a second 
time no flame or smoke appeared: ^' It was composed, 1 think, of 
copper, calamine, and tin/' * But oxides of copper, with which thisse 
implements are usually coated, would give both flame and smoke in 
the manner described, f 

Pliny expressly affirms that Aristonides made a statue of a mxture 
of copper and iron, which existed at Thebes in his time. Count 
Caylus also thought that the ancients employed iron in haitiening 
their brazen implements % ; and Humbolt says, ** the Greeks made use 
of both tin and iroa at the same time in hardening of copper''. § This 
idea has been treated as absurd and impossible. But M. Vauquelin 
£Dund, that implements not liable to break or yield, might be formed 
of 0*87 of copper, 003 iron, and 0'09 of tin. And there can be no 
question, but that iron added to copper in the proportion of about one 
to fifty, makes the copper less malleable, and gives it a reddish hue. 
The ancients probably used arsenic in making thpir pale-coloured brass. 

As to the uses which thp Celt3 were applied to, there ai*e a gre^t 
variety of opinions. Mr. Thorsby ** supposes them tp have been tfj^ 
heads of spears or walking staves of the civilised Britons," M^. Hearne 
thinks them '* chisels used by the civilised Britons, for cutting and 
polishing the stones they used for their works in this island." Dr. 
Borlase adopts Thorsby's opinion, and t^kes them to have been ** the 
heads of ofiensive weapons, originally, indeed, of British invention apd 
fabric; but afterwards improved and used by the pringipal Romans 
^jid Britons," Whitaker holds a middle opipion, ^pd affirms them to 
have been the h^fiwJp of li^h* battle a^fis. Pr. §twk^ly tjipught they 

. * Chem. Essays, voL iv. p. 58. 

f Abridg. of the Royal Trans, xviii. 50. 

i Recueii d' Antiq. Egypt. Etrusque, Sic torn i,4lo. 1761. 

§ PoliU E88ays,iU.l 15. 


bad been used by the Druids^ for cutting the misletoe and branches of 
oak with. 

" The Celt,'* says a learned writer * in the Archceelogia) ** hlis lotag 
been the ignus fattens of antiquaries. Mudh has be^n written on its 
antiquity, form, material, and uses; probably we may obtain a tVit 
respecting the latter, from a consideration of similar instruments, which 
have within these iew years been brought kito this country #rom the 
South Sea islands, many of which so much resembte our stone Celts, 
both in form and materiaU, that it is ahnost impossifble to determine 
which is the ancient and which the modern. Our rude forefathers 
doubtless attached the Celt by thongs to the faamdle, vk the same man- 
ner as modern savages do % and^ like then, formed a most Useful imple^ 
ment, and destructive weapon from these simple materials. If I might 
be allowed to hazard a conjecture, I should suppose that the metal 
Celts in our museums were fabricated by foreign artists, and exported 
to this country ; just as we have sent to the South Sea iskmds an imi^ 
tation in iron of their stone hatchet, which is now become so scarce 
as to be deemed an olsi^t of curiosity even to the natives t)f those 

Speaking of Celts in general. Dr. Gteorgc Pearson says, •* they were 
probably instruments used by the ancient Britons, Gauls, and Celtse \* 
and respecting their use he adds, ^* the most probable opinion is, that 
they were merely domestic tools. Many of the Celts are cast after the 
model of stone ivistruments, which are confessedly ancient British or 
Celtic chopping instruments/' 

In the preceding remarks I have used the word brass in its most 
general acceptation, meaning a mixture of copper with tin, zinc, lead, 
or some other mineral, in the form of an alloy. In the following con- 
cluding observations, by brass, I mean a composition of copper with 
zinc^ by bronze, copper with tin; and iron and steel are used in their 
proper acceptation. 

• Jot. Hartftfd, Eiq. of SlB(iM<m, *Gtoiicester, vol. xhr. p. 96. 



General conclusions respecting iron. 

1. Meteoric stones, consisting principally of iron in a malleable 
state, probably led mankind to the discovery of iron from its ores. 
To this day large balls of iron stone found in certain parts of Sicily, 
are called thunderbolts, a name they have no doubt received from 
their similarity in substance and shape to the true aerolite* 

2. The Egyptians, in the time of Moses, were well acquainted with 
the use of iron; and all the agricultural and mechatiical implements of 
the Hebrews, from that age downwards, were of that metal. In the 
time of David they had it in the greatest plenty, as appears from the 
account of the immense quantity of it, which he provided for the 
temple, which his son built. 

3. The Greeks supposed that iron was first discovered by the burn- 
ing of wood upon Mount Ida, 1438 years before Christ. In the time 
of Homer and Hesiod it was scarce and valuable : but the account of 
the iron money of Lycurgus and the extracts, I have givei^ from 
Herodotus and other authors, prove, that, for more than 400 years 
before the Christian aera, it was plentiful. The account derived from 
the Poliorcetijca Commentaria of Daimachus, and contained under 
Lacedsemon wStephanus, gives even the uses to which several kinds 
of iron were applied in edge tools. * 

4. When Caasar landed in Britain, all the nations of Europe enjoyed 
the advantages which arise from the use of steel t and the Britons had 
iron works of their own. It is probable too that the Egyptians or Phoe- 
nicians had made mercantile voyages to their country, more than 
sixteen centuries before that time. That it was known to the Phoe- 
nicians in the time of Homer, his accounts of amber and tin are 
unquestionable evidence. And there can be no doubt, but that the 

* This passage is quoted at p. 52. Daijnacfaus of Platsea, lived before the time of Strabou 
Plutarch has copied a very interesting account of a meteor that threw down stones, from a 
treatise, which this author left concerning rehgion. He also wrote something respecting 
India. See Solon and Publicola compared; the Life of Lysander, &c^ 


Gredcs and Romans frequented it commonly ever after the destruction 
of Carthage, if not sooner : Plinjr indeed says> this country was in his 
time, '^ Clara Gra^cis nostrisque monumentis'V and he wrote before 
the Romans were extensively settled in the country. * And besides 
their knowledge of iron, and their long intercourse with foreign and 
civilized nations, their old established tin trade is a proof that they 
bad been accustomed to work in mines for numerous ages; and there 
is no account that implements of bronze are more abundantly found 
in the old mines and rubbish heaps of the tin districts, than in those 
parts of the country which are destitute of sJl sorts of mines. 

S. If »«xxwx <ri/«/»(v signify welding of iron, then we have a proof that 
malleable iron was in use in the time of Alyattes, king of Lydia. f 
Perhaps the different sorts of iron, which Pliny calls Strictura^ re- 
ceived their name from their being malleable, " a stringendo acie", 
from binding tite edge, i. e. from, having the property of welding, 
'* qiuod non m aliis metallis'\ The sentence, " mollior complexus 
(i, Ci fecri) in nostro. orbe> ' probably alludes to the same property. 
But though two pieces of common iron,, or. a piece of iron and steel, by 
using siliceous sand, unite at a white heat more readily than two pieces 
of steel ; yet very highly cemented steel may be readily and very per- 
fectly welded by using finely powdered potter's clay instead of sand : 
and. the ancients were acquainted with this process, as appears from 
Pliny, for in describing the solders used for. different sorts of metals he 
says, ** argilla ferro". 

Conclusions respecting bronze, brass, 8Cc.. 

1. Before the flood, Tubal-Cain (i. e^ the possessor of the e€u*th) was 
" an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron". Does this pas- 
sage, besides affording us a valuable notice in the history of the useful 
arts, lead us ta some knowledge in antediluvian geography. After 

* Plautus, ia A. D. 43, was the first of the Romans after Cflesar, who came into Britaia. 
/^^ an invader, and Pliny died 35 years after that time, 
f See before at p. 54... 


the Hood, Tubal and Mesecb, sons of Japb€t, settled oti the borders 
of the Euxine Sea: In Ezelciel's time, their descendants traded to 
Tyre in " vessels of brass" ; and by the Greeks were called Tibareni 
and Moschi. 

S. Because Moses mentions metal mirrors and tin, I infer, that the 
Egyptians, before his time, were acquainted with the use of tin in 
hardening copper for edge-tools : consequently, that their most ancient 
arms and mining tools were made of bronze. 

3. x^xxoc and gold among the Egyptians were first made use of at 
Thebes, in weapons for destroying wild beasts, and in agricultural imple- 
ments.* Hyginus, indeed, expressly affirms that Cadm«B^ the builder 
of Thebes, discovered ws at that place ; f and Pliny, that he fornd 
mines of gold on Mount Pangseus, and the method ^ smelting it. J 
We have seen that under the first kings of Egypt, goW ^tiine^ Were 
worked with tools of x^^^f ^^ account of the scarcity of iron. In 
the table of Isis, some of the sceptres or spears have heads which very 
much resemble our bronze Celts in shape, § But bronze armour was 
entirehf out of use in Egypt in the time of PsammitichHs, 670 jnears 
before Christ. 

4. Weapons of bronze were partly in use in Palaestine, in the time of 
David, as I h^ve shewn in the account of the armour of Goliah, and of his 
descendant Ishbi-benob. In Greece, about the same age, they Were ge» 
neral, as the extracts I have given out of Homer and Hesiod decidedly 

* Diod. Sic. Re. Antiq. i. 2.r-Ia the early history of Eg3npt, gold appears to have been 
applied to the most common purposes. Many of their temples were almost wholly 
covered with it. A similar profusion of silver was found among the Spaniards, when the 
Phoenicians firdt vi^ted Tartessus ; and a state of society very much resembKng that of the 
Egyptians, in the time of Isis and Osiris (1. e. about 1740 yean before Christ) prevailed in 
Mexico and Peru, when they were first discovered, with respect to gold and silver, the 
use of bronze tools and weapons, the state of statuary, and especially in the use of hiero- 

t ^ab. 247. 

X Lib. vii. 56. 

§ See Pignorius' Mens. Isiacae Expositio, foL 11, &c Ed. Vencit. 1605. 


prove. Even the rasp wilh which the cheese was grated into the cup 
of wine, \yhich Nestor gave to Pfetroclus, was of that metal * Seven 
centuries before Christ, arms of bronae were worn by the Carians and 
lonians ; and when Herodotus wrote his history, the Massaget^ made 
their battle axes, and the heads of their spears and arrows of bronae : 
but all sorts of weapons and tools of that metal, were looked upon as 
antiquities in the days of Agatharcides and Pausanias; excepting in 
things which pertained to religious matters, in which bronze imple- 
ments were employed in the heathen temples long after the Christian 

6. That the ancient inhabitants of Italy, in common with the people 
of Greece, Egypt, &c. did, at some period of their history, make their 
edge-tools of bronze, is sufficiently plain from the use they made of 
them in religious matters, and from their being frequently found in the 
ruins of their most ancient cities: but they were fallen into disuse in 
the reign ofPbrsenna, 500 years before Christ, f And it is probable 
that the nations on the western side of Europe, long before the com- 
mencement of the Christian aera, had begun to disuse brass in arms, 
because we know that in the time of Caius Marius, the Cimbrian 
cavalry wore steel cuirasses; and that the people of Gaul, Spain, and 
Britain, were acquainted with the art of manufacturing iron in Caesar's 

* B. x^ 639. 

f Since this paper was written, I have fbund a reference to bronze weapons in Pliny. 
Speaking pf the medicinal qualities of iron, he says :— « Est et rubigo ipsa in remediis : et 
sic Tdephura proditur sanasse Achilles, sive id area, sive ferrea cuspide fecit. Ita certe 
pingitur dicutiens earn gladio.'' He doubted whether this healing rust was scraped off a 
bronze or an iron sword, because be knew that in the heroic age, bronze was in use in 
wBUpoof* He could hare had no difficulty in concluding that it was not of brcmze, from any 
ifse to which that metal was applied in arms in his time ; for his own accounts of iron suffi- 
ciently refute such a notion ; and in the chapter from which tliis extract is taken, he says :— 
** Medecina ^ ferro est et alia, quam secandi," from which it is plain that surgical instru- 
ments were made of it in his time. — Nat. Hist, xxxiv. 15* Hygin. lOh Pans* Arc. Ixv. 
4. Ovid* Metam. xiii. 172. Trist. v. 2, 15. Remed. Am. 47, &c. 


S. The aera in which edge-tools of bronze were in use in Britain, 
cannot, perhaps, be ascertained with any degree of certainty. There 
can be no reason to suppose that iron was introduced here while 
bronze was used in Greece : or that the Germans should be acquainted 
with it before the Britons. But when iron became plentiful amongst 
the Greeks, as it unquestionably was in the time of Lycurgus, 900 
years before Christ, it would certainly be cheaper amongst the Phoe- 
nicians than either copper or tin 4 if, therefore, they traded to Britain 
at that time, it would be their interest to barter steel for the goods 
they came for; and that of the Britons to receive it for edge-tools, in 
preference to copper. The dbuse of bronze tools, and the introdnc- 
tion of iron ones into this country, was probably gradual. But from 
the above reasons, I would conclude that bronze began to give way 
to iron here, nearly as soon as it did in Greece ; and, consequently, 
that all the Celts, spear-heads, swords, &c. found in our island, belong 
to an aera 500, or at least 400 years before the time of Christ, for 
iron then seems to have been general among ail the people along the 
shores of the Mediterranean Sea. 

?• The circumstance of implements similar to our Celts having been 
found in Herculaneums merely proves that the scite of that city was 
once tenanted by men ignorant of the use of iron ; -and we know from 
Dionysius Halicarnassensis, that it was founded about thirty years 
before the Trojan war. Also the various culinary and kitchen imple- 
ments of bronze that abound in its ruins, prove nothing more than 
thait the ancients had discovered that in warm climates copper or 
bronze is better adapted for such purposes than iron. I apprehend 
too, that nothing more can be inferred from the fact, that both Celts and 
undoubted Roman antiquities have been met with at Ladbrook, in the 
middle of the town of Old Flint, than that the Britons had occupied 
that situation either as a fortress or a town before the Romans settled 

in it. 

8. That the Celts were not imported into Britain is plain, from 

moulds for casting them in^ and pieces of crude bronze being 


found in places where, from the cinderk that were with them^ they 
appeared to have been cast If the bronze of which they made them 
was imported, it is probable that the people, who supplied them with 
it, exchanged it for tin^ one of the articles of which it was composed. 
But it cannot be supposed that a people, whose country abounded with 
copper, should be ignorant of the art of working and smelting it, at a 
time when they were mining and manufacturing tin, lead, and iron. 
The aes, which Caesar says they imported, and the x^w^^^/t^^oe, which 
Strabo mentions, were probably nothing more than vessels of copper 
or bronze, which foreign merchants bartered among them for hides 
and metals. 

9« It has been shown that the sceptre or rod of Moses, and many of 
the utensils of the tabernacle of the Hebrews, were of brass ; but none 
of them of iron. The Greeks and Romans borrowed a great part, of 
their religious worship out of Egypt, where it is probable bronze, as 
the first metal which assisted in the arts of civilized life, was held in 
religious veneration ; and iron, as a more modern discovery, in reli- 
gious abhorrence. We accordingly find in Hesiod, that iron was pro- 
hibited in certain religious rites; and Accennius, on the word ^^ ahenis" 
in the following lines from the ^neid, 

" Falcibus et messae ad lunam quaeruntur ahenis 
" Pubentes herbae, nigri cum lacte veneni,** 

sajrs: "Quia nefas id ferreis facere.'* Does not this custom justify 
the supposition that the " aurea fidx," with which Pliny says the 
Druids, at certain seasons, cut the misletoe, is an error for " aerea falx?'' 
and, consequently, that bronze implements were antiquated in his 
time in all common uses in Britain, and only employed in the religious 
rites of the Druids ? 

10. The extracts, I have given out of Homer and Aristotle, prove, 
that the Phoenicians were in the habit of bartering their toys and bau- 
bles for valuable commodities in Greece and Spain ; I would^ there- 

ibre, infer, that they exchanged trifles of that sort amongst the Britons 



for tin ; atld^ consequently, that the articles of jewelry^ found in our 
most ancient tombs, are of PhoBnician manufacture. 

11. Dr. O. Pearson's opinion respecting the uses to which the Celts 
were appliied> is very natural and probable. The wedge-like shape of 
Figs. 7, 8, 9, and 10^ Plate II. evidently poinb out the use they might 
\ye put to in splitting wic^od, for the wattled houses, and osier canoes of 
the ancient Britons ; and, with wooden hafts, they would answer the 
purpose of ehisek in holiowikig canoes froih the trunks of trees, making 
wooden bowls, &c. ; the istrength and shape of their edge being excel- 
lently adiapted for isuch purposes. The implements Figures 1 1> IS, and 
13, on the same plate, were unquestionably used as gouges ; and I 
found some^ which I made of the same shajpe and matedals, ahs#er 
that office exceedingly well, even in old oak. The two broken pieces 
of bronze. Fig. 14, were probably bbsses of a shield : they are thick ito 
the middle, and thiki nt the edges. All the spear heads and other im- 
plements ^re of bronze, the tin being in the several pro^iortions froih 
one*sixth, to one-tenth of the copper, excepting in Number 13^ whit^ 
is o(pot T/teted, i. e. copper alloyed with about one-third of its weight 
of lead. 

12. The sword, Plate IV. Fig. 8. found in Ewart Park, is also of 
bronze. From the manner in which it was found ♦, and the angular 
gashes in its edges, which appear to have been made by a weapon 
similar to itself, it would appear that it had been concealed immedi- 
ately after an action ; for these traces of hacking might have been 
readily closed up with a hammer, if its oWner had ever had the lewt 
leisure to iSepair it after they wete made;. 


* See before at p. UL 


An Extract firam Memoranda respecting the Discovery qf an ancient Stone 
Coffin, in the Church-^yard of Chatton, Northumberland, bjf the Rev* 
Joseph Cook, of Newton HaU, Vicar of Chatton, Vc. 

On the sixth of March, 1614, as the sexton of Chs^ttpp was digging 
a grave on the north side of the church of that place, he met with a 
stone ahout tea inches below the surfi^e of the churqh-y&rd, and ii^ 
breaking it to proceed with his work, a human skull shewed itself, 
lying in water, and surrounded with stone work* The cover wft9 com- 
posed of three stones of nearly equal size, joined together with short 
iron cramps,..embedded with lime and lead, and neatly beve|i)ed off at 
the sides and ends. The shell, or ezcav^d p^t of the coffin, was 
nearly full of water. The skull was not lying in the nich or curvature 
made for it; but in the place of the chest: it was nearly perfect, only 
the under jaw b^ng wanting. The teeth of the upper jaw were a full 
set, and quite perfect. The thigh bones measured eighteen inches. 
All the mud was carefully filtered off from th^ contents of the coffin, 
but no relic of metal, or of any other descrip^on, was found. 

At first I conjectured that this coffin, oi\ account of its lying so 
near the surface, had been removed out of the church or chancel, 
when they were rebuilt in 1764: and thef recollection that nearly 
two-thirds of the chancel had been excavated, under my own inspec- 
tion, to the depth of nine feet, in 1804, for a vault for the family of 
John Wilkie, Esq. of Hetton, in this parish, without the least trace of 
any kind of sepulture appearing, woi;dd have assisted in confirming 
me in that idea, had I not satisfied myself by enquiring of people, 
who remembered the rebuilding of the church, that though several 
coffins were a^ that time reipaoved out oi the chancel, nobody recol- 
lected having either seen or heard of this of stone. 

O 2 


Some time after this discovery^ I gave directions that the coffin 
should be raised from its bed, and placed in safety in the church ; whefi 
the persons employed in the operation found, at its eastern end near 
the bottom, a curious ancient spur, evidently that of a warrior : it had 
been of steel, and was much wasted with rust. The radii of the goad 
or rowel measured half an inch. Nothing more was then found. 

On Easter-eve, in the same year, I employed two steady men to 
dig and trindle the earth adjacent to the bed of the coffin. They 
found one small silver coin lying near the head of it, and several 
pieces of ornamented brass and iron work : the brass nearly decom- 
posed to copperas, and partly to black earth, of which there was a 
considerable quantity. In the same place, fragments of pottery, ap- 
parently portions of an urn, were found, and also masses of putrified 
matter, and a great deal of baked or burnt earth. I directed the men 
to dig full four feet west of the coffin, and, as far as they went, por- 
tions of these articles, lying in a regular strata, were found, from two 
to three feet below the surface. 

The penny was one of Robert Bruce's. The relics of ornamental 
brass and iron work, were probably the cemakis of the helmet of the 
warrior who was interred in the coffin. In 13^18 Robert Bruce and 
his adherents had been excommunicated by the Pope, for contumacy 
to his Highness's messengers,, and having assaulted and taken the for- 
tress of Berwick, as well as those of the castles of Wark, Harbottle, and 
Mitford, and laid waste all the intervening country, * it is probable 
that this warrior now alluded to, fell at this juncture; and that the 
vicar of Chatton, on the strength of the above named papal anathema, 
refused sepulture to his remains, in any other part of the consecrated 
ground, than that of the north side of the church, the place in those 
times allotted, I believe, for the unhallowed interment of excommu>- 
nicated unfortunates. 


* Smollet^s Hist, of Eng. vol. iii. p. iSS. Hume, voL ii. p. 263, 578. Edcjc. Britw 
Art. Scotland, sec. 178, 179. 3d. ed.. 


An Account of the Opening of an ancient Grave near Denton^ in tht 
County of Northumberland ; and some Notices respecting an Arrow 
Head of Flint, by Mr. EDWARD WooDHOUSE, of Scotchzvood. 

The small urn and' arrow-head of flint, which I presented to the New^- 
castle Antiquarian Society some time agp, through the medium of Mr* 
Stanton^ were found in the under-mentioned situations. 

About two years since I found the urn in the most elevated part 
of a field, in the occupation of my father, a little more than a quarter 
of a mile south west of the Roman wall, and almost in a direct line to 
the same point from Denton Hall, three miles west of Newcastle,, in 
the county of Northumberland. A large stone had, for several years, 
obstructed the plough, and on raising it I found three enclosures, 
about two feet in length, and from twelve to eighteen inches in 
breadth ; they were each composed of four flag stones set on edge, 
about eighteen inches deep, the uppermost edge of each stone level 
with the surface, of the ground. The longest stones ranged south ^west 
and north east. There was a space of about twelve inches between 
each, filled up with tumbling stones, apparently to support the flags, 
and keep them upright ; the same occurred at the extremities. The 
centre enclosure contained the urn, the bottom of which was about 
the same depth as the edge stones; the remaining space within was 
filled, up with very fine soft yellow sand, almost to the surface. The 
urn contained a substance very much resembling (what is commonly 
called) shag tobacco. * The eastermost one was quite full of bones, , 
the greatest part of them, from time, reduced to white powder. 1 

* The capacity of Ihit urn ia about a quart of wine meafure. 


fbuud many pieces from a quarter of an inch to an inch in length. 
The whole were so much decayed, as to render it impossible to ascer- 
tain whether they were human or not There was nothing found in 
the westermost division^ but the same kind of sand as that in which the 
urn was placed: it was quite of a different nature to any of the soil in 
the field. 

To the best of my recollection the arrow was found about fifteen 
years ago, upon that part of Lanchester common, called the less im- 
proveable part, about a mile and a quarter west of the village of West 
Butsfield, in the county of Durham. It was a part of the common 
purchased by my father, now called Woodburn Farm. At that time 
it was entirely covered with the various kinds of heath natural to this 
island. After pairing and burning, which is generally the first opera- 
tion in the cultivation of this kind of land, it was afterwards ploughed ; 
some time afler which the arrow-head was found upon the surface, 

washed quite clean by the previous rains. There was not the least 
trace, or smallest vestige of this land ever having been in cultivation 


Might not the eastern division of this area contain the hones and ashes of a person, who 
had &llen in some battle ; and the urn in the centre division, some manuscript roll on papy- 
rus or bark, containing an account of the conflict in which he fell ? Or perhaps more 
possibly, the person interred here might be of some religious order, and the contents of the 
urn a book on matters relative to his profession. When Numa Pompilius was buried, his 
body was put into one area, or coffin of stone, and his sacred books into anotfaer« He died 
liefere Christ 670, and 485. years afterwards, when one Terentius, a writer^ was improving 
a piece of ground, near the Janiculum, he struck upon these coffins in which the books, 
which were made of papyrus, were remaining in a perfect state. Pliny says, he derived 
this account from Cassius Hemina, a very ancient annalist, who to the question of persons 
who wondered, how it was possible that the books could have lasted so long, gave this 
reason z— '^ Lapidem fuisse quadratum, circiter in media area vincium candelis quoqud ver- 
sus. In eo lapide iasuper libros impositos fuisse: propterea arbitrarier eos non computruisse. 
£t libros cedratos fuisse : propterea arbitrarier teneas non tetigisse. In Ubris scripta erant," 
^c.— Nat. Hist. xiii. 13. See also Plutarch's Life of Numa. Valer. Max. 1. i. c. i. sec. 
J 2. and Varro quoted by S. August, de Civit. Dei, J- H. 


Some Account of a Saxon Inscription^ on a Stone found near Falstone, in 
the County of Northumberland, in a Letter to ROBERT SpeaRMAN, 
Estj. of Serving Shields, from the Rev. James Wo.od, Minister of 
the Scotch Chapel at Falstdne. 

The Antiquarian Society of Newcastle upon Tyne, instead of a 
copy bf the inscription whicli they enquire after, are heartily welcome 
to the stone ivhich bears it. I will send it by the cafrier as isoon as I 
ic^tt. This expedient will, I think, answer most of the queries which 
accompanied your letter. 

I farm about an acre of land in Hawkhope-hill, belonging to 
Gliomas Ridley, Esq. of ?iark-end ; it lies on the north side of the North 
Tyne, and was formerly divided iuto two patches, by a low sloping 
bailk, overglrowti With thorns and brambles. About six years ago I 
employed labourers to clear this bank for cultivation ; and then and 
there the stone in question was found, about three feet from the sur- 
face. It is a kind of grey freestone, rather smooth on the one side, 
having the iti^ctiption on the other, about a foot long, and in the form 
of a bar of lead from the smelt mill. No vestiges, however, of a church, 
or burial-ground, at or near the place can be discerned..* The 
English and Scots chapels of Falstone are both within a quarter of a 
mile of the spot where the stone was founds but, so far as I can learn,^ 

* Mr. Wood, in 1814, pointed out tame the fi6ld in which this stone was found; and 
*^ Ruins** are marked upon it, in Armstrong's large map of Northumberland. By the form 
of the surface of the back part of the stone it appears that it has been broken off a larger 
stone. I suppose it to have been a part of the ornament of the capital of a Saxon column* 
In the annexed engraving it is given in its true size. The smaller figure represents its ends. 

J. H. 


neither of these edifices can have any claim to antiquity, the first hay- 
ing been founded about 90 years ago, and the last about 110. 

Within the bounds of this chapelry of Falstone and its immediate 
vicinity, there are some houses consisting of very thick walls, with 
stone vaults below, which have evidently been erected for the purpose x)f 
defending the possessors of them, and their cattle, against the depreda- 
tions of the neighbouring moss-troopers. Here, too, are some remains 
of ancient castles ; but we have no authentic account concerning them, 
and tradition, you know, is not to be depended upon. Wonderftd 
stories, indeed, are told of them. Tarset-hall, for instance, on the 
north side of the Tyne, and Dally-castle, on the south, may be about 
a mile distant; and there is, they say, between the two, a subter- 
raneous road cut out, even below the bed of the river. Less than half 
a century ago vulgar superstition^ it is said, has been so quick-sighted 
as to discern horses and chariots driving between these two old castles 
at midnight. 

Tarset-hall, together with a vast extent of land about Tyne-head^ 
are reported to have been the property of the Cummins ; and tradi- 
tion makes up a marriage between an heiress of this domain and one 
of the house of Northumberland ; and consequently, the estates remain 
4;o this day in the present noble family. 



An Account of the Seal of the last Treasurer of the Augustine Mona- 
stery at Canterbury^ in a Letter to the Reverend Wm. Turner, by 
James Gomme, Esquire, of High Wycombe^ Buckinghamshire. 

1 HE following is an account of a seal in my possession, which be- 
longed to the last Treasurer of the Augustine Monastery at Canterbury. 

The legend is » ^ ^'f^^W^&^^JfSx 9^S>Sdit %€ii 
aa««aC3|JB3l : Ca JSCaaK3l<2 la : in English—" The seal of 
the Treasurer of the Monastery of St. Augustine at Canterbury," 

In the upper compartment is the prior in the act of blessing. He 
has a mitre on his head as presiding over a monastery, whose superior 
was entitled to wear one; these sat in the House of Peers as possessing 
baronies, but their number does not appear so fixed as the prelates. 

The crozier is turned inward to distinguish him from a bishop. 

Below are the arms of the priory (the same now used by the Deans 



of Canterbury) ; but to identify in whose priorate the seal was made, 
and no doubt to prevent future forgeries, the letter G. is placed in the 
centre of the cross. 

The large keys in saltier are allusive to the office of treasurer; 
the two figures which stand on the bottom of the keys are two monks, 
with musical scrolls in their hands, from which they appear to be sing- 
ing. The small dots about the field of the seal are only ornaments, 
and to fill up. The three stars on the top and on the sides of the 
shield of arms, probably have some precise meaning relating to the 
prior, or may be parts of his own paternal armorial bearing. 

The date of the seal may be nearly fixed from the following account : 
Thomas Goldstone was prior for twenty-four years, eight months and 
ten days, says his epitaph; he died Sept. 16, 1517. He was highly 
trusted and employed by King Henry VII. It might have been^sup- 
posed the seal of the treasurer in his time; but it was most probably 
cut in the priorature of his successor, 

Thomas Goldwell, D. D. of Canterbury College, Oxford. This respect- 
able man was the last prior. After presiding here twenty-three years, 
he witnessed the dissolution of the monastery, signed the surrender, 
and probably with this seal. He received a small pension and died in 
privity. A stall in the cathedral of Canterbury, adjoining the priory, 
was offered, but he refused it. 

We must give the seal in the time of Goldwell instead of Goldstone, 
for this reason : it must naturally be supposed, that in every priora- 
ture, there would be a new seal for the treasurer of the monastery, and 
that when the new seal was delivered, the old one was surrendered 
and broken, to prevent its being used. At the dissolution, the seal 
could be of no possible use : it was, therefore, either flung aside as use- 
less, or Dr. Goldwell kept it in the hopes of the religious houses being 


High WycombCy Uth Jan. 1815. 

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^^^^ ^^^* ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^.^^^ ^*i» ^fc^**^ "^^^^ I I ^^ 

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car' t^ C? -^ ^ o ;r;: rr J^ 



Mi»v ri^i 



Remar^s^ on, the Inscription to the Zodiacal CercSy latch/ discovered at 
■ Caaxcfrran^ on theRoman^ WalU in a Letter to the Rev. JOHN 
Hoi>GSON, v^^:. byG^OKGE STANLEY Faber, B. D. Rcctor of 
Lang Netvt^n, in the .County of Durlmnu . 


4^^ Plate IV. Fig. I. 

Marcus Csecilius, the author of the curious inscription to Ceres, 
lately discovered at Caervorran, on the Roman wiall, identifies that 
goddess with the zodiacal constellation Virgo : arid, both in this iden- 
tification, and in the character which he ascribes to her, he displays 
an intimate acquaintance with the old theological notions of the 

I. He pronounces her to be the corn-bearing divinity, the inventor 
of justice, the founder of cities, and thence the author of the worship 
of the deities. Such being her character, he determines her to be the 
same person as the Universal Mother of the Gods ^ the same also as 



the Syrian goddess^ respecting whom we have a curious treatise from 
the pen of Lucian ; and, viewing her under her benignant aspect, as 
contradistinguished from that vindictive aspect which she bears under 
the name of Demeter-Erinm/s, he celebrates her as being essential Peace 
and Virtue. 

1. The old mythologists agree, that Ceres, Cybele, Venus, the Syrian 
goddess Derceto, the Phoenician Astarte, and the Egyptian Isis, were 
all one and the same deity : and this deity they describe, as compre- 
hending within her womb all the hero-gods, and as either bearing the 
form of a ship or as closely connected with one. She is also said to be 
the same as the Universal Mother Earth : but then there was a notion, 
that the earth itself resembled in form a vast ship, and that it floated 
upon the surface of the great abyss. She is further identified with the 
moon ; but, if we inquire in what manner, we shall still find the pre- 
vailing idea of a ship again apparent. The boat of Isis, within which 
the Egyptian Osiris was inclosed, exhibited the semblance of the lunar 
crescent : hence, with mystical indiflFerence, he was said either to have 
entered into a ship, or to have entered into the moon ; a mode of 
speech which Plutarch obviously explains to mean only that he entered 
into a boat shaped like the moon. Hence, as a ship was the symbol 
of the great mother, the lunar boat or crescent was made her astrono- 
mical representative. 

2. Just the same ideas have prevailed both in Hindostan and in 
ancient Celtic Britain. The Isi and Iswara of the Brahmins, are 
plainly the Isis and Isiris of Egypt ; for OsiriSy as it is well known, 
was perpetually written Isiris. At the time of an universal deluge, 
Isi assumes the form of the ship Argha, and thus conveys Iswara over 
the ocean; precisely as Isis is acknowledged to be the same as the 
lunar ship Argo, which bore Isiris over the inundation of the Nile, by 
the Egyptiails denominated Oceanes : and, when the waters retire, Isi 
and Iswara fly away in the shape of two doves. In a similar manner, 
the British Ceridwen or Esaye is fabled, to have once taken the form 
of a ship well stored with corn, and thus to have conveyed her mystic 


consort over the great deep, when the whole earth was laid under 

3. Thus the great mother was the Dea Spicifera : thus, as the inun- 
dation, with which we ever find her connected, is said to have been 
an act of retributive justice, she was viewed as the goddess of justice : 
thus, as a preserver of her allegorical children, and as a destroyer of 
the wicked, she was universally beheld under the double aspect of a 
benignant genius and of a relentless fury : and thus, since anew period 
was thought to have commenced with her own figurative birth from 
the ocean, surrounded by aquatic animals and attended by doves, she 
was esteemed the builder of all subsequent cities, and the institutor of 
all religious worship. 

II. What Caecilius says respecting the star of the Syrian goddess 
alludes, I conceive, to the star of Astart^ or Astoreth, which is men- 
tioned by Sanchoniatho, and of which Nonnus says so much in his 
curious account of the Phoenician Beroe or Berith. That poet gives 
just the same account of his Beroe, that Csecilius does of his Ceres- 

Astoreth was the Virgo- Astr^ of the Greeks : and, however contra- 
dictory may be the two characters of a virgin^ and an universal mother 
of the hero-gods^ these two apparently discordant characters were, 
nevertheless, perpetually applied by the old mythologists to the same 
person. The goddess of the lunar ship was said to be the parent both 
of all the gods, and even of the whole world : but then she was often 
likewise said to have born her offspring without the co-operation of 
any husband. When her character was viewed under this aspect, she 
was, of course, esteemed a virgin. 

III. But it is time to consider her elevation to the sphere in the 
zodiacal catasterism of Virgo. 

1 . This constellation was variously thought to represent Themis, or 
Astrea, or Ceres, as we find from the old writers on poetical astro- 
nomy : but all these were one and the same character, the goddess of 
the ship ; who, in allusion to her elevation to the sphere, was feigned 


by the poets to have flown from earth to heaven, at the precise epoch 
of the deluge. 

The arrangement of the present constellation, and indeed of the 
whole zodiac, mast inevitably be ascribed to the most remote anti- 
quity : for, since the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Hindoos, use the 
very same zodiacal signs, and place them in the very same consecu- 
tive order ; such an arbitrary coincidence cannot be ascribed to mere 
chance. They plainly must have all derived their zodiac from a common 
origin : and, since the only connection (with which we are acquainted) 
of the Hindoos with the Egyptians, is through the mean of the Indo- 
Scythic Shepherd-Kings, and since the Greeks were doubly connected 
with Hindostan and Egypt, through the means of the Pelasgi or Palli 
from the north-east, and of the Danai and Cadmiaus from the south- 
east; their common zodiac must have been constructed prior to the 
emigration of the Pallic Shepherds from Upper India. Now, as the 
shepherds continued several years in the region of Babylonia, where 
they established themselves about the close of the first Assyrian dy- 
nasty, and as they entered Egypt six years before the birth of Abraham, 
we shall find ourselves compelled to ascribe the common zodiac of 
Greece and Egypt and Hindostan, to an era considerably prior to the 
birth of that patriarch. But this will bring us so near to the dispersion 
from Babel, that we have great reason to believe the zodiac to have 
been originally constructed by the astronomical Chaldeans in the time 
of Nimrod. Such an opinion will lead us to assign the rise of idolatry 
to the same era: for, the zodiac being altogether founded upon the 
prevailing system of paganism, the system itself must have existed pribr 
to the construction of the zodiac. Accordingly, we find the same 
system established in every quarter of the globe, which could not have 
happened, unless the system itself had been excogitated previous to 
the dispersion. 

2. With respect to the particular constellation of Virgo, the Greeks, 
who supposed it to represent their Astrea or Ceres-Demeter, depicted 
the female figure as a woman bearing ears of corn and a blazing lamp. 


the latter in reference to the Eleusinian mysteries : the Egyptians^ who 
pronounced it to represent their Isis, whom all the old mythologists 
identify with Ceres, depicted the female, as a woman holding ears of 
corn and the sistrum : and the Hindoos, who still claim it as the zodi- 
acal representative of their Isi, depict the same female figure, as a 
woman holding ears of corn and floating on a raft, agreeably to the 
notions which they entertain of their navicular goddess, in the cha- 
racter of the genius of the ship Argha. This last I take to be the 
v^ primeval and authentic form of the pictured constellation : and, as the 

ship of Ceres and of Isis was no less familiar to the Greeks and the 
Egyptians, than the ship of Isi to the Hindoos, I feel strongly persuaded^ 
that the two former nations once painted the constellation in the same 

S. I may add, that the ram of the sphere is Ammon or Dacsha : the 
bull, Isiris, or Iswara, or Molech, or Zeus : the lion, Mithras : the 
piscine goat or Capricorn, Egi-Pan : the water-bearer, the Dea Multi- 
mammia: the fishes, the companions of the Syrian goddess, when she 
was born from the floating egg, surmounted by doves ; or, when the 
constellation is depicted as a woman ending in the tail of a fish, the 
Syrian goddess Derceto herself: and so forth. It is not unworthy of 
notice, that some supposed aquarius to be Deucalion, because he lived 
at the time of the flood. 

In making these remarks, I have thought it superfluous to give any 
references ; because the subject is treated so very much at large in my 
Origin of Pagan Idolatry, with which I find the inscription of Cseci- 
lius to Ceres in the most perfect unison. 


Lang Nczvlon, Nov. 3, 1816. 

An Ertqidry into the Antiquity of an ancient Entrenchment, called 
Wardley, in tlie Parish of JarroWy and County of Durham, by the 
Rev. John Hodgson, Sec, 

Wardley, in the parish of Jarrow, is a place of considerable anti- 
quity, and probably derives its name from a deep fosse or entrench- 
ment, which surrounds a plot of ground, on which, in former times, 
the priors and monks of Durham had a camera or summer residence. 

The dimensions of the entrenchment are as follow, viz. : — A, Plate 
the area within the ditches, containing six acres and thirty-iSve perches. 

B B B, the ditch, which is every where very perfect, excepting at 
p, where it has been filled up, and a road leads across it. 

C o c m, a mound of earth on the outside of the ditch, which is still 
very perfect. 

The length of the sides of the entrenchment is, from a to b, 149 feet ; 
from b to c, 99, and c to d, 1 12 — together, 211; from d to e, 143 ; and 
from e to a, 197 feet. 

The breadth of the ditch from a to f, is 11 feet; from g to h, 13; 
from b to i, 8i; from c to k, 9; from 1 to m, 8 ; and from n to o, 13. 
Its depth at b i is 6 feet; and a bridge crosses it at c k, 1 m. 

The form and size of this entrenchment, and its contiguity to the 
Learn Lane, a part of the Roman way, called Wreken Dyke, which runs 
between Lanchester and the stations at Jarrow and South Shields, fire 
in favour of its Roman origin ; but I have not been able to learn, that 
any Roman antiquities were ever found in it. It is certain that no 
traces of Roman masonry exist within its area. If, therefore, it was 
ever a camp of that people, it was one of the kind which they called 
Estiva, from their being occupied only in summer. 




• '' '<' 


In the year 99^9 the bishops and monks of Cnneacester, on account 
of the ravages of the Danes, removed the body of St. Cuthbert from 
that place to Rippon. ^^ But peace being established in three or four 
months, as the monks were returning from the former place with the 
sacred body, and had got into a place called Werdelau, in the eastern 
country, near to Durham, the carriage, on which the shrine containing 
the holy remains was carried, became restive and immoveable. All 
additional assistance was unavailing ; to every new accession of strength 
it continued immoveable as a mountain, plainly shewing, that the 
incorruptible body refused to be taken to the place where it had been 
before. But the monks were at a loss whither they should carry it ; 
for the place on which they then were, was in the middle of a plain 
and uninhabitable. The Bishop, therefore, addressing the people, 
commanded them to se^ directions from heaven, for their future 
conduct by fasting, watchings, and prayers, during three days. The 
event was, that it was revealed to a monk called Eadmer, that the 
body should be removed to Durham, which was accordingly done.** * 

I am aware that some objections may be started against identifying 
Wardley with the place where this occurrence is said to have happened. 

1. Because the Werdelau of Simeon, or as it is in Bedford's edition,f 
Wredelau, was " prope Dunelmum ad orientalem plagam**; and 
Wardley is about fourteen miles north east of Durham, and about 
seven in the same direction from Chester-le-Street. 

2. The word lawy when it makes a part of the names of places, always 
means a hill or eminence; and in this signification we find it com- 
monly applied to conical hills, tumuli, fortified grounds, and the places 
where public assemblies were anciently holden. 

The first objections may perhaps yield to the following considera- 
tions. The " plaga'* in which Wardley is situated, does, in a certain 
degree, lie to the east of Durham; and " prope*' being a relative 
term, Wardley, and especially the district between the Tyne and 

* Sym. Dundm. inter Hist. Anglic Scrip. Antiq. col. 27* 
t P. 14a 




Wear in which it is situated, may be said to be near to Durham^ in 
comparison with their distance from Rippon. 

The monks engaged in this transaction, were undetermined among 
themselves where they should settle; and may, therefore, be sup- 
posed to have wandered out of the way of their former residence at 
Chester-le-Street, in quest of some other. It is certain that the eccle- 
siastics of Durham fled to Lindisfarne, in 1069, by the way of Jarrow, 
Bedlington, &c. ; and both Wardley and Chester-le-Street are in a right 
line between Durham and Jarrow. Is it not a probable conjecture, 
that when the ** vehiculum, quo sacri corporis theca ferebatur," be- 
came restive, the monks were on their way to their ancient residence 
at Lindisfarne; but differing in their councils about the propriety of 
proceeding thither, the majority determined to turn back to the 
strong post on Dun-holm ? In this conjecture, the true reason, I think, 
is observable, why we are told that the holy remains refused to be 
carried to the place " ubi prius fuerat." 

To the second objection it may be answered, that, if law in this 
place be admitted as the true reading, and allowed to signify a hill, 
then Simeon's own description of the place is in contradiction with its 
name ; for they came to a place, " qui Werdelau dicitur ;" and " ubi 
tunc fuerunt, in medio scilicet campo, locus erat inhabitabilis;" which, 
with the reading and etymology alluded to, would be as much as to 
say, " the place tbey came to was called Wavdedrhill^ and that hill was 
a plain." I apprehend that Simeon wrote Werdle, a word which 
means '^ guarded or fortified field;" and in that signification answers 
well to Wardley, which is situated in the middle of a very extensive 
plain ; and in a place, which it is probable might at that time be very 
properly called inhabitabilis^ by a fraternity of monks searching for a 
residence; for the ground adjoining it to the south is still wet and 
marshy, and was formerly covered with a sort of lake, called in old 
records " le White Mere." 

That Wardley was the spot, where this occurrence happened, is fur- 
ther evident, from some copies of Simeon having " Werdele :" a^nd 


Leland in a note to an extract from one of the monastic authors, not 
named, De Episcopis Lindisfamensis and Dunelmensis, col. v. ii. p. 
330, says : '* Nunc Wedle ubi aedes dim monachis recreandi gratis con- 
cessse.'* That there were " aedes recreandi," or rooms of recreation for 
the monks of Durham at Wardley^ there is no doubt ; a circumstance 
which evidently shews that Wedle, in Leland's note, is a mere literal 
mistake for Werdle. 

Some authors * have supposed that Weredun-law, a hill on the south 
side of the Wear, and a few miles from Sunderland, is the place which 
Simeon calls Werdelau. But I conceive, that Weredun is a Celtic 
name, signifying Werehill ; and that law^ a word of Saxon origin, has 
been added to it, by a people ignorant that dun and lawzre synonyma. 
But besides the probability that Warden-law went under the same 
appellation in the time of Simeon that it does now, though it may be 
said to be east from Durham, and to be '^ locus inhabitabilis," it is not / 
^^ in medio campo :" it has no traces of fortification about it to justify 
the supposition that Werdelau was its ancient name, and that dun is a 
corruption of modern insertion : and it is certain that the monks of 
Durham never had any " aedes recreandi" upon it. 

Hutchinson, in his History of Durham, contends, that Werdelau 
was at Maiden-castle, a fortified hill between Shiukliff and Durham : 
and that place certainly answers well to its being near to and east of 
Durham. But where is the evidence of that place ever having been 
called Werdelau ? It was not " locus inhabitabilis," nor " in medio 
campo ;" nor ever had upon it any " aedes recreandi." 

The following document, extracted from the Register of Bishop 
Kellowe shews, that Wardley was a place of some importance in the 
year 1313, in which William de Tanfield, on account of age and 
infirmity, retired from his situation as prior of Durham, and in lieu of 
that accepted of the celle of Jarrow, with the privilege of residing in 
the manor-house of Wardley. 

* See Hutch. Hist, of Durham, toI. i. p. 79. vol ii. p. 3, Ac; Bedford's ed. of Simeon 



" Omnibus &c. Ric'us p'missioiie divina &c. V'ra nov'it nniy'sitas 
q*d accedentib* ad nos ap'd Middelham die mercur. p*x. post festo. s'c'e 
trinkalis anno d'ni Mill'i'o CCC"**. tercio decimo dilectis filiis d'no W. 
Priore & fratribus Galfr'o de Burdon Suppriore, Thoma de Aldewode 
Wili'o de Giseburiie et Thoma de Hessewell monachis et procurator* 
monasterii Dunelm. &c. d'n's Will'us proponens coram nob. se non 
posse cure & regimini d'c'i Monasterii sibi co'missis. commode vacare 
nee onera inde sibi incu'bencia prout convenit suportare p'p't. corp*- 
alem imbecilitatem sua infirmitate & senio confractam qua notabiliter 
est gravatus cure regimini & officio cessit expose & ea in manib' n'ris 
pure, sponte, et simpTr resignavit devote supplicans, &c. Ad ip*ius 
igitur sustentacionem Cellam de Jarowe sicut mag'ri ejusdem loci 
antiquitus h^ere consuev'unt cu. suis p'tin. cu. stauro & aliis bonis 
ejusd'm ta. mobilib. q'm se moventibus & pensione. sen annuu. reditu. 
* dece. librar. argenti qui consuev'it solvi mon. p'd'co p. mag'ros qui pro 
temp'e fue'int d'c'e celle. Et decimas garbar. de villis de Heworth 
sup'iori & inf iori auct'e & potestate nob. in hac p'te attributis de 
exp'sso consensu supp'ioris & conventus, &c. Tenend. & h'end. &c. 
Solvendo inde ad s'c'm d'c'i mon. sex marc, st'lingor. ad festa. S'c'i 
Martini & pent. &c. Et si d'c'us Will's cessavit in soluc'o'e d'c'ar* sex 
marcar' p. octo dies post terminos assignatos extunc liceat bursario 
Dunolm. levare id quod a retro est de redditib. et exitib. molendinor. 
de Jarowe sine impedimento &c. Volumus eciam q'd h*eat aisiam- 
enta Domor. man'ii de Wardeley ad inh'itandum & morandu' ibidem 
suis su^ptib. p. suo libito voluntatis nich. de exitib. man'ii receptur. — 
Et q'd h'eat focale p. aula & cam'a sua tam ap'd Jarowe quam War- 
deley de Bosco de Heworth & fagotas p. pistrina de bosco ceduo suc- 
crescente in le Heghenigh r'onabilit'r p. visum forestarii ibidem. De 
carbonib. p. coquina & bracina suis su'ptib. sibi faciat p'videri. Or- 
dinamus insuper q'd h'eat setu. unu. vel.duos monachos de d'c'o mon. p. 
suo voluntate eligendos de consensu prioris, &c. Ordinamus eciam 
q'd p'd'cus d'n*s Will's faciat deservire d'c'e celle laudabiliter in divinis 
videl't cu. fu'it absens a d'c'a cella infra Ep'atu. tu. per capell'os 
seculares vel monachos unu. vel plures prout duxerit eligendos. Set cu. 


contingat eu. agere ex Ep'atu saltern p. unu. monachu. d'e'e celle faciat 
deserviri & quod liceat sibi p. voluntate sua mora, facere in Ep'atu v*l 
extra sine impedimento v'l calumpnia prior. Dunelm. vel alt'uis cujusq. 
Et si ad mon.declinare volu'it p. q'nque vel sex dies suis sumptib. moratur. 
Hostelar mon. s^ faciat decentS cameram assignari. Et p'd*cus WiiPus 
p'd'cam celiam de Jarowe cu. p'tin*ciis suis in adeo bono statu demittet 
vel meliori sicut earn recepit (vi majori per hostiles incursus & casib. 
fortuitis duhtaxat exceptis). Et si contingat (q'd. absit) p'd'c'am celiam 
de Jarowe et alia bona sibi superius assignata p. hostiles incursus Scot- 
torum vel p. co'em guerram destrui et consumi ita q'd non posit de re* 
siduo bonor. aliqualiter sustentari volumus & ordinamus q'd h'eat una. 
Cam'a. infra cepta. mon. p'd'c'i Dunolm. & congrua. sustentac'o'em p. 
se et uno socio uno velietto & quatuor garc'onib. jux. mon. facultates, 
&c. In quor. &c. Dat. ap'd Middelham die & anno sup'd'c'is Et 
pont. n'ri tercio/' 

It is further worthy of remark, that Wardley is a manor within the 
manor of Jarrow, which, with all its appendages, was granted to the 
Monastery of Jarrow about the time of the Conquest ; and soon after- 
wards to the Priory of Durham. It is still leased under the Dean and 
Chapter of Durham, to whom it was granted by King Henry the 
Eighth, May 16, 1561 : and in 1567, by an act of that body, its tythes 
were annexed to the revenues of the Seventh Prebendary. 

At present there are no buildings within the area of the entrenchment 
which bear any marks of antiquity, the scite of the ancient mansion house 
being occupied by a modern farm house and farm offices. The fish 
ponds are still distinctly visible, in the wood, on its south side ; and the 
esculent (still common in meadow ground in the neighbourhood of old 
castles, villages, and monasteries),^ the polygonum bistorta of Linnaeus, 
and called ^^ Easter-month-gions," in many parts of England, grows on 
the scite of the old garden, in the north-east corner of the entrench* 



Observations on an ancient Aqueduct^ and certain Heaps of Iron Scoria^ 
in the Parish of Lanchester, in the County of Durham, by the Rev. 
John Hodgson, Secretary. 

Ptolomy, the geographer, is generally supposed to have lived in the 
reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius ; but as he makes no 
mention of the Vallum of Hadrian, I suspect that his work was pub- 
lished before that Emperor's campaign in Britain. He enumerates 
nine towns of the Brigrantes, the most northern one of which was 
Epiacum ; and that next to it Vinovia, which is generally allowed to 
be the Roman name of Biuchester. 

In his map both these towns are placed much too far to the west, 
as appears from the Itinerary of Antoninus, and Richard of Cirences- 
ter's description of Britain. 

Antonine places Vindomora nine miles from Corstopitum or Cor- 
bridge, and nineteen miles from Vinovia, according to which distances, 
Vindomora would appear to have been at Ebchester, in the county 
of Durham : and Richard, in his fifth iter, disposes of these places in 
the same manner; but in his third, he places Epiacum eighteen miles 
from Vinovia, and nine from the Wall. Epiacum and Vindomora, 
according to his authority, would, therefore, seem to have been 
names of the same place. Probably, however, Vindomora was at 
Lanchester, and Epiacum at Ebchester. But as none of these names 
occur in the Notitia Imperii, and no inscriptions have been found to 
throw the least light either upon their history or their geography, it 
is still very doubtful where the true situation of £piacum was, and 
whether Vindomora was at Ebchester or Lanchester. That the greater 
number of places enumerated in the Notitia, as under the command of 


the Duk^oritain, were situated either along the line of the wall, or at 
no great distance to the south of it^ there can» I think, be no question ; 
and though the Longovicum of that authority may, on several accounts, 
be supposed to have been at Lanchester, and the Derventio at Eb- 
chester, from that place being situated on the river Derwent,.yet these 
suppositions have nothing of the nature of proof for their support. 

The extensive ruins of the station at Lanchester, and especially of 
its suburbs, show that it was once a place of considerable importance. 
One tablet, found in a field on the east side of it,, commemorates the 
building of a bath and a basilica ; and another, discovered within the 
area of its wall, records the repairing of its principia and armamentaria 
in the time ofGordian the Third; a circumstance which pretty clearly 
proves that it was occupied soon after the Romans penetrated into 
Britain. For, supposing these repairs to have been made in the third 
year of the reign of Gordian, or A. D. 240, and that the principia and 
armamentaria had been erected by Agricola in the winter of the year 
80, they were only 160 years old at the time of their being re-built, 
and that work had become necessary on account of their having 
" conlapsa*' — fallen together. 

The ancient importance of this station is further shewn, by the great 
labour which has been employed in making the aqueducts that lead to 
it. The plan of these works, which I have been enabled to lay before 
the Society, was copied from a survey made several years since, by 
Mr. Fenwick of Dipton, and Mr. White of Woodlands. Both its 
lines are in many places, and especially in Mr. White's woods, as visi- 
ble as in the day tbey were made. The bottom of it, on account of 
its course lying over sandy ground, has been puddled j and the upper 
part of the northern branch has, of late years, been employed in con- 
veying water to the fish ponds at Woodlands. The earth embank- 
ment at the head of the channel of this branch, where two small rivu- 
lets fall into one, partly remains : it has been rudely faced with stone, 
and raised to the height of thirty feet, in order to obtain level for 
throwing the water into the channel of the aqueduct. The place 


where the southern branch has received its water from the brook, 
called Rippon-bum, is obliterated ; but the embankments made near 
the house at Cold-Pike-Hill, for receiving the water of certain springs, 
and preserving level to the station, are very distinct. The reservoir 
was in a field at the south-west corner of the station, and a conduit 
that appeared near the bath is supposed to have led to it. Several wells 
have, from time to time, been discovered here by labourers, on the 
outside of the walls, and there is a plentiful spring at a short distance 
from the place where the bath stood. 

Between the lines of this aqueduct, there are two remarkable 
heaps of iron Scoria. One of them on the west side of Mr. White's 
plantations, near the Rippon-burn ; and the other at a place called 
Cold Knuckles, about a quarter of a mile south from the head of the 
northern branch of the aqueduct. That at Cold Knuckles contains 
many thousand tons of slag : but there was a still larger heap about a 
mile further to the west, the greater part of which was, some years 
ago, employed in making a part of the turnpike road, which leads 
from Bishop Auckland to Corbridge- Similar heaps have been found 
at a place called Goldhill, on Houseley-bum, a little above Healey- 
field^ at Nuckton Bum, about three miles above Blanchland; at Bursh- 
blades, near Tantovy ; and at Norwood, near Ravensworth Castle. 

In several parts of the parish of Lanchester I have frequently 
observed that the surface of the earth is exceedingly irregular, with 
small pits, which the country people call delfsy no doubt from delving 
or digging; and that these places are invariably attended with a 
stratum of iron stone not far from the surface. Similar appearances 
may be seen in one of the plantations belonging to the Earl of Bute, 
on a farm called the Delfs, on the south side of Pontop Pike, and on 
Tanfield Moor. But in what age either them or the heaps of Scoria 
were formed, I know of no evidence on which a probable conjecture 
can be formed, unless the following account can be admitted as testi- 

When the ruins of a great part of the station at Lanchester, and 


lespeeially of its suburbs, were raised about forty years ago, the great 
numbers of hearths, cinders, and slaking troughs that were found, and 
that resembled those of our smitheries, induced the neighbouring peo- 
ple to conclude that the Romans were " a tribe of smiths." If, indeed, 
there were not reason to believe that the armamentaria were common 
to every station, and consequently of no greater importance at one 
place than another, there is sufficient evidence that places under that 
name were not only used as depots for arms in the Roman age, but as 
workshops for military purposes. ** Nunc operibus aspiciendis tempus 
dabat, quaeque in offictnis, quseque in armamentario ac navalibus fabro- * 
rum multitude plurima in singulos dies certamine ingenti faciebat." * 
If, however, it could be shown that the armamentaria mentioned in the 
inscription found here, were connected with the numerous hearths I 
have just metltioned, and that these had been used by smiths, we 
should not only obtain a clue to the history of the heaps of scoria but 
obtain good ground of evidence that Lanchester, while the Romans 
were in Britain, was both famous for its iron works, and distinguished 
for an extensive manufactory of arms. 

Some of the slag at Goldhill is blueish, and partly of a glassy nature. 
The flat pieces at Cold Knuckles are very black, dense, and heavy; 
and consist of sulphur, combined with small proportions of iron, car- 
bon, and silex: ^the amorphous pieces are very light, porous, and 
black. The earth under the heaps has been much burnt : and pieces 
of charcoal still remain in them* 


* Livj, Ub. 26. c. 51. See also Seneca de ThmqdL AnimL Val. Max. viiL c 12. Cic 
de Orat. L jh. Flin. m c 87. In tbe three last places araiameiitariuin means a dock- 


A Description of a Silver Ring found on Towton Moor, in the County of 
York, in 1770, and presented by the Rev. William Turner to the 
Society, in a Letter to Mr. Adamson, Secretary. 

Scilicet et tempus ▼eniet, quum finibui illii 
Agricola, incunro terram molitui aratro, 
Exesa inyeniet scabrft rubigine pila» 
Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanet, 
Grandiaque effossis mirabitur ossa aepulchris. 


Dear Sir, 

The ^plication of these beautiful lines of Virgil, to the objects of 
our association, by your Brother Secretary, in his very appropriate 
introductory address, reminded me that I possessed a relic of one of 
the severest contests which ever took place among our countrymen, 
the famous battle of Towton, which terminated the civil war between 
the Houses of York and Lancaster. It was fought on Palm Sunday^ 
1461; the Lancastrian's had 60,000 engaged, the Yorkists 40,000; 
victory, however, declared in favour of the latter, and Rapin states, 
from the Chronicles of Hall and Holinshed, that 36,776 were left dead 
upon the field ; among whom were the Earls of Northumberland and 
Westmoreland, the Lords Dacres and Wells, Sir John Nevil, and many 
other distinguished persons. 

When 1 was a boy (I think about 1770), Towton Moor (an extensive 
district of open-field between Saxton and Towton, north-east of Aber- 
ford, near Ferrybridge,) was inclosed by act of Parliament. Many 
traces of the effects of this dreadful battle were discovered in every 
allotment, affording an ample commentary upon the lines at the head 


of this letter. Among others, the enclosed ring, which I beg leave to 
offer to the acceptance of the Society, was ploughed up, and brought 
for sale by the countryman who found it, to a silversmith in Wakefield, 
of whom my father purchased it. It is, you will perceive, a plain 
silver hoop, bearing on its outside the following inscription, fjjit ♦ tifllffr 

ttnxfi 4 tejc 4 jtineonim ♦ i- e. 

Jesus Nazarenus Rex Judaorum. 

Whether, from the nature of the inscription, it may be fair to argue, 
that it belonged to some ecclesiastical -person, I know not. It is well 
known, that many connected with the clerical profession did not scruple, 
in these times of disorder, to engage personally in military affairs.-— 
But it is by no means improbable, that laymen might choose to put 
themselves under the protection of some such sacred inscription as this. 
That it was adopted and worn, probably by some eminent person, as 
an amulet or charm, which it was hoped might preserve its wearer, is, 
at least, very probable. That it failed of its expected effect, the cir- 
cumstances, in which it was found, furnish a sufficient evidence. 
I am. Sir, with great respect. 

Your very obedient servant, 

Perof-street, August 4, 1813, 



An Account of a Saxon Coin of Ecgfritk, King qf Northumberland^ pre^ 
sented to the Society by the Rev. JOHN H0mGSON, Secretaryi 

See Plate VI. Fig. H. 

EcGFRITH began to reign in 670. He succeeded his father^ Oswy^ in 
the kingdom of Bernicia, and the people of Deira revolting against 
their Sovereign, Alfred bestowed the crown of their country on Ecgfrith, 
who thus obtained the sovereignty of all Northumberland. He was a 
warlike prince ; severely chastised the Picts and Mercians for invading 
his dominions ;. in 684 sent an army to conquer Ireland ^ but after 
sacriligiously destroying the monasteries there^ returned home, beaten, 
disgraced, and ruined. His attempts to enlarge his dominions, 
amongst the Picts, were equally unsuccessful; they drew him into 
defiles amongst their hills and mosses, surroujaded him, and, in an effort 
to save himself by cutting a passage through their ranks, slew him at 
Dumbarton on the 35th of May, 685. 

An inscription in the Wall of the Church of Jarrow says, that that 
edifice was dedicated to St. Paul on the 8th of the Kalends of May, in 
the 15th year of this Monarch. Monkwearmouth Monastery, the elder 
sister of Jarrow, was founded in 669; andEcgfrith endowed them both. 

Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, founder of Hexham Church, and a 
man of great activity of mind, and notoriety m church history, was 
peculiarly obnoxious to this Sovereign, who deposed him, and deprived 
him of his dignities during the greater part of his reign. 

Benedict Biscop, the founder of Jarrow and Monkwearmouth, ac- 
cording to Bede, was his favourite minister* 

This coin, in being of copper, neatly minted, and bearing the name 
of its Sovereign, has the usual character of Saxo-Northumbriaa coins ; 


but it differs from them in having a device and motto on its reverse^ 
instead of the moneyer's name. 

The reverse, I suppose to be a cross, surrounded by a glory, and the 
motto LUX. How this device is applicable to Ecgfrith's character, is 
not easy to be perceived. But it clearly enough points out the 
glorious light which the religion of the cross is calculated to throw upon 
the world. It was probably intended as a compliment to Ecgfrith about 
the commencement of his reign, when the christian religion was in a 
flourishing and popular state. 

Ecgfrith's name has been usually written Ecgfrid, by modem au- 
thors. The line of the inscription at Jarrow which mentions him is :— 
ANNO XV EGFRIDI REG. The Venerable Bede writes Ecgfridus; and 
Alfred, in his translation of Bede's history, has BcjjrjviB, Scjjrjiij^, 
and 6c3pe]\)> ; and on this coin it is ECCFRID. 

This coin, with a few others, was discovered in Heworth chapel yard, 
in a small earthen vessel, which I intend presenting to this Society, 
after I have gratified a few of my friends with inspecting it. All the 
coins, as far as I have cleared them of rust, are of the same King, and 
from the same die. 

They were found in a part of the chapel" yard, which had never been 
employed as burial ground ; and, I think, that the claim of this chapel, 
to be near!}'- contemporary with Jarrow, is, by" this discovery, pretty 
strongly established. 

Of the rarity of the coin, I think I may safely remark, that none 
other of the same monarch, or of several of his successors, have 
hitherto been found. Indeed, according to Pinkerton, it is upwards of 
150 years earlier than any other Saxo-Northumbrian coin known to be 
in existence. 



An Account of an Inscription on Falloxq/ield Felly in the County of 
Northumberland, by the Rev. JOHN HODGSON, Secretary. 

See Plate VI. Fig. E. 

On the middle ofFallowfield Fell, in the Parish of St. Johnlee, 
Northumberland, there is a long ridge of very hard sandstone rocks, 
which runs along the brow of a slightly elevated hill, in a direction 
nearly north and south, and fronting the east. While on a visit at 
Mr. Tulip*s, of Fallowfield, in July 1813, Mr. Atkinson, of Carr-hill, 
informed me that on the face of one of these rocks, which the country 
people there call the Written Cragg, he had once observed an in- 
scription, and obligingly oflFered to conduct me to it. It was readily 
found, and I then made the sketch of it, which stands at the head of 
this paper. It is about three furlongs south of the Roman Wall, and 
the ground about it is covered with ferns and heath. The inscription 
it bears is : Petra Flavi Carantini^^the Cragg of Flavus Carantinus. — 
The letters are deep and very legible 5 and from their form, appear to 
have been cut about the latter end of the first, or the beginning of the 

second, century. 

As far as I am acquainted, it has never been published. It is not, 
indeed, of much importance. Perhaps no historical inference can be 
drawn from it. Curiosity and resistance to the attacks of time may be 
all that it can boast. It, however, records to the present day, the name 
attached to the$e craggs, by a people, who, for many ages, denominated 
themselves the conquerors of the worid: but whether it was imposed 
on them, to point them out as the property of this Flavus Carantinus, 


to record some great achievement of him, to shew the place where he 
fell in battle, or was inscribed to gratify some whim or impulse of 
vanity by himself, are conjectures too minute, and connected with a 
period of time too distant, to render their discovery either useful or 



An Account of an Inscription discovered at Walwick Chesters, in the 
County of Northumberland, by the Rev. JoHN HODGSON, Secretary. 

See Plate VI. Fig. F. 

The tablet^ which bears this inscription, is broken into three pieces, 
and imperfect on the right side. The remains of it measures thirty- 
eight inches in length, and thirty-two inches in breadth. It was dis- 
covered some years since, at Walwick Chesters, in Northumberland ; 
and is, at present, in the possession of Nathaniel Clayton, Esq. of that 
place. The letters, which remain upon it, are very perfect, and the 
parts, which are blank, have been designedly erased. In its present 
mutilated condition, it is impossible to ascertain with certainty, the 
particular purpose for which it was erected ; but it is interesting, on 
account of the facts it contains, and the inferences deducible from it. 

It mentions an Emperor of Rome, who was grandson of Severus ; 
the second Ala of the Astures ; a person of the name of Marius Valerius ; 
the presence of a prefect called Septimus Nilus; and refers to something 
that, having been injured by time, had been rebuilt, and dedicated 
on the third of the Kalends of November, when Gratus and Seleucus 
were Consuls. 

Heliogabalus was grandson of Maesa, the sister of Severus, and 
styled himself DIVI SEVERI NEPOS. He began to reign in 218, 
and was slain on the tenth of March, 222. Gratus and Seleucus were 
Consuls in 221 : this inscription was, therefore, made on the thirtieth 
of October, in that year, and refers to Heliogabalus. After the death 
of an Emperor, who was hated, his name and titles were often erased 
from public monuments, a practice which accounts for the mutilations 
in this inscription. 


The Notitia Iittperii, a rereord, whieb mentions tranda<iti<ms wbich 
occnFred after the reign of the Emperor Theodoeius the First, and, 
consequently, after 375, enumerates the names of eighteen cities pet 
lineam Valli ; and particularizes the tank of the officers, and the names 
of the several divisions of the Roman army, by which they were gar- 
risoned. In the sixth of these cities, which it calls Cilurnum, and which 
answers to Walwick Chestqrs, it places the prefect of the second wing 
of the Astures (Prefectus Alaj secundae Asturum Cilurno), The coin- 
cidence, therefore, between this inscription and the Notitia, clearly 
proves that the ancient name of Walwick Chesters, was Cilurnum. A 
similar agreement ez'ists between the Notitia and inscriptions found at 
the stations at Benwell, Halton Chesters, Carrowbrugh, House Steads, 
Little Chesters, Burdoswald, and other stations on the line of the Wall. 

The Astures were a people of Spain : the first Ala of them was 
quartered at Benwell, and on an inscription belonging to that place, is 
called Ala prima Hispanorum Asturum, afid is cotipled with the name 
of Gdrdian. An inscription, discovered at iEsica, or Great Chesters, 
on the Wall, also mentions the second cohort of the Astures ; but the 
Notitia says cohors prima Asturum i£sica. 

The AlaB were auxiliary cavalry, and each of them consisted of four 
or five hundred horse, and were divided into ten turmae or troops. 

I conceive that the term vetustate referred to some edifice that had 
fallen into decay. The first Ala of the Astures rebuilt a temple at 
Benwell in the time of Gordian; and the second cohort of the same peo- 
ple re-edified a ruined granary, from the ground, at Great Chesters, in 
the time of Alexander Severus. The Emperor Gordian also rebuilt 
certain decayed barracks and magazines at Lanchester, and I appre- 
hend that the inscription in the crypt at Hexham, which has HORR .. .. 
upon it, relates to the repairs of some granary. It is worthy of remark 
that all these repairs were done nearly about the same time; and, I 
think, the term vestustate conlapsa, fallen together by time, implies that 
these edifices had acquired a very considerable age at the time they 
were rebuilt 


Perhaps the repairs, which this inscription records, were done by 
some part of the second Ala of the Astures, the name of which was in 
the plural number; and the four last lines, when perfect, stood in some 
such manner as the following. The titles and offices of the Emperor 
may be seen in several inscriptions in Gruter, Reiaesius> and other 


In Horsley's Britannia Romana, and in Gough's Camden, there are 
copies of two inscriptions of this kind, found at Lanchester, in both of 
which, the names of the propretor and the prefect, are in this mode of 
phraseology. I have inserted templum to agree with dedicaium, sup- 
posing that the flattery of the times had complimented this execrable 
Emperor and Priest of the Sun with some title of divinity, and dedi- 
cated a temple to him. 



An Account of two Bronze Figures discovered at the Roman Station near 
the Village of Bemoell, in the County of Northumberland, and pre- 
sented by Mr. JOHN Stanton to the Society. 

Extracts from Mr. Stanton's letter to the Society, which accompaf^' 
nied these figures: — The Priapus ** was found by me, August 17th, 
1813, when in company with our Treasurer, near the bottom of the 
inner ditch, on the east side of the station. It was so completely enve- 
loped in verdigrise that no part of the figure was discernible, except- 
ing where the legs were broken off by the stroke of the mattock. We 
sought for the feet, but without success. The back: part of the head 
was corroded away ; and the face was so much eaten with rust, that I 
did not attempt to recover it. The left hand, which broke off in at- 
tempting to clean it, was raised up, and the two first fingers pointed a 
little higher than the shoulders. The metal of this figure, when wet, 
was much softer than the coating of rust which enveloped it. 

The female Lar (see Plate IV, Fig. 2) was found by a mason in 
1812, near the bottom of the outer ditch, in a line due east from the 
place where the Priapus was found. This figure has been protected 
from the action of rust by a coat of gilding, a part of which still 
remains : it is, therefore, less corroded than the former : they were both 
restored by the graver. The seat upon which I have placed it is 
ideal, but adapted to its posture. Whether, in its original state, it was 
placed on something of the same kind, and which of the household 
deities it was intended to represent, I leave to the conjectures and de- 
termination of persons better skilled in these matters than myself." 


s 2 


Jn Account of an ancient Camp^ in the County of Cumberlandy in a 
L^tte?* from Mr. G. A. DlCKSON, to the Secretaries. 

See Plate VII. 


In the beginning of la$t month, when on an excursion into Cumber- 
land, I observed, in crossing over a wild and bleak common in the 
parish of West Ward, an appearance of entrenchm'ents, which, on 
examining it, I found to be one of the most singular remains of antiquity 
I have yet met with. I believe it has not been noticed by any writer 
on the antiquities qf Cumberland. Its dimensions are as follow : — 
















n o 






The line i 1 is a causeway; and I conceive that the semicircular 
place was a temple, and the great stone at m, the altar. 

This place goes by different names among the country people, being 
by some called " HEIGHT RiGG Camp," by others " Stone Raise 
Camp Trench ES.*'^ At half a mile distance, and in sight of this 
spot, is a tumulus ; and nearly the same distance further, four very 
large tumuli, placed so as to form a square : they are surrounded by 
several others of smaller size. 



An Account of a Brass Coin of the Emperor Hadrian, in a Letter 
from Mr. J. AjDAMSpN, Secretary^ to the Rev. J. Hodgson, 

See Plate IV. Fig. 4. 

I SEND you, for the iofipection of the Society, a coin of the Emperor 
Hadrian, in middle brass, which was found many years ago in one of 
the principal Roman stations in Northumberland; and which, 1 think, 
from the local connection between the Society and the history of 
Hadrian, will be interesting to the members. 
The coin bears the following legend :~- 


and at the feet of the figure BRITANNIA. Eckhell, in his Doctrina 
Nummorum Veterum, thus describes it : — 

BRITANNIA. S. C. mulier sedens, dextero pede rupibus imposito ; 
sinistra caput sustentans d: hastam gerit, cubito 
in praegrandem clypeum innixo. 

All the Roman coins which relate to Britain, and which form a 
curious historical series, are of considerable rarity, especially those 
on which the province is pereonated. Some, which I have had an 
opportunity of inspecting, have been in a very indifferent state of pre« 
servation, which circumstance gives additional value to that in my 
possession, which, although struck nearly 1700 years ago, and pro- 
bably to commemorate the arrival of the Emperor in Britain, may 


be said to be nearly perfect. The coin is covered with a rich case of 
green patina. 

An imperfect coin, similar to mine, is mentioned as having been in 
Mr. Thoresby's Museum, and is thus noticed : — 


** . POT. COS. III. SL c. exergue Britannia. 

" The Emperor Hadrian came into the Island An. 123, and having 
reduced the Britains, built the noted wall to separate this part from 
Scotland. Upon this very choice medal Britain is represented sitting 
upon a shield, with a spear in her band, as that in Speed's Chron. p. 
96. I am sorry I could not learn where it was found ; but the man 
who paid it in his fee-farm rents to the Lord of the Manor had slipped 
away before I perceived it, that he might not be obliged to change 
it." * 

In the first volume of Camden, in the plate of Roman coins relating 
to Britain, there is an ill-executed engraving of a coin differing from 
mine in the following particulars only, viz. the figure is the same, 
excepting a trifling difference in the shield, which difference, and the 
variety in the legend, are probably owing to a mistake by the person 
who copied it. It reads, 


Dec. 12, 1816. 

* See Whitaker's edition of Tlioresby 's Ducatus Leodiensis— Catalogue of Antiquities. 

^y//////////^//j ^ y^vr/////^ e //r///'^ <z/o/?/^r/y//<^ 


An Account of the Seal of the Nunnery of St. Bartholomew^ at Neuh 
castle upon T^ne, in a Letter from Mr. J. T. Brockett, to the 
Council of the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle upon Tyne. 

See Plate VIII. 

Having lately been so fortunate as to add to my collection of an- 
cient seals, an uncommonly fine impression of that of the Nunnery 
of Saint Bartholomew, the Apostle, in this town, I thought it too great 
a curiosity to remain unknown ; and, therefore, caused an engraving 
to be made of it by Mr. Lambert. At first I struck off fifty impres- 
sions, for private distribution amongst my friends, intending at a future 
period, when leisure permits, to present them with a detailed account 
of the nunnery itself. In the mean time I beg your acceptance of 
two hundred copies of the engraving to accompany your Transactions. 
I am not aware of the existence of any other impression of the seal so 
perfect, Mr. Brand having been unable to obtain more than a mere 
fragment ^ and that fragment is either unfaithfully executed, or must 
be a different seal altogether. See Sind Plate of Seals, No. 3, in 
Brand's History of Newcastle, Vol. II. p. 184. 

The seal appears to have been formerly appendant to some deed. 
It is in red wax, and represents Saint Bartholomew under a canopy 
lifting up his right hand, and holding in his left the knife with which 
he was flayed alive. 

It gives me great satisfaction to say, in conclusion, that the artist I 
employed has executed his work in a very correct and elegant manner. 

Albion-Place, SOth Dec. 1816. 



De Annub aureo Runicis Characteribus signato, ntiper in Anglia invento, et 
pluribus ejusdem Generisy brevis Dissertation Auctore FiNNO Magnu- 
SON, Professore Havniensi, 8Cc. 8Cc. 8(c. ad JOHANNEM Hodgson, 
Sec. A.S. Pontis JElii, per literas missa. 


Inventus est hoc auno (1818), et Junio mense carreote in prato 
palustri Kin^s Moor (regia palude) dicto, prope Carleolvniy Cambriae 
metropolin, annulus aureus, in ephemeridibus pluribus MagnaeBritan- 
niae accurate descriptus et delineatus. Characteres Runicos vel 
Gothicos, quos annulus ille sculptos exhibet, sic explicare conatus sum. 
Lineam totam extraneam ita lego : 


intraneam autem : '^N b i, e. 


Singula 7erba sic illustranda putavi : 

t) Itililt : Literae hae indubiae sunt, excepta sola /K. Valet saepis- 
sime in Runis Scandinavicis R finale, quam artifex hie inter duas alias 
ejusdam speciei literas vix reprsesentare voluit. Puto ipstim scripsisse 
iK pro \|/, M nempe Runico pro Scandinavorum more. Sic dictio erit 
ORMR, et nomen inter eos valde frequentissime usurpatur. 

In Runis Germanicis /K interdum legendum est K, et verbum nos- 
trum, si istud alphabethon sequi malimus, ORKR. 

Itll^t JUFL vel JOFL. Scandinavorum veteri sermone, secundum 
orthographicas eorum regulas post Latinas literas receptas: JARL vel 
J ALL. Observandum igitur quod D vel U saepe in Runicis ponatur 
pro N vel O, sed Dani rurales pronuntient a ut o lene ex. gr. Faar 
vel For pro scripto Far. RL vel LL in voce JARL peculiari pronun- 
tiationis modo profertur, quasi dixeris JAFL, quod Cimbris Juticis 
certe sonuerit JOFL et erit ideo nostri JOFL vel JUFL.* 

Vox ista IsK JARL, J ALL; A.-S. Eorh Angl. Earl; Cambro-Brit, 
jarll; Alaman. £r/, comitis dignitatem denotavit. Finnis et Lapponi- 
bus Jallo sonat egregius, strenuus; alii vocem deducere tentaveruut a 
Graeco mxy<m, emitto, cum comites regum saepe fuerint emissarii. 

'l^ftKI TRIGI, Isl. triggi, iryggi, irijggvi, i. e. fidelis, fidus, cog- 
nominis modo positum. K abbreviatur pro IK vel IG, cum ambae 
literae in Runicis eodem charactere (V) repraesententur. In Uteris 
Celto-Ibericis L saepe adhibetur pro Latinornm C, Gra^corum K. 

li Isl. A (pronuntiatum AU) hie adverbium loci, in vel de. 

kI^|9i>X RlldONH. RIDONH, vel Vlt^ONH autVIDONH, 
cum prima litera ambigua duci potuerit. Caeterum ultima X (proprie 
H) saepe in Runis Scandinavicis et Germanicis ponitur pro C vel G, uti 
H ipsum in veteri Teutonum sermone. Lego igitur Ridong, Redong vel 
Readong, uti Reading vel Reding (adhuc usitatum), vel Vidang (campus 
sylvestris), Viddng (planities ampla), Feidang (regio venatoria). Nuper 
nobis innotuit quod Normanni Neustriam occupantes, nova nomina e 

* M ercatores Dant in Islandia indigenarum nomina propria rescribentes sic pro Biorn 
vel Biaurn scribunt Biodn^ Biodtn / Hadla^ Hatla^ Hqfla, Harla pro Halla^ &c. 


propria lingua deducta, locis ibisitis imposuerint; Danes primes Ang-* 
liae partes subjugantes idem fecisse, non est adeo improbabile.* 

l^t'F/^F'Wt'^* Toktnoson vel Toktoson^ Toktnason (Toctae vel 
Toctonis filius)* Litera quarta e duabus composita videtur (^ et h) 
nisi sculptoris mendo lineola obliqua characteri ^ affixa, adscribenda 

X A: possidet. Verbulum ab Islaudis adhuc frequenter adhibi- 
tum, cum res varias sibi proprias eo designare soleant post primarias 
propriorum nominum literas^ ex. gr. G. J. S. A. (Grimr Jons Son a). 
Grimus Jonae^lius pomd^t — annulnm vel aliud quantivb pretii utensile. 

Interior annuli pars continet singulam voculam '^N h (instrumen- 
tum, res fabricata, cimelium). 

Sonus et sensus verborum inscriptionis e mea sententia sic igitur 


Ormus') Comes jfidus Toknoefilius de Ridong 

vel V 
Orkus. ) A TOL. 

possidet cimelium (hocce.) 

Cum quseramus quis iste annuli possessor fuerit^ imprimis observari 
debet nominis ipsius ambigua lectio. Nam, 

I. Si legamus ORKR, i. e. ORIKR, OIRIKR, recentioribus 
EYRIKR (Ericus), hosce ejusdem nominis heroes in Anglia notos 
novimus : 

(•) Orrik (Orik^ Orkjy filius Horsii, Celebris Anglo-Saxonum ducis, 
dicitur in Northumbria cum Frothone 6^ bellum gessisse circa annum 

(^) Orkr, Ore vel Oric, fuit Canuti magni Thegn fThegen, That/nils^ 
Thanusjy i. e. nobilis miles, comiti dignitate proximus, et baronibus 

* Nolo lectori reticere quod hiec et proxime antecedens yox sic legi queant, Dlt 
I |>^ t^i^X- UR (de) IDONH vel ID0N6» IDANG, EIDAKG» tunc simititer, ut puto» 
nomen loci proprium, poMOssoris nativi vel addicti indicaatei* 


inferioris notae praestantior. Veraacula lingua se Danus hicce Jarkim, 
vel comitem, vocare sane potuit. Fuit anno 1023- oeconomus dicti 
Regis, qai ei tunc donavit praedium, postea monasterium Abbotsbury 
in provincia Dorsetensi. Existit de eo diploma circa villam Porti-^ 
sham ab anno 1024. Invenimus prseterea comitem Danum nomine 
Orguil vel Orkuil^ certe quidem a librariis corrupto, cassum cum qua* 
tuor aliis ad oppidum Ashdawn, in Essesia, tempore Alfredi Regis 
anno 871. 

II. Accepta lectione Orwir, hi ejusdem nominis principes nobis in 
Magnae Britanniae vetustiore historia occurrant : 

(•) Ormusy comes (jalljy de Anglia dicitur eduxisse viraginenr Gothi- 
cam //^i;araw juniorem. Vixit e conjecturaSubmii* circa annum 540. 

(^) OrmuSy Anglus, fertur sub Danorum Rege Haraldo Hildifatmo 
militavisse in praelio Bravallensi anno 7SS. 

(y) Orm2<^, comes (jarl) Northumbriae et Deirae, floruit annis 941 et 
43. Ejus filia nupta fuit Amlafo, Ostmannorum in Hibernia R^gi. 
Cum Northumbria Cumbriae vicina sit, non est a vero absitnile, quod 
annulus nosterOrmo huic comiti proprius fuerit. 

Certum alias est quod Dani et Norvegi multa et longinqua belia 
gessenint. in Northumbria et Cnoibria. Sic hujus metropolin Carleo- 
htm circa annum 875 Danipenitus destruxere.t 

Mirandum sane duco, quod ante aliquot, forte multos, annos, alter 
aureus annulus, partem prsecedentis inscriptionis continens, in Magna 
Britannia inyentos sit. Vidit eum ibi, vel 'saltem inscriptionis delinea- 
tionem nactus est, tir. celeberrimus et doctissimus Orimns Johnson, 
ThorkeUny Regi Daniae a coosiliis status PP. Descriptio annuH et 
aliae de ejus origine et fatis annotationes perierunt, cum ipsius prasstan- 
tissima bibliotheca et musaeo in flammis ol^sidioiw Hayoiensis, anno 
1807; miserat tamen illustriasimo no0tro optimati Johanni de Buhw^ 
ordinis elephantini equiti aurato, &g. inscriptionis tale apographum i 

♦ Histonf of Denmark, LSSS. 

f PinkertonU Enquiry into the History of Scotland, Sfc. Ed. 2. ISH, L 80. 




Ormrjarl trifggij a Ridong^ Sc. /^Vel ur Ridong^ &c. vide supra.) 

Pro annuli primi 4< hie habet M, nempe G in Runis-saxonicis secun- 
dum Hickesium. Vox vel voces Hlostosotnol aut Glostosotnol mihi sunt 
penitus ignotsB; num Cambrico, Gaelico vel Saxonico sermoni ad- 
scribendae sint, doctiores philologi videant. 

Sic amborum annulorum possessor unus ei idem fuisse videtur. 
Quomodo id fieri posset illustrare tentabo. Annuli aurei^ incriptioni* 
bus aut figurts signati, a veteribus literarum, vel chartarum, nostrarum 
loco usitabantur. Sic sponsus mulieri pro sponsionis, dominus servo 
pro manumissionisj documento annulum dedit^ ut caetera taceam. 
Tesserae loco annuli saepe adhibiti sunt, et plenipotentiarhim, e legitimo 
mandate agentem, probabant; sic ex. gr. Leges Baivar. Tit. 2, § 14, 
'^ Si quis jussionem ducis sui contemserit, vel signum quale visus fuerit 
Dux transmittere, aut annulum aut sigillum, si neglexerit, venire/' &c. 
Annulus pro Uteris missus in veterrimis Scandorum poematibus occur- 
rit.* Praeterea Reges et Duces eorum vasallis, militibus et poetis suis, 
annulos aureos frequenter donavere. Necesse igitur fuit, ut idem prin- 
ceps multos tales possideret. 

Minime nobis in hac dissertatione omittendus est tertius aureus 
annulus, descriptus et depictus ab Hickesio (in Thesaur. Antt. I. xiii. 
Tab. 17.) Signatus/ost Runis et Uteris Anglo-saxonicis vel inscriptione 
hacce : — 

• Edda Antiquior, Tom II. Havn. 1S18, pp. 287. 376. 271. pp. unde ex alia tradi- 
tione» Runae ipei, vel tabulae affixae» incnae, vel comitantes fiiisse videntar. In antiqtiie 
Monumentis Medo-Perticis videmui annulum pro imperii aymbolo positum. Vid. Heeckii 
At ilHs librum^ ed. Goettings, 1818. Irto. Tab. 2. pag. 31> sq. 



Odred ) ( HEUNRED) 

vel V MEC Ai vel V MEC A GROF. 


i. e. Edred me possidet, Heanred me calavit. 

Hickes sic legit :— 

JEdred meca Heanred mec a grofU 

Mdredus conjux Henredae me calavit ; i. e. calari jussit. 

Ultimus inscriptionis character nuUi literae similis apparet, et dis- 
tiuctionis tantummodo signum esse videtur. Verba indubitanter 
veteri Daoorum (hodierno Islandorum) sermone composita sunt, et 
grammaticis ejus regulis optime conveniunt. Edred et Heanred sunt 
nomina propria virilia Anglo-saxonico more expressa; illud eidem genti 
frequens ; hoc autern Scandinavis Hunrwdr sonuit. 


An Account of an Inscripiion found near Bihchcster, in the County of 
Durham^ communicated to ]lf R. AdamSON, Secretary^ by Ph. Orkney 
Skene, Esq. 




Diis Manibus Sacrum. Nemmontanus Decius vixit annos quadraginta ; 
Nemmontanus Sanctus frater et coheredes ex testamento fecerunt. 

Dear Sir, Durham, July \st, 1819. 

1 HE stone, of which I send you this drawing, was observed a few 
Weeks since by my brother William and myself, on the road from 
fiinchester to Byer's Green. It forms part of a raised footway adjoin* 
ing to a foot bridge over the small stream called the Bell Burn, about 
a quarter of a mile north of the station at Binchester. The length of 
the stone is four feet, and its breadth one foot and seven inches. 
I am. Dear Sir, 

Your very obedient humble servant, 

To Mr. Adamson. 


Papers relative to the Plot in the Norths in 1663, extracted by the Rev. 
John Hodgson, Sec. from the 31 st Volume of the Mickleton and 
Spearman Manuscripts, presented bj/ the Rev. GEORGE Wasey, M. A. 
to the Hon. and Right Rev. Shute, Lord Bishop of Durham, and 
by him presented, in 1817, to the Library founded by Bisliop Cousin, at 

*«* ^^ Upon the whole it it pretty dear from theee letters (Miscellanea Aolica) that a 
rising had been concerted ; but then it is as clear, that it ought rather to have ezdted the 
scorn than the apprehensions of GoTemment ; that like all the rest of these wretched pro- 
jects, it had been countenanced by none but levellers, disbanded oflkers, and desperate 
enthusiasts, all of them persons of mean condition, without parts, power, credit, or interest, 
and that the very zeal of the people was sufficient to secure the peace of the Government, 
without the assistance of mercenary foreigners or additional penal laws/' 

Rev. of the Reigm t^K. Ch. II, Sfc. Vol. I. P. 98. 


We receaved yo' L**^ Letters^ and haue sent coppies of thein to the 
Lord Widdrington : we haue likewise sent to such Dep*- Leu^ as are 
neare vs to meete to-morrow, and we shall presently secure all sus- 
peckted persons in our county. We gite yo' L*'*' our hartie thanks 
for yo' intelligence, and humbly begg to heare from yo' L**^* as yo' 
L**^ shall see occation. We are. My Lord, 

Yo' L**^ humble Searvants, 

The 9th of August, 63. Ra. JEN'ISON. 

For the Right Reverend Father in God John Lord 
Bishopp of Durham, this with speed. 



My Lord, 
In order to y* preservac'on of the quiett of this place, we have issued 
out warrants for examining and securing all persons here that cannot 
give a good account of their busenes. If we can discover any matters 
worthy yo' Lo^'p^ acquaintance, we shall give you speedy notice, desir- 
the same favour from yo' Lo**** if there be occasion, and in all things 
requisite we shall be very diligent, who are, my Lord, y' Lo*"** humble 

Newcastle, 9 Aug. 63. HEN. BRABANT. 

To the Right Reverend Father in God John Lord 
Bishopp of Durham^ this with speed. 

Northumberland. — The Examination of Thomas Marshall^ of Wallis 
Walls y in the said County y Yeoman^ taken before vs^ the 12 Day of 
Nouemb'r, in the xv Year of his Matties Reigne, 1663. 

Who being examined upon his oath saith, that he knows Thomas 
Harrison, of Stockley, mentioned in y* information, and that he was at 
his this exam* house, and lodged there on Symon and Jude day at night, 
and being askt if he did not tell the s'd Thomas Harrison that seuerall 
of his neighbo'* had been from home w*** arms, and that they were new- 
ly returned, saith that he knowes of none that were abroad at that tyme, 
save onely one Joseph Hopper, that lives about Ebchester bridge end, 
but wheather he had armes w** him or not, or where he was when he 
was from home he saith he knows not, and being further examined, he 
saith that one Thomas Richardson, of Crooke Oake, came into this 
exa* yard, and tould him that several men neighbo" that liu'd there- 


abouts were abroad w* ther armes, and they suspectted they were 
ingaidged in this plott. 

Capt' cora' nobis His Mark. 




Northumberland. — The Examinac'on of Thos. Richardson^ of Crookt 
Oaksy taken vpo^ oath the 16 Day of Nov. 1663, before us. 

Being examined, what neighbo^ & who they were that he informed 
Tho« Marshall were abroad w* theire armes, & y^ were suspected to 
be in a plott; confesseth that he told Thos* Marshall that John Wil- 
kinson told him that Joseph Hopp' was and had beene abroad w^ his 
horse and armes, and that there were some men vpo' Horsebacke w** 
swords seene rydding by, over at Ebchester and Shotley bridge this 
exam* knoweth not whither, & that he the s' Jo. Wilkinson told this exam' 
that he feared the s^ Joseph Hopp' was w^ them,and further confesseth not. 

Taken and sworn before vs 

Northumberland. — The Exam' of Joseph Hopp' of Ebchesterbridgend 
taken vp& oath before vs the I6th day Nou' 1663. 

Beeing exam* where he was for a long time together, when neither 
his wife nor any of his neighbo'* knew where he was confesseth and saith 


that he was abroad five weeks together & at Ireland to see some friends 
he has ther & that he would not acqu^ his wife herewith for he knew she 
would be vnwilling to let him go, & saith also y* he knew not of any 
neighbo' that was abroad, & it is made app' to us by Jeronimiah Clark 
whose husband lives in Ireland, y' he this exam' was w^ her in Ireland 
& they returned fro* thence together : & further confesseth nott : taken 

Northumberland. — The Informatio' of John Wilkeson of Laings 
Looneingy in the Countie afores'dy taken before vs the 27. day of November, 

Who vpon his oath saith, that about ffowre or ffive weekes since, 
being at Black-hedley, and being in company v/^ one George Proud 
of Ebchester Bridgend, he heard him say that he had heard that seuerall 
persons in Wearicshire, were gathered together, and some there askeing 
of them what was the reason of there meeting together, they answered 
that if any came to oppose them, they would give an answer, and after- 
wards they did disperse, but how long they continued together this 
informer saith he did not inquire, neather doth he know of any that 
was there present, or that was ingaidgd in the late horid plott, and 
discoursing further w** him, he heard the s* Proud say, that some men 
(and as he best remembers he spoke of two onely) came ouer there 
ffoard w^ broad swords, and this informer demanding of him who they 
were, he tould him this informer, that it mattered not who they were, 
for there would be more heard aftterwards, and further can'ott informe. 

Cap*- cor nobis. 




Northumberland. — The If^ortnatio' ef George Proud of Ebchester* 
bridge-end^ webster, taken before vs the first day of DecemhW^ 1663. 

Who saith vpon his oath, that being in Company w^ one John Sur- 
tis of the high field, about five or six weekes since, at a place called the 
hoUins in the Countie^afore^ he heard the s'd Surtis say, that he was neare 
vnto wearickshire, and heard some therabouts say, that there was two 
troupps of horse that weere in armes there, and the country people 
demaunding of them, what ther occassion was to draw together, they 
said if any had a mind to oppose them, they would lett them know 
what they mett for, but the Country thinking to rise vpon them, they 
presently disperst, and being asktt if he this informer knew of any 
that was at that meeting, saith he knew nothing more than what he 
heard Surtis say, and being further asktt what these two p'sons weare 
(w*^ John Wilkinson did informe) that this George Proud should say 
came ouer there ffoard with broad swords, he saith that he bad bene 
abroad sheareing, and comeing home, his daughter tould him that ther 
had bene two men w*"* broad swords, in there neighbor Hoppers house 
that aftternoone, or some part that day, and that one of them was like 
to Joseph Hopper, w** had bene away from home for some tyme before, 
and therupon this informer went in to inquire wheather the s'd Hop- 
per was one of them or not, but Hoppers wife replyd her husband was 
not comd home ; neather did she know who they two weare, for they 
onely came in there and lightted a pipe of Tobacko, and went ther wayes 
and further saith nott. 

His Mark. 

Cap** cor nobis 


Northumberland. — The ExaminatV of John Suirtisof higlifield in 
the County aforesaid taken before vs the 4. dayofDeeemVr 1663. 

Who being examined saith, that being in werickshire about six 
weeks agoe and being a suittor to a young weoman, whome since that 
tyme he haith married, goeing into the house . of one Christopher 
Browne of Newbottle in the county of Durham, and asking of him, 
what newes he heard, the s* Browne tould him, that there was towards 
two troopes of horse drawen together in werickshire, but they knew not 
w* they were, and that the constable George Wilson was goeing to 
raise the trained bands to see what kynd of men these were & further 
saith not, JOHN X SUIRTIS 

His mark. 
Capt* cor' nobis 

We received an informatio' of Thomas Harrisons from the hands of 
the Maior of Newcastle, w* was taken in yo' County, concerning 
some w* us, w** were suspected to be in the laite plott, and haueing 
made the best inquiry concerning it that we could (as yo" may per- 
ceiue by the informations heren^ sent yo' L'shipp) and now haueing 
traic'd it as farr as wee can in o' County, and fynding the remainder 
of it, to be lodged w* Christopher Browne of Newbottle, in yo' County, 
we leaue the further progress therein to yo' L*"shipps consideration, 
and desire to remayne 

My L* 

Yo' L'shipps most humble seru" 

Newcastle the 15th JAMES OGLE 

of Decemb' (63) RA. JEN'ISON. 


Calenders of the Prisoners cotifined in the High Castle in Newcastle upon 
Tyne, at the Assizes for Northumberland in the years 1628 and 1629. 
Communicated by the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary. 

♦^« This article is an extract from Sir Thomas Swinburne's account of his SheriffiJty in the 
years 1628 and 1629 ; and is taken from a volume of the Mickleton Manuscripts. 


His Ma'ties Jus- Xhe kalenderof all the prisoners now remayneing in his 
tices of peace ^^,^ ^^^j^ ^^ pjj^j^ ^^^j^ ^^^ flFelony and other capital! 

offences deliu'ed vnto S' James Whitlock and S' Henry 
Yellverton his ma^** Judges of this assizes houlden att 
Newcastle this xij^ daye of August an* R. R's Caroli 
Anglie &c. quarto an* dn'i 1628. 

Sir WiDiam Car- 1 . William Wawgh for suspcc'ou of the stealeing of John 

"* ^ ' Gil Patrick's purse w** v'* x*^ in it as by mittimus the ix* 

of August 1623 appeareth and reprived before iudgement. 

S' John Dela- 2, John Lumlcy charged w*" the felonious breakeing of 

** ® ** the house of Richard Browne and for takeing out of the 

same certeine linnyng & woollen clothes as by mittimus 

the xxvij*** of July 1624 appeareth and reprived after 


Comit by his 
Ma'ties Justices 
att the SesttODs 
att Morpeth 5to 
Julij Ao' 30 R. R. 

Morpeth att Ses- 
tioQ the xvjth 
Januarij 1637. 


3, 4, 5, 6. William Thirlewall gent. Thomas Bates & 
David Donoldson yeomen & Jane Grey spinster. All 
of them committ for refuseing to take the oath of ale- 

7, 8. Thomas Beadnell of Lemedon gent, and George 
Beadnell of the same Esq' stand indicted for the murder 
of Lewees Hedley yeom* commit by his Ma^ Justices of 
peace att the sessions. 

S' John Claus- 
ing Kf- 

9. James Marshall late of Whitside laborer charged 
w^ the murdering of George Marshall his own child w^ 
he hath confessed. 

Com' by Mr Jo. 
Oelayale coroner 
the zi^b of May 

10. Edward Downeinges late of Rederiff in the County 
of Kent marriner who by inquisic'on taken before John 
Delavale gent, one of the coroners of this County is found 
guilty of manslaughter for the felonious killing of Thomas 

S' Jo. Deiaraie 1 1. Mathcw Hall late of the towne & County of New- 
Mni|0 le Oc- ^gyji-jg vpon Tyoc laborer, charged w** suspec'on of the 
felonious stealing of one red lyard mare from Anthony 
Woodman of Elstwick. 

S^ John Oeki- 
vale knight the 
25th of August 

IS, John Reed of Kelloburne w%n this county yeom' 
taken by S' John Delavale knight and charged w^ the 
felonious stealing of xxx*^ sheepe the goodes of Edward 
Delavale of Alnewick castle gen* and w^^ the felonious 
stealeing of ffower kyne the goodes of Rob'te Dalton of 
Wetsled w*^n the same County gent*. And likewise 
charged w^ the felonious stealeing of ffive kyne and one 
stott, the goodes of John Johnson of Prestick, and for 


diverse felonyes comtnitted t^Trin the Cotinty of Yorke 
and Bishoprick of Durham. 

y ^n FMnrkk The said John Reed charged w*h the! stealing of a clunu 
iw7^ ^*^ mare from Newham, the go6des of Robert Feowick of 
the same towne for the w^ he standeth iddicted. 

Clerk 15 of Sep- 

Cathb^ Ridley, 
Clark the 18 of 
June 1698. 

Ciiilibert Rjwfly 
97^ Joajl 16S8. 


13. Roger Dodd late of the Shaw^e charged w*^ the 
felonious stealeing of a black mare the prop' goodes of 
Cuthbert Hearon Esq'. 

14. Thomas Cttrrey of the Hight in the same County 
charged w^^ the felonious stealeing of a Dunn mare and 
a black pyled gray foale the proper goodes of Lyonell 
Shipley of the Snape : The said Thomas Curry hath 
confessed he had the same mare and foale, and sould 
them to another in the yeare of our Lord 1624. 

15. Nicholas Robson of Newcastle upon Tyne tayler 
suspeciously taken w*** a lyard, or roaned horse, rydeing 
vpon w^hout brydle or sadle» and carrying him as he 
saieth to one John Nixon of the Parke in *Newcastle 
dale in the County of Cumberland a man of evill fame 
and behaviour as by mitt' appeareth. 

Hio. Midleton 
Esqr 70 Julij 

16. Gerrard Charleton taken for the felonious stealeing 
of a black mare the goodes and Chatties of Thomas Mid« 
dleton Esq' as by mitt* appeareth. 

S^ John Clan*- 
iogk't the second 
of Angoat 16S7. 

17. John Brewes of Black Heddon charged w«^ the 
stealeing of xxxviij sheepe the goodes and Chattells of S' 
John Selby knight. And lykewise charged w*^ his felo- 
nious escape out of his ma^* prison in the High Castle 


S' iriU'm Mut- 
champ k't 170 
die Decemb^ 

S' JohnDelavale 
k*'iecundo Maij 

being the common gaole for this county as appeareth by 

18. James Walker of Lucker in the same county la- 
borer charged w^ the felonious stealing of ffower sheepe 
the goodes of Nicholas Lynsey of Lucker aforesaid, one 
of w^ sheepe is found w**" him and vpon his examina'- 
con he hath confessed the stealeing thereof as appeareth 
by Mittimus: 1627. 

19. Henry Robson laborer for the felonious stealeing 
of one ewe and one sheepe hogg the goodes of Edward 
Selby and John Forster of Newlandes w*hin this County 
w^^ in his examinac'on he hath confessed as by mitt*^ 

S' Wm'm Miu. 
champ k" 5co die 
Julij 1628. 

Cuthbert lUdley 
Clerk 19® Julij 

20. Qeorge Bell late of Headon in the p*ish of Newton 
and countye of Northumb'land charged w*^ the felonious 
stealeing of certeine sheepe of S' John Selbyes k*. and 
John Strothers Esq' for w*^ sev'all felonyes he was for- 
merly taken and escaped from the officers of Kyllham as 
by mittimus appeareth. 

21. Jane Robson wife of Mathew Robson of Leeplish 
in the libertyes of Tyndale and County 6f Northumb'- 
land^ charged w^^ the felonious killing of Mabell Robson 
the wife of George Robson of Leeplish aforesaid bis 
brother in lawe by sorcery or witchcraft as by mittimus 
&c. appeareth. 

Removed by his 22. Christopher Dennyson charged w'** the murder of 
der the seie of John Hudspeth the Sonne of Thomas Hudspeth of Cor- 
jurticeoftbfic! brigg w'hin this County yeom' & removed from hi& 


bench, and the ma'^^ gaole att Westcbester by vertue of bis Ma^*"^ writt 
WhftfoS j!l4^ directed to the Sheriffe of tbe said County dated tbe ij* 
dr^e«^ for this j^iij ai^o quarto R. R's Caroli nunc Anglie &c. for w"* 
fact be fledd tbitber. 

Remofedby writt 23. Edward Dennyson cbarged w^^ tbe said murder and 

n sup'a removed from bis ma**" gaole att Carlyle tbere kept for 

bis ma**** County of Cumberland into w*** county be ffled 

and tbere was apprehended, removed hither by vertue of 

bis ma**** writt dated vt sup*. 

Cuthbert Hearon 

Qlithbert Hearoa 

24. George Coxon of Rukeing charged w'b tbe steale* 
ing of six sheepe one whereof is challenged w*h him. 
The goodes of Tho : Browne of Ramsbawe. 

25. Gerard Coxon of Rukeing aPs Hint cbarged w*^ 
tbe felonious receipt of Rob'te Ellet aPs Hobb of Cock- 
shawe scottishman a great theefe who at that tyme was 
suspected w*** tbe stealeing of a gray mare the goodes 
of Willia' Dowges of Dowges burne. 

S' John Clau'- 

S' John CUni'- 
ing k*t. 84«» Julij 

Moipeai Xfj u of 
July 16S8 

26. George Maughlin of Hartside charged w*h tbe 
murtbering of one Raiph Browne of Hartside as by mit- 
timus appeareth. 

27. Bartram Mauglin charged w*^ the felonious mur- 
tbering and killing of the said Raiph Browne as ap- 
peareth by his mittimus. 

28. Micbaell Elsden of tbe Mote committ from tbe 
last Sessions w'»>out either baile or mainprise being taken 
vpon a capias awarded from tbe last Sessions vpon an 
indictement for felony viz* for stealing of Cattle. 

By the bench 29. William Hall of Reavenscleugh. 

T. SWINBURN vie'. com\ North^V. 

NORTHUMB]ER: 1628.-7%^ Judent from Mr Gilby Clerk of the said 

Assizes, 1628. 

Delib'acio Gaole d'ni Regis com* sui Northumbr* tent' apud cas- 
trum Novi Castri sup* Tinam in com' p'dict' die Mercurij decimo 
tercio die Augusti Anno Regni d'ni n'ri Caroli dei gr'a Anglie Scotie 
Franc' et Hib'nie Regis fidei defensor' &c. quarto. Coram Jacobo 
Whitlock mil' vno Justiciar' dicti d'ni regis coram ip'o rege tenend' 
assign' et Henrico Yelverton mil' vno Justiciar' diet' d'ni Regis dp 
Banco: Justiciar' ad assis' et gen'al' gaole delib'ac'onem in Com' 
p'dict', necnon ad diu'sa felon' transgr' et al' malefa'ta in eod' com' 
p'petrat' audiend' et tern^inand' : Ac ad gaola ilia de prisonar' in ea 
existen' lib'and' assign' &c. 

No^ia eor^ qui habent JudiciiC 
suspend^ jf Collum. 

Christopher Dennyson 

Edr'us Dennyson 

Ambrosius Dennyson 

Nicholas Robson 

Thomas Currye 

Matheus Hall. 

Nomina Clericorum. 

Thomas Snawdon 

Will'mus Morrison 

Thomas Rea^* 

ad Nomina eor' qui sunt cur de parvo 
Vrocinii etjlagilland*. 

Jacobus Walker 
Georgius Coxon 
Edwf^rdus Spraggon 
Wijrpms Cburban. 

Nomen eius qui respectatur a pena 
pro Carnifice, 

Henricus Bobson. 


Nomina eor' qui liVantur p' procla- 

Jennetta Robson 
Gerrardus Coxon 
Georgius Maughlin 
Bartramus Maughlin. 

Nomina eor* qui sunt non cuV. 
Thomas Beednell 
Georgius Beednell sen* 
Rob'tus Beednell 
Georgius Beednell jun* 
Cuthb'tus Wanlas 
Rob'tus Little 
Anthonius Little 
Elizabetha Beednell 
Edwardus Downes 
N4ch'us Chesbrough 
Joh'es Wallis 
Michael Elsden 
Andreas Pringle 
Anthonius Hall 
Joh*es Hangingshawe 
Edwardus Hall ^obP p' se bene 
Georgius Hall ^g^r^^d*. 
Simo Robson 
Alexander Stevenson 
Georgius Bell 
Joh'es Dixon 
Reynold Browne 
Joh'es Elsdon 
Radius Hall 
Radius Anderson 
Roger' Dodd 

Nomina tov^ quip'donmif f speeiaP 

Wiirmus Waugh 
Joh'es Lumley 

Nomina eor* qui obligand^ sunt vsq; 
ad p*xim* assVas p' se bene 

WiU'mus Hall IndicU^' 

Joh'es Read 

Gerardus Charleton 

Wai'mus Hall 

Greorgius Tate 

Thomas Hall ) compMom' 

AnthoniusGlenwright \ Whitlock. 

Nomina eor' qui remanand^ sunt in 
prisona sine BalFio. 

Joh'es Brewes 
Jacobus Marshall 
WiU'mus Thirlewall 
Thomas Bates 
Jennetta Gray 
David' Donaldson. 

Nomen eius qui committiir p* cur* 
pro extorc^one pro vna septiman* 
et tunc obligand' est usq; prox' 
assVas et interim se bene gerend* 

Gaw inus Charleton. 

THO : GILBY cl'ic' assU'. 


O lett the sorrowfull sighing of the prisoners come before the, 
according to the greatnes of thy power p'serve thou those that are ap- 
pojoited to dye, — PsaV : 79 ver : 12. 


ikTT rf«l^^ A Kalender of all the prisoners now remayneing in his 
^n^ Ma**^ gaole of High Castle for ffelony and other capital 

offences deiiu'ed vnto S' Thomas Trevor & S' Henry 
Yelverton his ma**" Judges of this assizes houlden att 
Newcastle the xxij* of July an** R. R's Caroli Anglie 
&c.<iuinto an"" dn'i 1629* 

Theb lijc cornhk j^ James Marshall late of Whitside in the said County 

femayne w4iout ^•^^^^ charged w**" the murthering of George Marshall 

iMdIewbythe Ju- his owoe child w^ he hath confessed, 
dent appeareth. 

S. John Brewis Scottishman for the stealeing of xxviij 
weather sheepe, the goodes of S' John Selby knight^ and 
likewise for an eschape out of his ma^^' said gaole, as ap- 
peareth by a mittimus dated the second of August 1627. 

3, 4, 5, 6. William Thirlewall Thomas Bates Jennetta 
<Jray and David Donoldson commit by his Ma^" Jus- 
tices att a sessions houlden att Morpeth the 5th of July 
anno tertio Regis Caroli for refusing to take the oath of 

8^ Jo: ciayer- 7. George Tate for the felonious stealeing of five 
"^ ,! 1^ sheepe the goodes of William Kirsopp of Ingram and for 
or meocpriie. ^^c'**. sheepe the goodes of James Davidson of Snype 


house, and alsoe for two beastes the goodes of John Scott 
of Alnewick. 

Sr John Fenwkk 
k'c the loth of 
October 16S8. 

8. George Pott late of the Rawe, for the felonious 
stealeing of xij sheepe w""^ vpon his examinac'on he hath 
confessed being the goodes of Patrick Selby, John Baines, 
Nicholas Stevenson & Dennys Smith, and for the flFello- 
nious stealeing of one black mare belonging to one Wil- 
liam Thompson of Stanton. 

S' John Fen- 
wick k't the 20t» 
of November 

9* Edwarde Armestrong of the Armitage milne for 
the felonious stealeing of one gray nagg and a stirk^ and 
certeine brydles found w^h him. 

S^ John Delayale 
k' the ssth of 
December 1698. 

10. Edward Hall of Blackheddon labourer for suspe- 
c'on of the felonious stealeing of two kine and two quies 
the goodes of John Horsley of Milburne grainge gent, 
and alsoe six beasts and six sheepe the goodes of Xpofer 
Pawtson gent. 

Mr Ralph Car- 
naby £iq' 15th 
Janoarq 1698. 

1 1. William Pott of Lang Horsley for suspec'on of the 
felonious stealeing of two oxen the goodes of Henry 
Dobson of long Horsley aforesaid. 

S<r John Clau'ing 
k*' 19 Januartj 

12. George Bourne of Aylneham moore for the felo- 
nious stealeing of two sheepe w""^ vpon his examinac'on 
he hath confessed being the goodes of one Robert 
Wright of Ingram Webster. 

Cuthb't Ridley 
Clerk 7th of Ja- 
nuar^ 1698. 

13. Roger Robson al's Hodge Billy of Sundayside in- 
dicted for the felonious stealeing of one Dunn mare & a 
fole the goodes of one Lyonell Shipley. 


Robert DeUnle 
Esq' 7th of 
March 1628. 

14. Allan Anderson of AInewick mason for suspicion 
of the felonious stealeing of Twenty stone of lead from 
the castle of AInewick. 

S^Prftndi Brand- 
ling k' aith^te 
Hearon& Ra^>h 
Caniaby Esq^ 
14th of March 


15. John Charieton of the Bower for suspec'on of the 
fdoniotis stealing of Three kine the goodes of Thomas 
Fenwick of Lesbury. And for suspec'on of divers other 
flfelonyes, and being offered to be app'hended for the 
said felonyes fledd, and alsoe for suspec'on of the steale- 
ing of one gray gelding vpon w'^ he rode at his app'- 

Tho: Midleton 
Esqr: I4th of 
March 1628. 

The said John a fugitive and notorious theife for the 
felonious stealeing of one black mare and thirtene sheepe 
forth of the growndes <rf little Swinburne the goodes of 
Thomas Midleton of Belsoe, Esq'* 

Raph Caraal^ 
Eaqr: 16th of 
March 16S8. 

SF WilfiamMi]»- 
chalap k} 20^ 
of March 1628 

S' Jo: Clau'ing 
k' iith Aprill 

The said John for suspec'on of divers felonyes, and 
charged w*h the felonious stealeing of two oxen the 
goodes of Nicholas Errington of Keepwick, and three 
yotig beastes the goodes of Richard Wilson of Hough- 
ton, and alsoe for the felonious stealeing of one horse the 
goodes of Gawen Bell of Errington. 

16. Richard Forster late of West Lylburne charged 
w'h the felonious stealeing of otie cow three stottes & 
two quies the goodes of S' Arthure Grey knight. 

17. John Burne of Snytter for the murthering & 
killing of Robert Lawson late of Snytter his Maister w** 
Upon his examinac'on he hath confessed. 

s' Jo: CUui'iDg 18. William Leighton of Cartington for the felonious 


k< 15th 

ApnU breaking open of a chest and taking out of the same 
xxij** who vpon his examinac'on hath confeteed the 
breaking of the chest, and takeing away of xyiij** ix^ of 
the said monye. 

Sr William Mui- 
cbamp k' 16th 
April, 1629. 

19. Mary Smith single womai) for the felonious take- 
ing a purse out of the breeches of Thomas Coilingwood 
of Buckton gent, and nine poundes in gould & monye or 
thereaboutes in it, w^ vpon ,hir examip^p'on she hath 

S* WiUittD Mot- 
champ kt SSth 
Aprill 1689. 

8' Jo. Feowick 
kM9Bfaii 1639 

SO^. Lancelot Waugh of West Ne^wton laborer jfor the 
felonious stealein^ of ^V in monye out of the purse of 
one Robert Stevenson of H^rtsid^ apfl for the stealeing 
of a purse of one William Bawldes pf west Newton 
Blacksmith w*^ xvi"* of monye in it and alsoe two henns 
the goodes of* widdow. Braddy of West Newton, all w*^ 
vpon his examinac'on he, bath confessed. 

21. Gerard Coxon al's Hint for suspec'on of the steale- 
ing of eight horses the goodes of John Wrinkles of Harne- 
ham gent. 

Cnthb^t Hmoo 

22. Cuthb'te Milbnme al's Cuddy of the Leame for 
\y^ felonious stealeing of one ffilly and a coulte the goodes 
of Robert Ladley of t;he hole Barii^. . 

8' John PebifBle The said Cuthbert for suspic'o^ pf tlje felonious steals- 
k« zxf^ Ma4 j^g ^£ ^^^ horse the goodes of Jenkin Chickin of Ingoe, 
And for suspec'on of stealeing of two horses the goodes 
of ThomasRead of. Heddon on the Wall. 

S' WOP Mo*- The said Cuthbert for the felonious breaking of the 

Ciuunp k< 5 Junn 

1689. house of John Dunn of the Hillock. 

S' Jo: Fenwick 23. Michaell Hall al'sCuze Hall ofOttercoppsforthe 
1^ J""U *^*^- felonious stealeing of three kyue the goodes of Thomas 
Fenwick of the Fawnes. 

8' Jo: Ddaf«ie 24. John Trumble of Yardvpp for suspec^on of the 
22 junij 1629. felonious stealeing of a brown bay mare the goodes of 
Lancelot Ogle of Darris Hall gent. 

S' Jo: Clausing 25. Thomas Mather of Heley laborer for the felo-' 
». 29 Junij 1629. nious stcalciug of one quie the goodes of Henry Tate 
of Rothbury, w'"* vpon his examinac'on he hath con- 

wirmCarrEtqr. 26. William Sparke of Catten Tayler for the felonious 
uy 1629. takeing of one bay mare the goodes of Thomas Sparke 
w^ he hath confessed. 

s' Jo: Fenwick 27. Thomas Hogg of Reedsmouth for the felonious 
y 1629. stealeing of xiij sheepe the goodes of Richard Wadowe 
of Kirkwhelpington. 

y MTiiiuun Mut. 28. Walter Ramsey scottishman charged w** the felo- 

y igoa * nious stealeing of a purse w^ vij* of mony in it out of 

the Pocket of Andrew Robinson, and w*^ the breakeing 

of the gaole whereby he escaped, w** escape he hath 


wiirmCarrEiqr 29. Alexander Ridley of Wbitsheeles gent charged w'*" 
x<» Juij 1629. ^^^ stealeing and killing of one brandett stott in a house 


called the Spees house nobody dwelling therein the skin 
being taken off: and for the killing of another. 

Tho: Midieton 30. Ellen Charleton of the Bower charged w* the 
8qri5juiyi6a9. f^i^^i^ug stealeing of a black mare and twenty three 
sheepe the goodes of Thomas Midieton Esq. 

vmmCmBitp. 31. Walter Ridley of the mill hills yeom' charged w*** 
17 J y 1689. ^Y^ receiveing of a bay mare the goodes of Thomas Sparke 

Cutbb't Hewon 32. James Robson of Bayshill charged w**' suspec'on 
E^ 20th juiij ^^ ^ y^^ woLve the goodes of Edmund Ireland of Toms- 


e^ Jo: DeUvaie 33, Edward Trumble sonne of John Trumble of Wilk- 
k*^ 14 Julg i6a9. ^QQ^ charged w** the felonious stealeing of one bay 
mare the goodes of Lancelot Ogle of Darras hall gent. 

bytbeJiidgMtlie 34. Guwen Charleton for that he hath not found bond 
the last amies. ^^^ ^j^^ good behaviour according to the Indent the last 

35, 36. Simon Arodestrong and Gawen Croser of 
Langleyshanke charged w<^ the felonious stealeing of a 
yong gray mare the goodes of John Yelderd of Nyn- 

T. SWINBURN: vie' com' NorthbV: 


NORTHUMBER: 1629. — The Indent from Mr Gilbif^ Clerk of the said 

Assizes, 1629* 

Delib^aciq Gaole d'ni Regis os^tri^ui Novi iC^ri sup' Tinam in 
com' Northumbr' p'dict' ibid'm tent' vicesimo. secundo die Julij anno 
regni d'ni n'ri Caroli dei gr'a Anglie Scotie ffranc* et Hib'nie regis 
"^dei defensor* &c^ quinto cara Henrico yely.^i;top mil' vno Justiciar' 
dicti d'ni Regis de Banco : £t Thoma Tre¥or .milife^' vno Baronfi Sc'cij 
d'ci d'ni Regis^ Justic' d'ci d'ni regis ad assizas et general' gaole de- 
lib'ac'on' in com' p'dict' tenend.' Necnon ad diversas felon' transgr' 
.et .al' malefacta in com' p'dict' p'petrat' aii4ieii4' e$ terminand': Ac 
ad, gaol' ill' de prispnar' in ea4'm exi^n'.4^i|^'i^pd' assign' &c. 

Nomina eor* qui ha^ent Judiciu' ad Nomina eor* qui sunt nan cuV. 

suspend' />' Collum. Joh'^ Charleton 

Joh'es Burne, pend' Rob'tu? Rotheram 

Cuthb'tus Milburne ) mittend in guer» EdwarduB Oliver 

Jacobus Robson \ cu» cap* Clarke Rob'tus Litle, mittend' dk cap' p'd' 

' Maria SmAth, pend' Joh'es Pott 

V Aadreas Hall 

Nomina Clericorum. Joh'es Newton.^ ' 

Will'mus Leighton Georgius Davison 

Michael' Reed Michaell Reed 

Geor; Pott al's Whitetoppin : mitt' Will'us Pott : mitf eft cap' p'd* 

vt sup'a Georgius Gibson 

Lancelotus Waugh Simo' Armestrong 

Rob'tus Yeldert Gawin Croser 

Georgius Burne : mit' cu Capt' p'd' Joh'es Allenson 

Gerrard Coxon al's Hint 

Nomen, eius qui respectuai^ quia Georgius Hoard 

Carnifex. Simo' Milburne ; mit' cum cap' p'd' 

Thomas Mather J ana Wanles 


Joh'es Hall 

Percivall Trewett 

Edwardus Spraggon 

Marcus Pott Jun' 

Georgius Tate, mitt* cu cap* Clerk. 

Will'mus Sj^arke : mitt' vt sup'a 

Miirgareta Watson 

kogerius RotN^on 

Thomas Thompson 

Barthor Spraggon 

Nomina ear" qui liVarUT f procla- 

Allanus Anderson 
Michael Hall al's Case Hall 
J6h*es Trumble 
Thomas ttogg 
Jacobus Marshall 
Walter Ramsey 
Walter Ridley 

Nomina eof qui obligancC sunt f 
bonos manucaptor' vsq; p'x" assi*as 

Edwardus Armestrong mitt* eft 
, cap* p'd' 
Ric'us Forster 
ijrawinus Charleton 
Thomas Elliott 
Joh*es Brewed 
Joh'es Musgrave 

Nomina eor* qui remanemT sunt in 

gaoF sine baWio. 
Joh'es Charleton de la Bower 
Thomas Bathen 
Jenetta Grey and 
David Donaldson. 

THO: GILBY Cler. Assi^as 1629. 


Indentures between Sir Francis Brandling and Sir Thomas Swin- 
burne in 1627; and Sir Thomas Swinburne and Thomas Carr, 
Esquire^ in I629> for delivering over the gaol of Northumberland^ 
extracted from Sir Thomas Swinburne's Sheriff's book^ by the Rev. 
John Hodgson, Sec. 

The indenture bettveen Sr Francis Brandling and me. 

This Indenture made the xxij^ day of December in the Third yeare 
of the reigne of our Sou'eigne Lord Charles by the grace of God King 
of England, Scotland, France & Ireland defender of the faith &c. Be- 
tweene S' Francis Brandling K* late Sheriff* of the County of Northum- 
berland onthone p'ty And S' Thomas Swinburne K^ now Sheriff of the 
said County on thothef p'tye Witnesseth that the said Sir Francis 
Brandling, by vertue of his late office to him directed, hath deliu'ed & 
sett over to the said S' Thomas Swinburne the Gaole of the said County 
called the high Castle And Prisoners there now remayning,That is to say : 

Imp*is the body of Thomas Bate, David Donaldson Willia Thirle- 
wall & Jane Gray remayning in his Ma^*" said Gaole and convict in 
premunire att the Quarter Sessions of the peace, and are reprived fur- 
ther vntill the next Assizes for refuseing to take the oath of Allegiance 
as doth appear by Indent from Mr Gilby Clerk of the Assizes. 

William Waugh remayneing in his Ma^*^' said Gaole and reprived 
before Judgm\ 


John Lumley remayneing in his Ma<'~ said Gaole & reprived after 

John Read of Kellyburne charged w^^ the felonious stealeing of xxx 
sheepe, the goods of Edward Delavale of Alnewick Abbey gent. And 
also for the felonious stealeing of fower Kyne the goodes of Rob'te 
Dalton of Wetslad : And lykewise w^** the felonious stealeing of five 
Kyne and one stott the goodes of John Johnson of Prestick. And for 
divers felonyes comit' in Bushoprick. he is comitt by S' John Delavale' 
K^ The said Read charged with the stealeing of one Dunn mare the 
goodes of Rob'te Fenwick of Newham Comit by S' John Fenwick K\ 

Matthew Hall of Newcastle upon Tyne charged w*** the suspec'on of 
the felonious stealeing of a red lyard mare the goodes of Anthony 
Woodman of Elstwick comitt by Sir John Delavale K}. 

Roger Dodd of the Shaw Taylor charged w^ the felonious stealeing 
of a black mare the goodes of Cuthbert H^tron of Chipchase Esq : 
Comitt by Cuthb'te Ridley Clerk. 

Achibald Eliot scottisman charged w**" the stealeing of five Nowte 
the goodes of the Lo : Cranstons Comit by the said Cuthb'te Ridley. 

James Walker of Lucker laborer charged w^ the felonious steale* 
ing of fower sheepe the goodes of Nicholas Lynsey comitt by S' Wil- 
liam Muschamp K** 

John Brewes scottishman in the said gaole committ for stealeing of 
xxxviij wether sheepe^ who made an escape before the last Assizes 
forth of the same gaole with Irons on his legges» 

Symon Robson gaoler committ att the last Assizes for the esciq>e of 
the said Brewes and is to answer the same at the next Assizes. 


John Goddert late of Hexham yeom' vpon a Capias ad satisfaciend 
att the suite of Thomas Blaikeston gent' for the som'e of x^ xiij\ iiij''. 
principal debt, and xl* charges recouped in his Ma^" Court of Common 

■ » t . . ' , . . 

It*m : Eight doores, tenn locks, tenn keyes, tenn pare of yron fet- 
ters & one paire of boults. In Witness whereof to one p^rte of, tbeis 
p'sents remayneing w'^ the said S' Thomas Swinburne now Sheriff of 
the said County, the said S' Francis Brandling late Sheriff hath caused 
the late ^eale. of his officje tp be put And to the. other p'te thereof 
remayneing w^^ the said S', Francis Brandling the said S^ Thomas 
Swinburne hath caused the now seale of his oflBce to be putt the day 
& yeare« first above written : Aqno Dn'j 1627. 

THOMAS GASCOYNGfE: Subvic: Com: p'dict\ 

The Indenture betwene me 8( Thomas Carr, Esq; for the gaole. 

This Indenture made the Thirteenth day of January In the ffiveth 
yeare of the reigne of o' Sou'eigne Lord Charles by the grace of God 
King of England Scotland France and Ireland defender of the faith 
&cAn''D'ni 1629. Betweene S' Thomas Swinburne knight late high 
Sheriff of the County of Northumb'land on thone p*ty And Thomas 
Carr of Forde in the said County Esq; now high Sheriff of the said 
County on thother p*ty. Witnesseth that the said S' Thomas Swin- 
burne By vertue of his Ma^** writt of Discharge of his late office to 
him directed Hath Deliur*d and sett over to the said Thonoas Carr the 
gaole of the said County called the high Castell, and all the prisoners 
now remayneing that is to say : 

Imp'mis the bodyes of John Charlton de Le Bower, Thomas Bate 


Jennett Gray atid David Donoldson remayneiog in the said gaole^ 
committ by his Ma^^ Judges att the last Assises ad remadend" in gaola 
sine ballio, as doth appeare by Indent from Mr Gilby Clerk of the 


It'm Raiph Milburne vpon a Capias vtlagatu after Judgm^ ad secta 
Will'mi d'ni Grey de wdrke 

The said Raiph Milburne vpon an Attachm* after decree from Yorke 
att the suit of Ricbard Rumney for iii)'. debt. xMxi\ damages and iiij'. 
iiij*. vj^ Castes. 

It'm Lawrence Rishforth late of Acklington p'ke vpon a speciall 
Capias vtlagat' after Judgm^ ad sect' Marmaduci MachpU gen' p' 100^ 
debt and lO* costes indorsed upon the back of the writt. 

It'm John Cresswell of Cresswell Esq; vpon an attacbm^ after decree 
from Yprke ad sect' Katherine Claris for 16' damages & 3' 12* costes. 

The said John Cresswell vpon an attachm' after decree from Yorke 
att the suite of the said Katherine Clarke widd' for 66' 13*^ 4*^ damages 
k 4' costs aad charges. 

The said John p' contempt' for not appearing att Yorke & p'formeing 
a decree made the x**" day of June 1628. between Rob'te Clarke by his 
Tutrix Mary Ciarke p' plaintiff and the said John Cresswell & Raiph 
Errington of Bingfield defend'tes. 

The said John CresweU vpon a Capias vtlagatu' before Judgement 
out of the Court of Com'on pleas att Westm' ad sect' Ric'i Hester in 
pl'ito deb'ti. 


The said John vpon a writt out of the Kinges Bench att the suite of 
Sir William Fenwicke knight in a plea of trespasse. 

The said John Creswell vpon a writt out of his Ma^" Court of 
Common pleas at Westm' at the suite of William Southgate gen' in 
pl'ito deb'ti. 

It'm George Beednall of Leamondon gen' vpon a Commission of 
Rebellion out of the Starchamber p' contemptis. 

The said George Beednell vpon a Capias ad Satisfaciend' : out of 
the Courte of Common pleas ad sect* Lodouici Widdrington gen' for 
500* recouped ag* him in the same Courte and 5' for damages. 

The said George vpon an attachm^ from Yorke at the suite of 


Edward Thompson late of Shipley Taylor committ by S'. Francis 
Brandling for suspecon of the felonious stealeing of one mare the 
goodes of Thomas Clarke of Dennych, 

Anthony Fenwick of North Sheeles laborer Committ by Raiph Car- 
nabye Esq; for suspec'on of the felonious stealeing of a black oxe the 
goodes of William Fenwick of East Heddon gent'. 

John Forster al's Clowers John late committed to his Ma**** gaole 
att Carlyle by his Ma**" Justices of the peace for the County of Cum* 
berland, for suspec'on of Felony And by vertue of his Ma**** writt 
deliu'ed over to the said S' Thomas Swinburne by S' William Layton 
Knight then high Sheriff of the County of Cumberland : 30 die Au- 
gusti 1629. 

James Henderson a Scottishman commit by Cuthb'te Ridley Clerke 


for the felonious stealeiDg of a black Cow the goods of John Hunter 
of Newbegio, and likewise the said James is a man of evill name and 
fame and a fugitive. 

The said James for suspec*on of the felonious stealeing of one Cow 
and ten sheepe the goodes of Roger Widdrington of Cartington Esq; 
And alsoe for suspec'on of divers other felonies wherew^^'all he is 
lykely to be charged he being a man of notorious fame committ by S' 
John Delavale Knight. 

John Anderson and Richard Taylor charged w*** the felonious break- 
ing of the house of Nicholas Gardyner of Mersfen w** they have vpon 
there examinac'ons confessed and alsoe for stealeing forth of the same 
house a xxij* pease of gould, xi" peace of gould & x* in silver and 
some other thinges to the value of Liij* or thereabouts committ by S' 
John Delavale K\ 

Francis Tate of Easter Newbiggin shipherd committ by Sr WilliS 
Muschamp K^ charged w**" the felonious stealeing and putting out of 
fower oxen the goodes of Andrew Pawling and Roger Birnett of Wes- 
ter Newbiggin yeomen. 

Raiphe Sprvtt late of Whittonstall who att the last Assizes houlden at 
Durham was convict of stealeing of Cattle and by the Judges reprived 
vpon Condic'on that he should dfep'te his Ma**" dominions : And at 
the Assizes houlden for this County was indicted for stealeing of one 
oxe the goodes of Nicholas Blaixton of Andrew house, who notwith- 
standing the said charge given him by his Ma**" Judges hath neglected 
his dep'ture vntill this tyme, and hath since misdemeaned himself in 
sundry respects Committ by S' John Fenwick Knight 30* Octobr* 1629. 

Hugh Hutchinson* al's Pundy cAarged w'^ the felonious stealeing of 
two mares one oxe & xvj sheepe the goodes of Mr Thimbleby of 



Laugor Castle and tenn sheepe the goodes of Thonaas Wilson & George 
Pearson Committ by Cuthbert Ridley Clerk. 

George Wilkinson of AUanton for suspe'con of the felonious steale- 
ing of two sheepe the goodes of James Marshall of Lintbrigge Com- 
mitt by Cuthb'te Ridley Clerk. 

George French of Todsburne in Whitfield, charged w^^ the feloodons 
stealeing of one black horse of Henry Jacksons of Kdlopp and al»e 
for the felonious stealeing of one Gray Horse of James Stevensons of 
East Allan, and two stirks, of Lancelot Armestronges of Dumelle of 
all w'^ seu'all felonyes he standeth indicted att the last gen'ale Qoarter 
Sessions houlden for this County Comitt by Cuthbert Hearon Esq; 

Isabell Millburne for the felonious takeing of a silver beere bowle 
and other p'ticulars conteyned in the mittimus Connnitft by S^ John 
Selby K^ 

Michael Brand for the wounding of one Anderson of Ellington ; 
Com* by S' Willia Muschamp K'. 

James Henderson before menc*oned charged w*^ the felonious steale- 
ing of one Cowe & tenn sheepe» and for suspec'on of stealeing two 
beates and three sheepe Cgmmitt by S' John Clavering Knight. 

Here follows an unimportant list of the writs, turned over by the same indenture, which 
concludes with 

Things belonging to the Gaote. 

Item, eight doores tenn locks tenn keyes, tenn pare of yron FeUerSi 
And one pare of boults. In witness whereof as well the said Sir Tho- 
mas Swinburne late Sheriff as the said Thomas Carr Esq now Sheriflf 
have interchangeably putt there hands and seu'all seales of th^re offiees 
the day and yeare first above written. 

THO : CARR, vie' Northumb'. 


A Copy of the Return of three Members of Parliament to serve for the 
County of Northumberland^ in 1654. Communicated by Mr. John 

1 HIS Indenture made ye twelueth day of July in ye yen of ouf 
Lord one thousand six hundred fifty and foure at Alnwick in ye 
County of Nortbamberbmd Between Robert Shafto Esq'. Sheriff of ye 
County aforesaid of ye one p^ atid Robert Collingwood \l\ Robert Mit- 
ford Edward Fen wick Robert Lisk Wiirm Shafto Richard F4>r$ler Luke 
Killingworth Thomas HoTsleyEaqts. Martin Fenwick RoberiSbafto John 
Ogle Thomas Dent George Heron WilPm Aynesley Thomas Wtkavton 
Robert Collingwood John Saikeitd Will'm Rea and divert other p'sons 
qualifyed and capable to elect members to serve in Parliam^ for CooMy 
&c. as is p'scribed in ye gouerment of ye Comonwealttv of Engkmd 
Scotland and Ireland on ye other p^ Witnesseth That ProcUaiaion 
having beene made in every market town in ye County aforesaid w*Hn 
ten dayes after ye receipt of a certain writ of ye Lord Protector to ye 
aforesaid Sherife Directed & to one p^ of these Indentures annexed lor 
ye Election of three knights fit and discreet p'sons of ye County afore- 
said for ye parliam'. of ye said Lord Protector at Westminster in ye 
County of Middlesex ye third day of September next to be held The 
aforesaid Robert Collingwood Rob't Mitford Edward Fenwicke Robert 
Lisle Will'm Shafto Richard Forster Luke Killingworth Thomas Horsley 
Martin fenwicke Robert Shafto John Ogle Thomas Dent George Heron 
WilFm Aynsley, Thos Wharton Rob't Collingwood John Salkeild WilPm 
Rea and divers other p*sons of ye County aforesaid who were p'sent 
at such Election freely and indifferently have chosen three knights 
girt w*** swords y* is to say Will'm Fenwicke of Wallington Robert Fen- 


^icke of Bedlington & Henry Ogle of Egglingham K** to be in parlia- 
m'' aforesaid as in ye said writ is men'oned who for themselves as also 
for all ye People of ye County aforesaid have full and sufficient power 
to doe & consent unto those things w'^ in ye aforesaid Parliam^ shall 
then and there by Com'on Consent & Counsel! happen to be ordained 
Provided & it is hereby declared That ye said p'sons so chosen shall not 
have power to alter ye gouernm* as it is now settled in one single 
person & a Parliam^ In witnesse whereof as well the Seale of office of 
ye said sherife as also ye Seale of ye Electors aforesaid ye day year 
& place abovesaid to these Indentures are put and affixed. 

Robert Colingwood 
Robert Mitford 
E ffenwick 
Rich^ fforster 
Lu Killingworth 
Thos Horsley 
Rob' Lisle 
John Ogle 
Robert Shafito 
Geo Heron 
Wm Aynsley 
Robt CoUingwood 

Robert Shafto Esq' Sherife of 

Will Shaao 
Martin ffenwick 
John Salkeld 
Will. Rea 
Wm : Horsley 
Willam Crowe 
Humphrey Gill 
John Cooke 
Rob Smith w* many others. 


On the Court Party in the House of Commons in 1677, communicated 
6y Walter Calverley Trevelyan, of fFallingtan, Esq. to Mr. 
Adamson, Sec. 

My dear Sir, 

I HAVE taken the liberty of sending a copy of a paper in my father's 
possession, thinking it may appear to you of sufficient interest to be 
read at a meeting of the Newcastle Antiquarian Society. 

This paper illustrates a passage in Hume's History of England, (vide 
8vo. edition, 1782, vol. 8, page 30) where speaking of the disputes 
between Charles the Second and his Parliament, in 1677> he says,*- 
" The House of Commons was now regularly divided into t\vo parties, 
" the court and the country. Some were inlisted in the court party 
" by offices, nay, a few by bribes secretly given them." 

It appears to contain a list of the court party in 1677> written in a 
hand of about the same date, on a sheet of stout foobcap paper, so deno- 
minated from the paper or water-mark, which I have given below, re- 
duced one third in its size, and which is nearly the same as that on some 
of the paper on wliich " Mauley's Law Interpreter" was printed, in 1672. 

Your's, sincerely, 




JtftT ixNUtflff* 




Sir Hum. Winch, Bart. 



SirTho: Higgon, Kt. 


SirF: Winnington, Kt. 

P. 1500. 

Sir Tho : Doleman, 


Richd. Aldsworth, Efq. 

P. 400. 


Sir Jno. Bennett, Kt. 


Sir Rich: Temple 

P. i«00. 

Buckingham Tornn^ 

Sir William Smith, 



Sir Robt. Sawyer, 



Sir William Drake, Bart. 

Sir Tho : Hatton, 


Sir Thos. Cbickley, 



Sir Charles Wheeler, 


Toame Cambridge» 

Lord AHingtoD, 





Thorn: Chehnondy^ 
Robt. Worden, Esq. 


Sir Jona. Trelawany, Bt. 
Sir John Compton, Bart. 
Sir Charles Harbord, 
Barnard Grenfield^ Esq. 
Signey Godolphin^ 




^^^,,j^ u^i.^^^^^ ^4y>^ i^ /^*^^ "^ '^ ^Z' 



Per Annum. 

Sir^ Wm. Godftlphinv Bdrt. 



Jno : Arrundal his Father, 



Sir Wm. ©oddljphitti Rt. 



John Trillany, 

Places tC 200. 

John Trillany, iSir Jonathan' 

s Son 


Charles Osborn, 


Henry Seiner^ 



Robert Roberts, 


St. Michael, 

Lord Hawley, 


St. Maws, 

Anthony Spry, 


Sir Joseph Friddinam, 



Sir CyrilJ Wich, 



Sir Philip Howard, 


Sir Christ. Musgrave, 



Sir Copelston iBran field. 


Sir James Smith, 


Thorn. Walker, 



Sir Edmund Seemar, speaker's 


SirThoni: Berry, 



Sir Gilbert Tawbut, 



Sir Nicho : Slanning, 



Sir Courtney Poole, 

Sir Peter Priddex, 



Sir John Maynard, 



Sir Henry Foord, 



lAk Lattimoore, 


Sir Jno : Shaw, 



Sir Winston Churchell, 




Per Annum* 


George Boorman, 
Geo: Pitt, 
John Tempest, 



Thom: King, 



Sir Baynam Throgmorton, 



Sir Richd. Wiseman, 
Sir Will : Wiseman, 




Sir Robt. Holms, 


Lorrance Hyde, 


South hampton. 

Sir Richd. Foord, 

Thom : Knowles, 



Sir Geo : Carterch, 



Thomas Niele, Esq. 



Sir Robt. Haward, 


Robert Philips, 


Isle a Weigh, 

Sir Geo : Holms, 


Sir Kingsmill Lucy, Bt. 



Thom : Price, 


Robt. Westphalin, 



Sir John Barnaby, 

Mo. given, 

Sir Thos. Williams, 



Sir Richd. Frankeliug, 




Per Annum. 



Sir John Gotten, 

Sir Lyonell Waldon, 



Sir Thom: Pyton, 



Sir £d : Masters, 

Thom: Hardness, 



Sir Fra: Clarke, 



Thom : Harlackendon, 


Sir Robt. Barnham, 



Jas. Harbott, Ld. Treas'r son, 

Sir Roger Bradshaw, 


Richd. Kirby, 


Richd. Harrison, 



Ed : Regby, 


Sir John Otway, 



Lord Georges, 



Sir John Heath, 


Sir Thom : Stringer, 



Earl of Ankerum, 


Sir Jeoffery Shackerley, 

P. XM. 


George Funt, 


The TowHy 

Sir Wm. Hartab, 


Sir Robt. Carr, 



Per Annum* 




Wm. Broxholme, 

Mo. given. 


Stamfoord Pyregrin Barty, 


Sir Lance Lake, 


Sir Thorn : Allen, 

Mo. given. 


Sir Philip Warwick, 


Sir Richd. Anerad, 

Mo. given. 



Chris. Jay, 

Mo. given. 


Franc. Corey, 



Robt. Cooke, Ld. Tresr. Son, 

Robt. Wreight, 

Mo. given. 


Sir Wm. Doyley, 



Sir Allen Absley, 


Sir Jos. WilltaiDSon, 



Sam. Peepys, 




Ld. Bryan, 



Sir Lewes Pahner, 



Robert Spencer, 


Sir John Fenwicke, 


Sir Ralph DeUvall, 



Sir Francis Andersen, 



Sir Geo. Downing, 



Dan. Collingwood, 

Ld. Dumblftin, Ld. Trasr. Son, 




Per Annmn. 




Sir Francis I^ke, fiart. 
Sir Edwd. Dearing, fiart. 




Lorrans Hyde, 
Thom: Haws^rdy 







Bpps. Castle, 

Sir Francis La;wley, 
Somersett JFoy, 
Sir Job Charleton, 
Geo : Wilde, 
Edwd. Warring, 
Wm. Oakley, 











Sir ^m. Bas^tt, 
Ld. Fit2har<|ipg, 
Sir Wm. Porteman, 
Sir Ed: Windani, 
Thorn. Windaix}, 


Mo. §iven. 
Mo. given. 


Newes under line, 

Randell Edgerton, 
Richd. Dyett, 
Walter Chelwind, 
Louiston Gouer, 

PM iOO. 



Per Annum. 


Sir Hen: Felton, 



Sir John Pettys/ 


William Wood, 



Sir Robt Cordell, 

Major Cornwall,«oo. 


Sir Geo: Reeves, 
Robt. Reeves, his sonu. 



Sir Jno. Duncomb, 
Wm. Dnncom, his sonn, 

Sir Adam Browne, Bt. 



Sir Tho: Bloodsworth, 


Sir Wm. Hayward, 


Sir Ed: Byck, 



Sir Jno. Warden, 

Place. . 


Sir Tho: Dillinglay, 
Sir Wm. Morley, 





Richd. May, 



Sir Jno. Conett, Bt 


Baptist May, 



Sir Jno. Stapeley, an Indegent, 

Sir Tho: Woodcock 



Hen: Gouring, 



Pierce Gouring, 



Hen: Gouring, 

Mo. given. 

East Grimsteady 




Earle of Orrery, 


Viscount Langford, 





PtT iVitfttfflf* 


Sir Robt. HowU, Bt. 

Mo. given. 

Sir (fen : Pickerings 


fVarwUk Town, 

Sir Frances Compton, 


Sir Philip Musgrave, Bt 



Thorn : Tufton, 



Sir Stephen Fox, 



Sir J : Berkenhead, 





Robt. Hyde, Esq. 

Mo. given. 


Tho : Wankling, 

Mo. given. 


Geo : Johnson, 



Frans. Gwyn, 



Philip Howard, 

P. if 300. 

Sir Thomas Escott, 



Sir Jno. Eamly, 



Henry Clarke, 



Dan : Finch, Ld. Chanr. Son, 

Wm. Ashbumeham, 


Geo. Legg, 


Old Saram, 

Sir Ed : Nicholas, 


Sir John Elwes. 


Sam. Sandes, 

Mo. given. 


Thomas Street, 



Sam: Sandes, jun. 

Mo. given. 



iftT i1fl9lttfft« 

Hen: Coventty, Sfect. of State, 



Sir Jiio. Handmar, 

Conyers Dersey, 
Sir Tttos, Slingsby, 



Sb: Jno. Tabcitt, 



Sir Jno. Nicholas^ 
Sir Edmd« Jennings, 



Henry Qny, 



Sir Solomon SwaUe^ Bl. 
Sir John Reasby, 


Sir Wm. Wentworth, 



Sir Gibb, Geirard, 


Sir Wm, Lowderi 



Sir Dennis Ashburneham, 


Sir John Rbbinson^ 



John HacTcy, 


Sir Lyonell Jenkins, 



Geo: Montague, 



John Strowd, 



John Robinson, 



Sir Harbut Price, Bt. 



Sir Chas. Cotterell, 


Carmarthen Towne, 

Ld. Vaughan, 


Lord- Buckley, 



John Wye, 

Mo. given. 


Sir Tho : Handmer, Bt 



Roger Wheatly, 



Andrew Newport, 



An Account of certain Instruments formerly used for the Purpose of 
Blasting in the Lead Mines ^Colonel and MRS. Beaumont, at 
AUenheads. Commwvcated by Mr. Thomas Crawhall, of Newf 
castle upon Tyne. 

^ U> < 


These sketches represent an iron instrument found in Allenhtfads 
leadmines, supposed to have been formerly used in blasting, the 
length of which was 2} or 3 feet; the upper part having since been 
cut off, there only now remain 6 inches above the bended part, which 



is H inches square to the elbow, forming an angle of about 10*; is 
of a cylindrical shape, slightly tapering to the other end, which is one 
inch in diameter. On the outward side of the angle, along the cir- 
cular part, is a groove 6 inches in length, of i inch broad, and of simi- 
lar depth, projected (it is supposed) to receive the train of gunpowder, 
pertaining to the charge:— the application of which, has been to drive 
it tightly into the hole bored in the rock above the powder, and the 
upper part fixed by strong timbers placed across the top, for the pur- 
pose of preventing it being thrown out, without the desired effect. 

Another instrument of iron, found in the same lead mines, 
differs from the above, in wanting the square bar at top, and 
in place of the hollow on one side, is cylindrical, and has a 
tube, one inch diameter, to nearly the upper end, where it is 
flattened, and has a shoulder projecting half an inch on each 
side, resembling the head of a spear, and apparently in- 
tended for fixing across it bars of iron or timbers, to oppose 
the violence of the ignited gunpowder. 

At the round end of the cylinder is a perforation at, commu- 
nicating through the hollow tube, with another at 6, placed 
for a touch hole on one side, li inches below the shoulder, 
and 8 inches distant from the other end. 

A tradition exists among the miners, that formerly strong 
timbers and wedges were used for fixing down the charges 
in blasting, to hinder explosion without effect ; but no further ^ 
explanation, as to the mode in which this was achieved, is to be ob- 
tained, neither in regard to the process of charging, nor of the tools 
used : It is highly probable, however, that such application might 
have been, and was adopted, for securing the two instruments above 

A series of five more of these instruments have been found in the 
same mine, of the respective lengths of 8», 10, lOf, and 12 inches. 






s^ fiL^ 

There was also disco vereci, in open- 
ing some old workings at the West end 
of Allenheads lead mines, about a 
month since (January, 1820), a tool, 
formerly used, it is conjectured, for 
the purpose of blasting with gunpow- 
der, or rather, in formii>g a commu- 
nication with it in the rock to be ex* 
ploded» The spot where it wa^ found, 
is in the Great Limestone there, about 
forty feet from the surface. The latest 
record of this place having been 
wrought, was in the year 1716, since 
which period this part of it has been en- 
tirely filled up with rubbish and fallings 
in of the vein, and only recently re-opened ; when the above, with some 
other instruments, were discovered in one of the fiatts in the limestone. 
The oldest workmen of the present day do not recollect their use, nor 
did they ever hear of such tools employed for the purpose ; they seem, 
however, to have been meant for it, and their application as follows : — 
After having drilled a hole in the rock to be blasted, with a chissel or 
jumper sufficiently deep, the gunpowder is put into the bottom of it, 
say to the depth of three or four inches; next the tool above sketched, 
which is round at one end, one inch in diameter,, with a hole in the 
centre about one-eighth of an inch, which communicates with another 
of the same dimensions, about one and one-fourth inches from the other 
end on the cylindrical side, the opposite being flattened from within 
one inch of the bottom, or circular end, to one-third of an inch thick at 
the other extremity; this hollow cavity appears to have been filled 
with powder, which, when the instrument was placed in the hole, would 
immediately communicate with the charge. In this situation^ it is pre- 
sumed, wedges (of wood) were driven against the flat side of the iron 
tube, to resist the force of the gunpowder, when fired through the touch 


hole marked a, by a train or match laid for that purpose. How long 
this has been in disuse is altogether uncertain, even the name is for^ 
gotten : it is probable a century might since have passed away. 

Nearly in the same spot with the above, to which 1 an- 
nex a sketch, a tool of more recent use was found, called 
by the miners the stock and feathers ; and remembered 
by some to have been occasionally used about fifty years 
ago, particularly in wet situations, where gunpowder 
could not, without great difficulty, be applied. A per- 
foration was made in the stratum, say four to six inches 
deep; placing two thin pieces of iron, called the fea- 
thers, which are rounded on one side and flat on the 
other, in this hole, the former being next to the rock, 
the wedge or stake was driven between until a portion 
of it split asunder. 

This wedge also was found near the same place with the 
preceding, of six inches in length, and one and one-fourth 
inches square, tapering to a point, having a hole one-fourth 
inch square, through it, at one and a half inches from the top ; 
this, according to the reports of very old miners, was intended 
to receive a small rod of iron, by which, one man held, whilst 
another drove the wedge; but not used during the life of 
any present workman. 

At what period the present method of blasting was introduced into 
these mines cannot be ascertained. A person now residing there, re- 
collects to have heard his father (who died thirty-nine years ago, at 
the age of sixty-seven) say, although it took place before his time, that 
prior to the pricker and drive-all being used, it was so hazardous an 
experiment, that two men were specially appointed, whose province it 
was to visit the different workings, for the express purpose of charging 


and blasting, after the holes had been prepared. Another, who, as 
well as his father and grand-father before hiiii» has been a pickman for 
sixty years past, has a faint remembrance of hearing very old men say, 
that formerly stemples were employed, but has no knowledge as to 
the process, nor ever saw any other mode practised than the present; 
but that the stock and feathers had beea in use during both the life- 
times of his father and grand-father. 


Papers relating to the ge7ieral History of the County of Durham, in 
the time of Charles II. extracted from the 31 st Volume of the 
MiCKLETON COLLECTION; and communicated by the Rev. John 
Hodgson, Sec. 

To ColoneU John Tempest E$q. Colonell of the Trainbands Leve^ 
Colonell Ralp: Cole and Major IViUiam Bellasor either of them 
for the County of Durham. 

Jtorasmuch as George Liburne and Thomas Browa of Sunderland- 
near-the-Sea are notoriously famed and iustly suspected to be dange- 
rous and disaffected persons to his Ma^^' present governm^ and to 
the lawes of this kingdome, and hath been at theire dwelling houses 
summoned by us to appeare before us on the 1 V^ of this Instant Septem- 
ber ; And yet did not then, nor since that time make any such appear- 
ance, but w'Mrew themselves from their habitations : — ^These are there- 
fore in his Majestys name to will and require you to send and employ 
2 commissio' officers of the trained band together w'th some constable 
to make due search for arms in their houses and the same to take away 
for the use of the county: and also to apprehend their persons wher- 
ever they may be found in this county and so convey and com'itt them 
to the goale of Durham, there to remaine untill our further order. 
Given under our hands and seals the 17th of Sept\ 1662* 



My Lord, Yarky ith Jan. 1663. 

Here are are prison" now to be tryd for contriveing Rebellion ag« 
his Ma'tie, and that y* p'ofe may be cleare and convinceing, its neces- 
sary that Thomas Randall of Cockerton, does give evidence viva voce, 
at their tryall as. he hath done by infonna*con in yo' County otherwise 
some notorious Rebells may escape justice; therefore Ttres have been 
formerly written to yo' Lord'' to desire hee may be sent hither, he 
dwelling within yo' Lord'** jurisdic^con but neither receiving answer 
nor the partye, it is thought necessary to make this further addresse 
to desire your Lordshipps concurrence, and assistance in this afiaire, 
which concerns his Ma'ties service, especially seeing it admitts noe 
delay because the Judges read their com'ic'on vpon Thursday next, 
we hope for an answer by the first post, that wee may be assured this 
comes to your hands. My Lord, 

Your humble servants, 


Wee make the like request concerning Mr Leeming the younger of 
Comforth and Mr EUerington and Joseph Weylin. 

For the right Revered ffather in God John by divine providence 
Lord Bishop of Durham att Durham. 

To the Right Reuerent Father in God John Lord Bishop of Durham at 

Durham Castle present. 

My Lord, — ^This day most of the gentry and ifreeholders meet, at 
Morpeth with the Lord Widdrington and S' William Fenwicke volen* 
teure troops who was in reddynes to serue y' Ix>rdship ; and to assist 
our neighbouring countys, but since by y Lordships letter you find 


it not necessary for the continueing of them longer together in armes, 
we shall dismiss them to morrow and vpon all occasion shew o'selves 
My Lord y' humble Servants, 





Morpeth this \5th of OctoV 1663. 

To the right honourable John Lord Bpp of Durham at his lodging in the 
Pellmel neere S^ Jameses these^ London. 

Right Honourable April 26//1, 1664, 

Wee received yours on sunday, which (by the date) might haue 
arrived a post sooner, as to the persons who weere secured vpon the 
deputy Lieut* of Yorkshires letter, they are still continued in the 
Prouost Marshall's custodie, ^nd Liewis Frost is now made one of their 
number but as they are extreeme clamourous for their libertie, so wee 
can doe no lesse than to presse for an information against them, which 
will enable vs to answer their loud cryes of iniustice, and secure them 
by a more legall imprisonment, and then what fauour wee shew to 
them will contract a guilt vpon our selves : wee cannot silently passe 
ouer, that part of your Lordshipps letter concerning S' Tho : Gowers 
assertion of some in office in our countie to haue given intelligence to 
Joplin of the intention to apprehend him, wee hope he is so much a 
wellwisher to his Ma'*" service, that he will name the person who hath 
offended in this high nature, that he may be discharged of his employ- 
ment and receive such punishment as his crime doth deserve; and vn- 
till this be done wee all lye vnder the burden of this accusation at 
large, although wee do not doubt of your Lordshipps endeauouring 


our iust vindication, for wee assure our selues, you do beh'euevs to be 

his Ma**" truly loyall subiects, as you know we are 
your Lordshipps humble servants 



Durham ss. — Agreed upon and ordered at a meeting of the Lord 
Lieut^ and deputy Lieutenants of y^ said County, upon Wednesday 
Juney^ 22«i 1664 asfoltoweth : viz*. 

1. That y* L** Lienten' shull aMresse rues' to y« L* Chancellor and y* 
Kings secretary to s'^gnify y* dfesire of the depifty Lieatenanfts and 
Jus^es of the peace that tbotse ei'ght p^sons vizt. Timothy Whitting- 
bam Esq* M' W" Midford, Lewes Frop shipmaster, George Watson, 
Robert Selby# Thomas Burdus, George Bateman, and> WiHSam Brasse, 
now upon \m Ma*** comi^and in custody here, may either have suft- 
cicnt cause shewed, why they should bee still detayn^d or else bayPd 
and so sett at liberty, and to appeare at the next sessions or assizes here 
to be holden, or otherwise to give us such order therein as may pre- 
vent thevr clamovr for being imprisoned about y* space of three moneths. 

2. That Capt Newton shall prepare warrants to bee signed by the 
deputy Lfeulenafils^ and sent to y^ head constables, that all y* Mititia 
horse ami ffoot do appeare upon y* Bellas heads neare Dtirham, on 
tuesday y* 26** day of July next by 9 of y* c\oc\i in y* fforenoone, with • 
a full supply of all defects formerly found amongst them, anoft that 
each Musqueteer bring w*** him halfe a pounde of powder 3 yeard of 
Match, and bullets, and every ffootman six pence in money for y 
Muster master; and that each horseman bring powder and bullet 
according to his wanted proporc'on and 12** for y* Musterm' upon 



paine and penalty allotted by act of parliam< and likewise that they 
desire all those that have subscribed the association to appear at the 
same time and place, in y* best equipage they can. 

3. That M' High Sheriffe S' Tho: Davison bee the chiefe of all the 
voluntiers, and that wee shall here agree, what other officers they shall 
obey upon any occasion* according to their subscripc'on aforesaid. 




My Lord, — Having this convenient opportunity of the bearer, 
Capt Newton I assume the boldnesse to acquaint yo' Lordship that my 
owne and my officers stock of money is almost totally exhausted w^ is 
partly occasioned by a necessity there was for us to supply our soul- 
dieurs wants, their recruits for the next fourteen days pay being as yet 
not comd up to many of them. It is therefore my humble suit to yo"* 
luordship in the behalfe of myselfe and officers, that yo' Lordship will 
be pleased to issue out yo' order for fourtene dayes pay already by 
past, w^ (if yo' Lordshipp will please to order us) will come very sea- 
sonably to us at Captaine New tons returne; my Lord I shall trouble 
yo' Lordshiy no further but only to crave pardon for this my bold- 
nesse, and to subscribe my Lord, 

yo' Lordships very faithfuU and humble servant, 

Hartlepool the Mh qfffeV^ 1665. GEO : BAKER. 

For the right reverend father in God John Lord Bishop of 
Durham^ these present^ with my humble service. 


For the Right Hatf^ my Lord of Durham these — Durham^ 

My Lord, — I received your Lord''* the 6, of this instant and be- 
fore I got yonr Lord*'* commands, I got an order, from our Lord 
Lieu^^ for the County of Northumberland, for the drawing of that 
Militia nigh the sea coasts, and att my return from thence, I drew my 
company from Norham and Islandshire together on Munday last, and 
immediately carried them to the Holy Island, being as I conceived a 
convenient place, it being the desire of the inhabitants there, cause 
some piratts uses that coast and they weer afrayd that in some night 
they might send men ashore and Aire thare towne : my Lord, as for 
my going to Blitb-nook I should have been redy to have gone thither, 
but that thare is our companie of the militia foot for Northumber- 
land was designed to go thare, and the rest of them lies, betwixt 
Seaton*Delaval, and Warkworth and the horse fromthense to Bam- 
brough : My Lord, I cannot as yet know of any Treasons in this part 
of the county, if thare be any, I shall take care to se your Lor*'' order 
put in execution. I must make a complaint to your Lord'' against 
those that inioys the ffishings of Tweed, who as yet would neuer set 
forth thar militia; and theyearely revenew of it is nigh two thousand 
pound a yeare : Thay pretend thay weer neuer charged formerly, but 
I am credible informed to the contrarie. If your 1-ord" be pleased to 
let me receiue your commands, I shall haue them raised, otherwise I 
humbly conceine I cannot do it alone, thare being none heare att 
p*sent but myselfe, what ever commands your Lord*' hath for me it 
shall be faithfully and punctually obseru'd by, my Lord, your Lord- 
ships most humble servant 

Feb. tht %A *65 WILL STROTHER. 

Indors. '' Coir Strother Vre Feb. 8, 1665. Answered, 16." 


For his Hor/^-Jfriend lieu* Newton ifiese at his house, Durham. 

Brother Newton,^ — I thought much to give my CouDtrjmen 
any cause of complayut therefore before I made you a returae of the 
defects I tooke the trouble vpon me to acquainte all y* petty consta* 
bles withm this division of my Lord Lieat and deputy Lieutnt* order 
made hi that behsdfe. And I finde none as yet relVactory in all the 
sayd division but Garth the High Constable and John Hobsoo of 
Haughton-on-the-side who doth positively refuse to obey any such 
order as the bearer here off and his partner will inform you. Who 
according to my captaines command is come to wayte vpou you for that 
purpose. My capt. desires you to procure them warrants of distress 
from the deputy Lieut* n* according to act of Parliament and to ac- 
quainte my Lord and the deputy Lieut'n* how obstinate they are: if 
they be not made examples there will be but small appearance vpon 
the like occasion. The poore soldiere are forced to goe and seeke there 
pay whereas indeede they ought to bring it them and oftentimes gets 
their labour for their paynes and travell and at the best their pay without 
consideration for their journey. S' this Garth who ought to shew good 
examples to the country is most obstinate and an unworthy person as 
partly you know you'selfe all which abuses I hope you will see recti- 
fied. S' I shall trouble you noe further but that i am 

y' loving Brother 

Edderley Fehr the 24/A 1665, RICH. SMELT. 


John Daxosons retume. 

Im^ He wants for two generall muster days of Garth 
I' And for y* march to Durha' about y* plott 
I* For a new scabbard - - . • 

I< For fixing hb musquett and dressing his Sword 
I* For a new sword belt - • . . 

For powder which he was forced to buy - 

He wants a chollar of Bandelenes. 

His red coate is made contrary to order. 














18 0« 

This bearer hath been d tjrmes to demand this s&me of Garth and 
rpon his last demand gave this answer. That he would not odbey any 
such order for his father had lost more then either Darcy Smek ox 
Tom Newton and he cared not one straw for their orders neither would 
he pay any thing but what pleased himseUe. 


Henry Lowsons retumefor John Hobson off Houghton. 

s. d. 
Att the first meeting at Hartlepoole - - - - $ 

For dressing his sword and mending his scabbard - • 10 

For 3 tymes demanding it be 6 miles - - - 2 00 

Wants a chollar off Bandelenes 

Vpon his last demand Hobson told him that he cared not for the 
officers and he would try it out to the last end and that the officers 
had not any thing to doe with them when they were out of service 
and that he would pay what he pleased. 



" A Copy of a Vre sent to ye severall captaines ofy^ voluntiers appointing 
a Bendtvauz vpon y 7<* of September 1665/' by JoHN CousiN 
S. T. P. Bishop of Durham. 

Sir, Auckland Castle September 9. 65. 

Having rec'' command frcmi bis Ma^^ to take care that y* voluntiers 
listed under you as their Captain be in readines to serve him: and 
being desirous to know in what readines and p'sent posture they are 
in this time of daily informations coming to his Ma^ ag* disaffected 
and disloyall persons who intend to disturb his Royall and peaceable 
governm^ both in Church and State ; I have thought it fitt to summon 
you and yo' Voluntiers together to shew themselues their horse armour 
and amunition that I may be the better able to render an account 
thereof (as I am required to do) both to his Ma*^ and to his Royall 
Highnes the Duke of York whose progress into this Countrey may 
happen to be sooner than is yet made known to us : — 

I do therefore appoint that upon Thursday next by ten of y* clock 
in y* fforenoone you and yo' company or troop of Voluntiers do pre- 
sent yo'selves at y* White Crosse upon Spanymoore where I have 
appointed yo' ffellow Captines and their troops to meet you at y* same 
time : and where wee may advise and agree together upon a time that 
will be fitt for some or all of you that are Captines to go and p'sent 
yo'selues in y* name of y' Lieuten** and this County palatine unto his 
Royall Highnes the Duke of York and there manifest the readines of 
us all and the p'sent posture wherein wee are to serve his Ma*' and 
our Countrey under the blessed p'tec'con of Almighty God to whom 
I commend you and rest 

Yo' very assured ffriend and servant. 


DUNELM ss. July 3. 1666. — By the Lord lieutenant and Deputy Lieu^ 
tenants at a meeting at Aukland Castle^ according to the Kings letter 
dated y^ 25a day of June 1666. 

It is ordered as followetb, viz*. 

1. That in case of any invasion or sudden alarm by firing of Bea- 
cons or otherwise the Friends of this County shall resort to these seve- 
ral posts and places, viz^ 

The Coir company 
Lieuten** Coll' company 
and Capt. Darcy's company 
Capt. Belasys company 
Capt Conyers company 
Capt. Bakers company 
Major Belasys company 
Capt. Carrs company 
Capt. Hedworths company 
Capt. Fetherstons Troop . 
Capt. Halls Troop 

to the City of Durham 

to Hartlepoole 

to Sunderland 

to Sunderland 
to Hartlepoole 

And that these Deputy lieutenants shall be p'sent at y* said several I 
posts in such cases, y\z\ 
S' Nicholas Cole 
Baron Hilton 
and M' Henry Lambton 
S' W» Blackiston 
Mr Ra : Davison 
and Mr W» Blackiston 
Mr High Sherifie and all y^ reste of y* deputy lieutenants, at the 
City of Durham. 

2. That p'sent order be given by y* High Constables for y sufli- 
cient watching of these Beacons following and firing as occasions shall 
reqvire tipon the landing of an enemy that is to say 


at Sunderland 

at Hartlepoole 


1 Whitebourne Beacon. ^ 

2 Wardenlaw 
S EastngtOR 
4 Hart. 

3. That the severall Companies and troops shall be mustered, and 
special notice taken of all defects or insnfficiencj of men^ horse, arms 
or amunition, and the same aecoimt to be delivered in writing by the 
Muster master forthwith after such musters to y^ JJ Keuten* and that 
the act of Parliam* be put in execution w*** y* utmost rigour! 

The Coir company and the majors company on monday the ninth 
instant at Pittkigton Hall Garth.* 

Capt Belasys and Capt. Conyers at Sedgfield upon tuesday the tenth 
being p'sent Coll* Tempest Coll' Byerley Mr Cuthbert Carr and Mr 
Ra : Davison. 

Capt Darceys and Capt Baker's and Lieuten^ Coil's company at 
Hunwick edge tuesday y* seventeenth. Coll* Byerley Mr Cuthbert 
Carr and Mr Ralph Davison to be p'sent. 

Capt. Carr and Capt. Hedworths company upon Chester south 
Moore, Wednesday the eighteenth. S' Nicholas Cole, Baron Hil« 
ton and Mr Henry Lambton to be p'sent. 

The two troops of Horse on thursday y* nineteenth at y* white Crose 
upon Spany-moore, where all y' deputy lieuten^ are to be p'sent. 

And that warrants be sent out (o y* High ConstabTes to give notice 
thereof accordingly. 

That Capt. Newton provide 6 Barrells of powder or more, and lay 
them up in Durham Castle to be in a readiness for y* service of y» 
countrey, and for y* paym* thereof and other necessaries that an order 
be made for laying on a weekes cess upon y* Countrey according to 
act of ParlittiD'. 





=* Sir Nicholas Cole Mr Wm Blackiston Mr Henry Lambton to be present at Pittington. 



My L0RD-7-I should be ashamed thus to pass by your Lo**' and 
not tender my duty, but really my order was to make all expedition 
to my garrison and here meeting with S' Gilbert Gerard, I was glad 
that he might beare me witnes of m? trouble that I did not waite on 
your Lo***'. Saturday is appointed to meete att Sunderland, where we 
shall meete with your Lo*****'* commands by which we ar to direct. I 
want your commission to act, which when receaued I shall take as a 
great honor conferrd on him that is 
my honord Lord 

your most fTaithfull obedient seruant 

Durham Thurs: Noon 6t/i June 67. EDWARD VILUERS. 

TTits to the most right honorable the Lord of Duresme 
Present most humbbf. 

To the right honourable JoHN Lord Bishop of Durham at his Castle at 

Aukland, these. 

Sunderland by the Sea June the Tth 1667. 
Right honourable, — We did according to your Lo*pps orders 
draw our companyes and troops to this place on tuesday last the same 
night and the next day we were entertained w'* a most violent storme 
w'^ had a lamentable effect upon a fleet of 100 light colliers coming 
from the southward and being in sight of this port when the storme 
began. We heare of many cast away upon this coast and by the 
judment of able seamen it is doubted that at the least one halfe of them 
is lost. We thought it our dutyes to give your Lo'pp this sad account, 
but we are in hopes that if the Dutch fleet were out they would run 
the same risque, and secure us for some time from any attemp from 
them. We shall be circumspect and diligent in our stations and be 



ready to observe what further orders shall be transmitted from your 

Lordshipp to 

your bumble servants 


Gretham June the 7. 1667 
My Lord, — By the inclosed yower Lord will know Coll : Villers is 
com down, and no dowtt his Maie< does susspektt ther desin may be 
upon thes costes, I haue bin at Hartellpole, wher the ffine compenies 
ar; and I shall consult with the ofBsers both towching the strengthen- 
ing of the wekestt plases, as also what pleases ar mostt requiset ffor them 
to kipe ther gardes. I am too mett Col : Villers too morrow att Sun- 
derland, with som off the ofiiesers, I shall expektt too hear ffrom yower 
Lord and yower comands shall be faithfuly obaied by 

Your Lord obedientt sone and faithffull seruant 


Iff yower Lord thinke fiitt too haue Col : Villers and the deputi 
Lifftenants too mette yower Lord upon Monday att Durham, ffor 
Aukland they can nott be bake the same daie where ther command 
lies. This I thought ffitt too offer too yower Lord consideration. 
For the rightt honoraV my Lord the Bishope off Durham 
att his castell at Auktand 

Gretham the 10 off June 1667. 

My Lord, — I am mor then in an ordinary trobell thatt I doo nott 

wait off yower Lord too Wolsingam butt in case I wear absentt iff the 

dutch should apear hear, I should be very much sensured ffor itt and 

mightt hazard the kinges fauer, ffor I writt my Lord Gerard word thatt 

* See Surtees' Hist, of Durham, Vol. I. cxiv. 


my staie was only too attend the kinges seruis in thes parties^ besides 
too morrow and the next day ar oflF Grettestt danger the spring tide 
being the mostt likly time for them too make ther atempt iff they 
have any desin on thes partes. Pardon my, Mye honored Lord in this 
my motion. Iff yower Lord goo too WoUsingam nott too declare 
yower judgment and resolution in thatt bisnes wilstt yower Lord is 
ther upon the plase, ffor they will be importinatt in ther aplications, 
hoping yower Lord will mediatt ffor me with my wife I rest 

Yower Lord obedient sone and most faithfull servant too comand 

For the Right honorabell my lord the Bishope oj^ Durham 
utt his castell in Attkland with my duty present. 

South Sheelds June the 23th 1667. 
May it please yo' Lordshipp to be certiffyed that this day wee haue 
had an alarme, and according to yo' Lordshipps direction I made all 
in reddienesse, it came about ten of the clocke, or rather after and 
about two of the clocke I marched w**" my company consisting 180: 
and : od men to the sea side where we staid a while but heareing litle 
of any of the Hollands men of warr and pceuieing it to be some doubt 
of severall men that the Hollands ffleate were coming downe to y« 
Norward by reasin the windes were ffare there being none of them 
seene at sea except onely a suspition of one or two privateers : I with 
drew home againe and intend God willing to haue my company in 
armes againe to morrowe and so intreat yo' Lordshipp that you will 
be pleased to send by this bearer our commissions that wee may be in 
better capacitye for to doe service to his Ma^* and Countrye w**" my 
service to yo' Lordshipp I rest. 

Yo' serant to be commanded 

For the right reverend ffather in god John L^rd Bishop 
of Durham these p^sent — Durham zv*^ speede^ 


An Account of certain Arrow Heads, of bronze, found near Mount Cau- 
casus, and communicated to the late Rev. J. D. Carlyle, by his 
Excellency M. Tomara, Ambassador for Russia at Constantinople. — 
See plate VK. 

Mrs, Beilby, through Mr. Adamson, the Secretary, presented to the 
Society in August, \%\7, a Roman Ear Ring, an Arrow Head of 
bronze, and drawings of twenty other Arrow Heads, accompanied with 
the following memorandum in the handwriting of the late Mr. Beilby: 

" When the late Rev. J. D. Carlyle was at Constantinople, be was 
told by the Russian Ambassador, that there had been discovered on a 
large plain, at the foot of Mount Caucasus, such immense quantities 
of heads of arrows, made of copper, that fourteen furnaces were em- 
ployed at that time in melting them down. By what nation they had 
been deposited, or at what time, was equally unknown, as no accounts 
had been handed down of any battles having been fought there -, but 
even in that way it would be a difficult matter to account for the pro* 
digious quantities found there, or for what purpose they had been 
accumulated. Mr. Carlyle's curiosity was so much excited by the 
account, that in order to gratify it as far as possible, the Ambas- 
sador wrote for a small box of them, which he afterwards forwarded to 
Athens, where Mr. Carlyle then had gone." The drawings were 
made by Mr. Beilby from a selection of the originals. 

The following account of them, also accompanied with drawings,* 

^ The plate represents the drawings of the arrow heads made by Mr. Beilby, together 
with such of those sent by Miss Carlyle as appear to diflfer from them. 

Plate JX 

MMm/j^n, Scu/jff 


was sent by Miss Carlyle, daughter to the late Mr. Carlyle^ in a letter 
to James Losb, Esq. dated Carlisle, May 15th« 1818 : 

^' I think I told you the history of the arrows, as far as we are po^ 
sessed of it. The existence of a plain at the foot of Mount Caucasus, 
so thickly covered with arrow heads, that for some years fourteen 
forges have been employed in melting them, was mentioned to my 
father by the Russian Ambassador, M. Tomara, at Constantinople in 
1800, and on my father's expressing a wish to see specimens of the 
arrows, the Ambassador sent into Tartary for a box of them. It did 
not arrive at Constantinople, until after my father had left that place ; 
and it was conveyed to him at Athens by Mrs. Nisbet. This precluded 
all further inquiries at the time ; and my father's state of health pre- 
vented his investigating the subject after his return to England. 

** I do not recollect whether 1 added to this account, that Major 
Leake, who was present when the arrows were mentioned by the Am- 
bassador, saw those in our possession, some years since, and on exa- 
mining them he said, that he thought they were of Turkish workman- 
ship, and precisely the same as those which are now used by the Turks. 
This opinion it is but justice to tell, though I fear it is very unfavour- 
able to our theory of the Scythians." 


An Account of a Roman Ring found at Halton Chesters^ and of a bos 
relief Figure of Neptune^ found at Carraw, in Northumberland, in a 
Letter to John Adamson, F. A. S. 8Cc. 8Cc. from J. Trevelyan, 
Esq. of Wallington. 

^^ The enclosed are three sketches of a Gold Ring in the possession 
of Lady Blackett, of Matfen. The north part of Hunnum, now Hal* 
ton Chesters, having been removed on the 5th of Aprils 1803, the 
tenant^ Mr. Thomas Bates, discovered the ring in good preservation. 
A small blue stone^ with an engraving of a human figure, habited in 
a Roman toga, is set in it. Its weight is 6 draphms and 15 grains. 


*' The other is a sketch of a has relief, found at Carraw, near the 
Roman station, Procolitia. Its greatest height is 2 feet 10 inches, and 
breadth 2 feet 8 inches. It is now at Wallington. 


" WaUingtotiy September 17, 1817." 


An Account of some Antiquities found at Norby Estate ^ in Norway, in a 
Lettei'from Mr. PETERSON to the Rev. John Hodgson, Sec. 

In the county of Laurvig, in Norway, there is an estate called Norby, 
the property of Gulbrand Rosenberg, on which is a burial ground, 
which belongs to a very remote period. It consists of numerous bar- 
rows, or conical heaps of earth, and forms a parallelogram of about 
400 feet long and 150 feet broad. 

Several of these barrows have been opened. Some of them for the 
purpose of removing their materials for making roads, and others with 
the hope of finding jewels in them, or ornaments formed of the pre- 
cious metals. In my visit to Norby in the spring of this year, Gul- 
brand Rosenburg presented me with the articles hereafter enumerated, 
on condition that I would present them to the Antiquarian Society of 

1. The fragments of an earthen jar, which were found in the barrow 
that was first opened. The clay of which it is made is of a very coarse 
kind, resembling the fire clay used about Newcastle : it is also very 
slightly burnt, being of a black colour. The inner surface of these 
fragments is covered with a sooty substance, and the outside of its neck 

2^ has been stamped all over with a figure of the quarry or 
iMiL diamond form, thus. It was placed near the centre of the 
^Sfi^ barrow, and had a stone, like a hand millstone, put upon it 
^9^ as a cover. The hole of the millstone was stopped with No. 

3. A sling stone, which is in the form of an egg, but flattened on 
one side. It is 4 inches long, 2{ inches in diameter in its thickest part. 


and ^i in the thickest part of the flatted side. It weighs one pound 
eleven ounces and a half avoirdupoise, and consists of iron-stone. It 
is grooved with four lines, dividing it equally into four parts, in a lon- 
gitudinal direction, and meeting at each end of it. These groove3 
would seem to have been for the purpose of fastening it to a cord ; 
and I suppose that it has been thrown from the hand and regained by 
one end of the cord being kept secure, in the same manner as the 
Morgan Rattler was used in the late Irish rebellion. 

After finding the above noticed articles, the barrow was dug through 
to the level of the adjoining ground; where, from the blackness of the 
earth, pieces of charcoal, burnt bones, and melted pieces of metal, it 
was conjectured that the bodies of the person or persons interred in it 
had been burnt. 

I conversed with the person who was present when the urn. No. 1, 
was found. He is a joiner, of the name of Lind, and lives in the 
neighbourhood of Norby. He told me that the millstone was thrown 
aside, and the urn broken by the men who found it, for they tossed it 
away, disappointed that it contained no treasures. 

The same person was also present at the opening of another of these 
barrows, in which a human skeleton was found. The body did not 
•appear to have been laid in a horizontal, but in a sloping position in 
the ground, the feet being a little inclined ; but this position might 
probably have been occasioned by some partial sinking of the ground. 
The whole skeleton was perfectly entire, but fell to pieces as soon 
as touched. It was only of the ordinary stature of man, and no metals 
or other antiquities were found with it. 

There have also been found in these barrows, at different periods, 
the following articles : — 

3. An axe of steel, seven inches long between its mouth and the 
back of its helve-hole. Its mouth is four inches broad, and the helve- 
hole wider next the back than the mouth. 

E e 


4. A steel spear, fourteen inches long, much blistered and rendered 
brittle with rust. 

5. A very powerful bridle bit of iron, with an iron ring, three inches 
and a half in diameter, and other i^ppendages of iron attached to each 
side of it. Also fragments of two other iron rings, having the resem- 
blance of swivels, and some other articles, which may have belonged 
to the reins of a bridle ; but which are much blistered with rust. 

6. A bason, seven inches in diameter, and two inches and three- 
quarters deep, formed out of a sort of stone, which in Norway is still 
made into vessels, which are used for boiling in, as pipkins are in 
England. It has had an iron handle fastened upon it, the rivets of which 
still remain in its sides ; and it has also been broken, and re-united 
with wires and small iron cramps. The stone of which it is made is of 
a grey colour, shining, and micaceous, and so soft as to be readily 
turned upon a lathe. In modern books of mineralogy it is called 
Lapis oUaris s in Norway, Kittlesiienj Grodstierty and Fitstien; and 
in England, Potstone : and it is probably of the same sort as that 
which Pliny says was formerly got in Sifano, and which was hollowed 
out, and turned into vessels used for cooking victuals in, and for culi- 
nary purposes ; and concerning which there are some curious notices 
in De Laet on Gems, collected from Gesner, Agricola, Scaliger, and 

Newcastle upon Tyne, 7lh JufiCy 1820. 


A?i Account of a sepulchral Inscription, discovered at Little Chesters, in 
the County of Northumberland, by the Rev. ANTHONY Hedley, A. M, 

(Read January 3d, 1821.) 

The Roman Station of Little Chesters, (Vindolana) though mentioned 
in the Notitia as one of the stations per lineam Valliy is distant from it 
upwards of a mile. It is, however, little more than half a mile from 
Hadrian's Vallum, which runs here at a considerable distance south- 
ward from the wall of Severus. It is situated upon the Via Vicinalis, 
which took the shortest direction from Walwick Chesters (Cilurnum) 
to Carrvorran (Magna.) This ancient military way, in many places still 
very perfect, is, with slight occasional repair, part of the township 
road, and is called by the country people the Causeway. A Roman 
mile stone, six feet high, buk without any inscription, is now standing 
upon it about fifty yards east from the station, and twelve or fourteen 
years ago, another was standing a mile to the west. Could the precise 
spot where the latter stood be determined, and the road accurately 
measured between the two, might it not assist in settling the contested 
point about the length of the miles expressed by the numbers of the 
Itinerary ? 

Vindolana being a British appellation, and signifying in that lan- 
guage, the fort on the height, was perhaps originally a British post. — 
Situated on the southern confines of the territory of the Ottadini, it 
was probably one of a chain of fortresses erected by them against their 
powerful neighbours, the Brigantes. There is reason to believe that 
it was taken possession of, and garrisoned, with many of the neigh- 
bouring stations, by the Romans, when Agricola brought this part of 
the island into subjection. An inscription found here, and mentioned 
by Horsley, seems to refer to Trajan, the predecessor of Hadrian, who 


died A. D. 117- It is quite certain, at least, from another inscription, 
mentioning Calphurnius Agricola, who was proprastor under Marcus 
Aurelius, that there was a garrison here about A. D. 165. And we 
know from the Notitia, which is supposed to have been compiled in the 
time of the second Theodosius, viz. about A. D. 445, and immediately 
before the withdrawing of the Roman forces from Britain, that it was 
then garrisoned by the Cohors quarta Gallorum. It seems, therefore, 
to have been occupied by the Romans during the whole of their stay 
in the northern part of our island. 

Little Chesters became my property in 1814, by purchase, from the 
heirs of Mr. William Lowes, who is mentioned by Wallis as the pro- 
prietor in his time. 

In the spring of 1818, the tenant having occasion for stones to build 
a fence, had recourse to some rudera near the ramparts of the station, 
which (horresco referens) had, for time immemorial, been the common 
quarry of the farm, and partly of the neighbourhood, for almost every 
purpose for which stone is wanted. On digging in front of its east 
entrance, where the ground slopes down very swiftly to a rivulet, called 
Bardon Burn, his labourer discovered a flight of stone steps, leading 
up this declivity, to the entrance itself. On clearing away the rubbish 
about the gateway, the wall on the left was found perfectly entire to 
the height of six feet, and about eight feet in width, the usual thickness 
of the wall of Severus. The entrance was about six feet wide, and 


had the ordinary bolt hole atid cheeks for the door worked in the 
masonry. The wall on the right had been thrown down nearly to its 
foundation, and among its ruins was found a monumental stone in ex- 
cellent preservation, now in the collection at Wallington. It is an 
oblong square, 26 inches by 21, and perfectly devoid of ornament, 
excepting a plain moulding in relief, as a kind of bordering. Its back 

is rugged and unhewn, so that it must have been built up in a wall. 

It contains the following inscription, in letters so clear and distinct, 
and so little obliterated by exposure to the weather, that it seems to 
have been set up not long before the overthrow and abandonment of 
the station. 




IV |«?P'V|iCMl^'LV'D-Xl 


Which 1 read thus : — 







There is some difficulty in the letters S. C. Gruter, in one instance, 
renders them Sibi Curavit, and nothing is more certain than that the 
Romans often made preparations for their own sepulchral monuments 
during their life time, as we learn from the frequently recurring ex- 
pressions " vivus fecit sibi" — '^ sibi vivus ponendum curavit," &c. : but 
in our inscription, the ** conjux procuravi," about the meaning of 
which there can be no doubt, seems to be at variance with this sup- 
position. I am inclined to agree, therefore, with an antiquarian friend, 
who thinks that the letters in question dewote the military rank or 
office of Cornelius Victor, and I know of nothing for which they can 
stand, except the reading I have ventured to assign. Though the 
eagle was the general standard of the legion, it may be inferred from 
several passages in the classics,* that each cohort had its particular 
-signum, as well as its own signifer. The following instance, referred 
to below from the Commentaries, is very express. In the engagement 
between Ciesar and the Nervii we are told ** quartse cohortis omnibus 
centurionibus occisis, signiferoque interfecto* signo amisso/' &c. Cor- 
nelius Victor, a native of Pannonia or modern Hungary, and who had 
served twenty-six years, might therefore die, signifer y or standard bearer, 
of the Cohors quarta Gailorum. 

The labourer, never, I believe, consulting his employer, tore 
up, without any compunction, the fine flight of steps leading to 
the gateway, and likewise rased to its very foundation, the wall on 
the right. Had he fortunately left every thing as he found it, the dis- 
covery would have presented one of the most gratifying sights to the 
Antiquary, now to be met with on the line of the wall. There is now, 

* Cs8. B. G. il 25. Liv. xxvii. 15. Taa Ann. i. 18. HisU i. 41. 


alas ! little to be seen, and excepting in two or three, I am afraid not 
much more to be discovered in any of them. It is melancholy to 
reflect that these eighteen immense magazines of Roman Antiquities 
should have been almost completely rifled, and no one good collection 
formed of their contents, as a great proportion of the articles that have 
been dug up has, if not destroyed by the ignorance of their chance 
discoverers, either perished through neglect, or been divided among a 
great many private museums, as well as a few public ones in different 
parts of the kingdom. And it is strange, that from the time of Cam- 
den, who first explored them with an antiquarian eye, down to our 
own, nothing, or next to nothing, has been done towards systematically 
clearing the ground plan of one of these stations. Might not a por- 
tion of the funds of this Society be usefully and legitimately employed 
in an attempt of this kind? Great Chesters, Housesteads, and Rising- 
ham in Reedwater, each still afford a promising field for this kind of 
research. Haifa dozen labourers for a fortnight, at an expense of not 
more than five pounds, would clear away much of the rubbish from 
any one of these stations, and not only discover, it is to be hoped, 
many curious and precious fragments of antiquity, but throw a very 
interesting and desirable light on the stationary economy of the Ro- 
mans> and on the form and arrangement of their castra stativa. 

Summer HiUy January 2d, 1821. 


An original Letter of the Reign of Henry VIII. without the date of the 
yeary in the Chapter House^ fVestmimtery with observations thereon, 
in a Letter from John CalEY, Esq. F. S. A. 8Cc. S^c. to the Rev. 
John Hodgson, Secretary. 

Gray's Inn^ London^ 21rf March, 1 82 1. 
Dear Sir, 

In arranging some papers of the reign of King Henry the Eighth, 
under my custody, in the Chapter House, Westminster, I met with a 
letter of which I inclose you a copy j and if you think it sufficiently 
interesting to be laid before the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, I 
beg you will present it to them with my respects. 

The writer, William Lord Dacre (commonly called Lord Dacre 
of the North), was the eldest son of Thomas Lord Dacre, who by 


marriage wiib Elisabeth, iousiti ahd heir to Aftt^h Lord Oreysiok^, 
obtained that estate^ 

William Lottl DlK)re, aocfordtng t6 DligdAlei* succeeded hid father 
ifi 17. Henry VIII. and, by the title of William Lord Dacre of Gilles- 
land and Oreystoke, had spedial litery of all the landH of hit itiherHMte. 

In the i2d of thiB reigh he was ode of the Lords ttho gubserib^ the 
letter sent to Pope Clement the Seventh, intknating thai, in c^t he 
did not comply with King Hfinry the Eighth's defiir^i, iit the mait*r df 
the diYorcc from Queen Katherin« of SpaiA^ his supremacy in this 
realm was not likely to be long allowed, f 

This Lord wte, in the 26th year of this reigfl, ttccilsed Of treason by 
Sir Ilalph Fenwyke^ Knt* and one Mosgrav^, and was tried at West- 
minster in that year, but acquittefd. He died in 6th Elizabeth, leaving 
a numerons issue. There is no date of the year when this letter wils 
written, btit thid point may, perhaps^ be asceriained from iid contents. 
I have caused a fac-simile to be made of his subscription to it^ and I 
also r^close to you An impression, on wa^, of his seat to the letter sent 
to Pope Clement the Seventh. 

I am, deai< Sir, 

Very faithfully yoAr*^, 


Rev. John HodgsoUy He. SCc. 8Cc. 

The following is LoRD DaCRE's LeUer. 

Pleasit your Highnes to be advertised. 
The King of Scotts haith bene all along his Northwest Bordours be- 
gynnyng at Glasgew, and fromethens to the Tawne of Aire, and so to 

* Baronage, vol. ii. page 24. 

f The original letter is in die Chapter Mocme, Westminster, and is prinMd in Rymer. 



Sainct Nintains in Gallowaye^ and upon Fridaye at Night last being 
the xxvij daye of June he was in Dumfreis being xxiiij myles ffome 
Carlisle And in bis comyng to Dumfreis he vieved and sawe the thre 
grete peces of Ordinannce brought by the Duke of Albany (when he 
shulde have comen to Carlisle and then retorned to Warke) w^ two Hun- 
drethe shott of Irne for the same Gonnes. And upon Satturdaye the 
xxviij day he came to Loughemaban viij myles athisside Dumfreis and 
ther remaigned all Sondaye and upon Mondaye the last daye he re- 
torned Homewardes to Peblis and so to Striveling. There was in his 
companye not above xxx psonnes and noon of his Counsaill except 
his Treasourer and w^ hym the Lardes Flemyng and Avendale. 

Pleas it yo' Highnes also ther is a Gentelman of Wailes his Wif and 
viij'^ psonnes with theim Landed at Sainct Niniains afore the king 
cam thidder in a Barge who names hym self uncle to Ryse of Wailes. 

Pleas it also your Highnes upon Fridaye laste the Scottsmen of 
West Tevidale to the nomber of foure Hundrethe psonnes cam into 
Beawcasteldale and ther haithe taken frome your Highnes Subiects 
and tennte and my poore tennts ther sevin score Hede of catell and 
Brint vj Houses. I have writtin unto your Grace commissioners for 
reformacion thereof. And the Holy Goost p's'ue your Highnes. At 
Graistok the Second Daye of Julye. 


To the Kings Highnes my Sau*ain Lorde. 
Haist post haist te^ diligence. 

At the bottom of the letter, in another hand, is written 


Some Account of an ancient Plan of Tj/nemouth, in the County of North- 
umberland, in a Letter from the Rev. JoHN HoDGSON to JoHN 
ADamson, Esq. Secretary. 

Dear Sir, 

I VERY readily comply with your request to give some account of the 
plan of Tynemouth, which the Society has ordered to be published. 
The Society's attention was drawn to it and another plan of the same 
place, about two years since, by the Rev. John Smith, Vicar of New- 
castle, from the following notices of them in vol. iii. p. dlO, of the 
new edition of the Monasticon : — 

" I. What this Priory must have been in its best days may be, in 
some degree, gathered from a ^' Platte" or plan of the peninsula on 
which it stands, made in the time of Queen Ellizabeth, ^' after 160 fote 
to one inche," still preserved in the Cottonian manuscript AUGUS- 
TUS I. vol. ii. art. 6. From this we learn, that, entering from 
Tinmouth town over a wide moat and ** draw-brydge," stood " the 
Ward House j" with what was called " the Vtter Forte" to the right ; a 
neck of land projecting from which, and rounding off parallel with 
that part of the peninsula on which the abbey itself stood, formed '* the 
Priour*s Haven." A little to the left of the draw-bridge already men- 
tioned was " the Gate House," in the way from which to " the Great 
Court," right and left, were the ** Kylne*' and " Constable Lodgyng," 
the " Backhouse," and " Mylne." To the left, near the brink of the 
cliff, was the " Gonnors Lodge" and ** the Pultre Yard :" then " the 
North Walk," with two barns, a barn yard, a " garner", three sets of 


stables, and a cow house. In the centre of the area which formed the 
complete site was the " Abbey kyrke," to the east of which was ** the 
Gardyn place." ' The west end of the abbey church, somewhat nar- 
rower than the main building, as being apparently without ailes, is 
marked as the *' parysh kirk." North of this, apparently fronting to 
the Great Court already named, was the " Priors Lodgyng." The 
** Chs^pter House" and "Dortor," or dormitory, (continuing from which 
was the edifice named '' Lords Lodgyng") adjoined the south side of 
the choir of the abbey church, forming the east side of the cloister; 
part of the parish church formed the north, the " Common Aule" the 
west, and the " Newe Aule" the south sides. South of the common 
h^\\ wer^ the " Boterye Aule and Ke.tchyn :" and then ** the South 
Court" Qccupyipg the r^n^aining space to the cliffy which overlooked the 
Prior's haven. North of the buttery hall and kitchen was ** the Ender 
Cowyt," with the " New J^Qdgyn|r" ^nd " Bru house." The whole pre- 
cinct of th§ ahbey wa3 surrounded by a strong wall : that part of the 
site towards Tinmouth, being unprotected by the sea, i^ppears to have 
been rendered dpubly strong by a wall and ditch. Adjoining the ditch 
to the south west of the town of Tinmouth were the " olde Fish Pownds; 
nqw an olde dyke." 

" II. Another " Pla^ttQ," or Plan of Tinmouth, a kind of bird's eye 
viewjj inQlnding the Cattle, occurs in the same volume of the Cotto- 
nian xnanuscript^, art. 7> but without any explanation of the different 
parts of th§ building." 

The Society has also been at the expence of procuring a fac-simile 
of this plan -^ but as it is more rudely drawn than the otheB, it has 
not been thoqght worthy of publication. It haa the admeasurement 
of places upon it, extends acrojss the Tyfte to *^ Jarrow Abbey j" and 
appears to have been draiwn for the purposes of some engineer, who 
W8^s prohal?ly engaged in fortifying the plaice. It nray be cjurious for 
the Society to know that the sanfie volume of the Cottonis^n Manu^ 
scripts contains a large " Pl^n of BaJOibx>rough, 20 foot to this Inche;" 


a rude bird's eye view of Newcastle and Gateshead ; and a well exe- 
cuted plan of the course of the Tyne from Newcastle to Tynemouth. 
This latter is on vellum, and has a '^ Scale contaynyne : S : English 
Miles.*' In one corner is written ** 28 fadom." It is coloured with 
green, red, and gold, and has a neat border of the same colours. The 
depth of the river is put down in several places^ and this explanation 
given : — " This River hathe in the Enleringe : a : barres or shovllds, 
and is the proporcione with the depthe figurede at low water. In 
springe tides it hoyeth : 12 : foote and in neppe tydes : 8 : fotte, \€fye 
nedfolle it is that there were at every pointe of sand or Rockes a 
becone or a boye, for it hoye watter, bothe sands and rockes are un* 
der watter, even to the mane lande." The places marked on the south 
side of it are: ^' Soothe Shills, Javeltre,. Leden hoke, Sainte Jarmans, 
Newe Balliste Kye, Gateside." On the north side : ** Tilmouth 
(Tynemouth) abby. The pointe of Sparhavck, Muskel scalp, North 
Sbitlfi, Sc .tte Sand, Flatter nesse, Longreche, Hanks Bill, Saint tan- 
tones^ Biker Sand, Saint Lorance, Balliste Kye, Bornne> Stonne Shore^ 
New<:asteH uppon Tine." 

It may be necessary to remark that the annexed plate is reduced 
one-third from the original size, and is on a sc^Ue of 240 feet to one 


I am, dear Sir, 

Wevy truly your's, 



Extract from a German Pamphlet, intitled '^ A Tour along the DeviFs 
Wall,'' published as a Specimen of a projected History of Bavaria^ 
1)V J. Andreas Buchner, Professor at the Royal Bavarian Lyceum 
at Regensberg , translated by the Rev. HuGH Salvin. 

The fortification-line of the Romans upon the left bank of the Da* 
nube, called the Devil's Wall, may be reckoned among the great works 
of this people, hitherto unique in the history of the world. The Em- 
peror Hadrian, who during his glorious reign from the year 1 18 — 137, 
visited all the provinces of his empire, to provide upon the spot what- 
ever might be necessary, first projected the plan of this undertaking. 

Every where, at the extremities of his dominions, where the inroads 
of the barbarians were not opposed by rivers or other natural bounda* 
ries, skilfully constructed walls or mounds arose at his command. 
One such was built in Britain, eighty Roman miles long, from one sea 
to the other, from Newcastle upon Tyne to Carlisle iu Cumberland. 
The Emperors Antoninus and Septimius Severus caused two others to be 
built, the latter thirty-two Roman miles in length, on the borders be- 
tween Scotland and England. 

The Britons have left nothing undone to make known to the world 
the remains of these wonders of their land, as they themselves call them, 
in expensive publications, adorned with the most costly plates. Who 
does not know the labours of a Camden, a Buchanan, Alexander Gordon, 
and others ? And yet their three walls taken together scarce equal the 
length of that, which, at this day more complete than the British 
was three hundred years ago, runs through the middle of Germany, and 


every where displays the remaiDS of Roman greatness. The Britons 
could only discover fragments: our Nordgau Woods exhibit this great 
Roman work in an unbroken line of more than one hundred and fifty Ro- 
man miles from 5— -6 foot thick, in many places still 6 above and 3—4 
under the surface of the ground. With its 150 towers and upwards, it 
passes along over the steepest mountains, over the most frightful abysses, 
through rivers and lakes, through the thickest woods : 1500 years have 
not been able to efface the vestiges of these towers, more than 50 of 
which still rise above the wall, often to the height of 13 feet. On its 
inner side, upon mountains, on the banks of rivers, and the public 
roads, are found large remains of castles and camps, and innumerable 
barrows cover the ashes of those, who on this boundary fell in battle for 
their sinking country. A work of this description, above all others 
connected with our native land, merits the especial regard of the anti- 
quary. Such a passage in our history would richly reward his re- 
searches concerning its builders, its destination, direction, size, original 
and present form, the public roads connected with it, and the forts, 
camps, and colonies lying along their track. 

I. That after the time of Hadrian, the Emperors Marcus Aureli us, 
Septimius Severus, and bis son Caracalla ; and further, Alexander Seve- 
rus and Maximinus, and others, laboured in prosecution of this work, 
to make it a bulwark against the incursions of the Germans, is no un- 
founded supposition ; but the person who brought it to completion, 
and gave it that form, which is exhibited in its remains, was undoubt- 
edly the Emperor Probus, between the years 276 — 280 after Christ. 
To him we must ascribe the masonry and the towers, probably also 
the roads, many castles and colonies. He gave to the Alemanni, who 
were the soldiers upon the frontiers, this land which had been taken 
away from them, upon condition that, in future, all the sons of 
such proprietors of the land, as soon as they had reached the age of 
eighteen, should enter into the Roman service, and defend the borders 
against the enemy. Under the protection of these bulwarks, the 


descendants of these border soldiers were enabled for 100 years longer 
to cultivate the fruitful lands, which stretch from Kellheim along the 
left bank of the Danube by Ingolstadt, Donaworth, Lauingen and 
Vlwy towards the south; then through Riess to Gunzenhausen, Dun- 
kelspiel and EJlwang. The n>any Roman roads, of which the traces 
are to be seen here more abundantly than elsewhere, the extraordinary 
number of barrows, camps and forts, a quantity of Roman coins, rings, 
gems, statues, armour, sepulchral urns, and other pieces of antiquity, 
which ha?e been found here in abundance for hundreds of years, and 
are still found, prove that in these regions, so highly favoured by na- 
ture, a numerous body of Romans had kept up a well-appointed estab- 

2. The original destination of this work was not so much defence, 
but rather to determine the boundaries of the Roman territory, and to 
form a line of separation from the Germans. With this intention the 
Emperor Hadrian caused a line to be drawn, from the place where 
the Danube ceased to be a natural line of defence, and strong piles of 
wood to be driven into the earth along its banks, near which ran a trench 
and a cotitinued mound of earth, in the manner of a wall. The Germans 
called this boundary line (Pfahl) or the " Stakes," from the materiak 
of which it was composed. The name has been retained to this day ; 
Pfakly Pfahlwerky Tfahbranken, Pfakbrainy Pfalhficke are the expressions 
by which the inhabitants in the neighbourhood denote this work: the 
name ^^ Devil's Wall," is not the primitive name, but had its origin in 
the superstition 6( the middle ages. Even many neighbouring districts^ 
meadows, fields, wells, brooks, wood^ &c. have borrowed their name 
from the Pfiaihl, or mound of Stakes, and either begin or end with this 
syllable. It also serves, even at this day, the purpose for which it was 
originally intended, as a line of demarcation between two plac^. Af- 
terwards, on the decline of the Roman power, when the Alemanni, the 
Burgundians, the Burii> and other neighbouring German tribes broke 
through the line of wooden piles, a«d ravi^ed the Roman territory, a 

wali built of st6ne succeeded to the mound of st^kes^ the boundary line 
became a line of defence, and assumed the form of a large, well de- 
fended fortification, with towers, camps, castles, trenches, palisadoes. 
That it was not the work of one year, nor even of a century, but the 
result of the continued exertions of the Roman legions and cohorts 
under several Emperors, will not be considered as an absurd suppo- 
sition by him, who has inclination and opportunity to take a view of 
the prodigious ruins of it which still remain. It was remarked by a 
peasant, a hundred years ago, to Doderlein, who had the merit of 
being the first to make enquiries about it, that its size and extent was 
so great, as to exceed the power of man to execute *, for that even 
to remove the superfluous rubbish, would require the labour of all the 
men and beasts of burthen in the surrounding country for years. 

The Emperor Probus put the finishing hand to it ; he built camps 
and castles, even beyond the line of the mound, upon the enemy's 
territories, in the most convenient situations. Fortresses also were 
erected on his own side of the line, along the great road, and camps 
with mound and ditch ; forming a second line behind the first. The 
traces of this road, and of these camps and castella are not only not 
destroyed, but considerable ruins of them are still visible. The Peu- 
tingerian table, composed in those times, points out several of them. 
If Clarenna is the Drakuina of Ptolemy, and this, as there is much 
reason to suppose, is the modern Ehingen on the Danube ; it is more 
than probable that the eleven stations between Abusina and Clarenna 
were castella placed in succession upon the road along the mound. 
The scale of miles given in the table, corresponds pretty exactly with 
the length of the road lying along the now well ascertained direction 
of the mound. 

3. The whole line of the fortification has been laid down and exe- 
cuted not by chance, but according to a well digested plan. Begin- 
ning, middle, and end — Celeusum, Medianis, and Ad Lunam, are 
nearly at equal distances, 50— -60 Roman miles from Augsburgh, the 

point from which it seems to have been projected. Celeusum, more 
properly Kellhusum— ^rom the Greek word Kax# and the Celtic hu- 
sum, lies three Romaa miles west of Abensburg, close to the Danube, 
400—500 paces above the village of Enning: traces of the castellum 
or camp, which the Romans constructed here, to protect the passage 
over the Danube, are still visible on the right bank. That on the 
opposite side, and also a part of the road, have been washed away by 
the waters of the river. The inhabitants of this country, from that 
time till now, have always been called by the name of Kellesgauer. 
A little brook, which breaks out from a mountain above Oetling, pure 
as silver, and cold as ice, with so much force, that in the space of its 
short course, hardly an hour long, it drives six mills, is called Kellsbach : 
the city itself, which the Romans probably built on the angle where 
the Altmiihl runs into the Danube, is named Kellhusum (Kelheim) the 
landing place for the ships, which sail down the Danube, and the first 
point of transit from Regensburg across the river. The fortifications 
which they constructed for the defence of this place were enormously 
large ; it was inclosed by five trenches (the two outermost of which were 
each two Roman miles in length, and two rivers. Even at this day» 
after the lapse of 1500 years, the outermost trench to the N. W. which 
extends 6 Roman miles from the waters of the Altmiihl to those of the 
Danube, is 50 — 60 feet high, and 20 — 30 feet broad. Over against it, 
on the right bank, on a hill, at whose foot the monastery of Welten- 
bfsrg lies in a wild romantic solitude, similar constructions are visible. 
Aventinus places a city upon this height, and gives it the name of 
Valentia, and further above a second, the well known Artobriga of 
Ptolemy. The mound of stakes begins a Roman mile above Valentia, 
and five miles still further above, over against the Artobriga of Aven- 
tinus, the station Celeusum, or the modern village of Enning, the Roman 
road begins beside the trench which is still visible, and is continued 
alopg its banks. 
4. The mound of stakes, which we shall henceforth call the Roman 


boundary wall, takes at its origin, close by the banks of the stream, a 
direction towards the N. W. and declines from the meridian at an angle 
of only 70 degrees. It proceeds in this direction SS Roman miles, and is 
not deflected by any natural impediment, however great, from a 
straight line, over the modem districts of Altman stein, Zandt, Kiipfen- 
berg, Erkertshosen, Raitenbuch, Oberdorf, Giindersbach, Gundelshalm, 
Gunzenhausen, and Lollenfeld, through all of which it runs. No 
mountain is so high, no abyss so steep, no wood so thick, no morass 
so profound, through which it does not penetrate. After having passed 
over a space of 58 Roman, or about 13 German miles, it makes the first 
angle, turns round, and takes the direction to the S. W. making an angle 
with the meridian of 60 degrees to the South, towards Eyberg and 
Denelohe, and over the Margraviate of Weyer to Hammerschmiede 
and Kreithof: it leaves Heselberg and the beautiful village of Ehingen 
lying at its foot, about a mile to the South, and continues its course in 
a straight line, cutting the mill of Untermiichelbach not far from the 
town of Moncksroth, across the Bavarian frontier into the Wirtemberg 
territory ; after which it passes, as one may conjecture, through 
Pfahlheim, Ellwangen, Gmiind, and Goppingen, towards Albe over 
against Urach, and thence to the sources of the Danube at Rottweil, 
in the neighbourhood of which ruins betray the former existence of a 
great Roman city. 

5. That a deep trench ran along the wall on its northern side, may 
not only be concluded from other circumstances, but it is yet to be 
seen in many places. When the wall was broken through and destroy- 
ed by the Germans in the fifth century, the stones were employed to 
fill up the trenches ; and therefore it is not possible, from the present 
remains, to determine, with certainty, its breadth, nor to speak of its 
height. I found it in many places 4 — 6, in others 10 — 12 feet broad. 
We may therefore perhaps conclude that its medium breadth was 6 — 7 
feet» and that its height, as corresponding to this breadth, might have 
been from 18 to 24. According to the form of the ground its founda- 


tions are two or three feet deep ; in many places I found it sunk in the 
earth from 5 to 6 feet. Any one who examines it may convince him- 
self, that it is built in the usual manner of masonry, and its stones 
cemented together with a kind of mortar. The foundations of the 
round towers, projecting on both sides, I oilen found to the height of 
& — 12 feet. The internal circumference of the stone work was about 
60 — 80 feet, the external as many paces. The traces of most of these 
towers have been annihilated by the revolutions of centuries, which 
have been employed in the destruction of this work. Yet I often found 
two in succession, and always at the distance of half an hour (or two 
miles); once even three at the same distance, whence I conclude that all 
these towers, (whether intended for observation or battle,) stood at the 
regular interval of one Roman mile. Barrows on both sides of the wall, 
both the German and Roman, meet the eye in great numbers, generally 
in the neighbourhood of the place, where stood the ruins of a camp, or 
fortified tower. That the Romans built camps and fortresses in advan- 
tageous situations cau admit of no doubt. The remains of a camp are 
visible dose at the beginning of the wall, not far from the bed of the 
Danube southward towards Hienheim, on eminences which the plough- 
share of the peasant has not been able to annihilate in 1500 years : 
still more distinct and larger on Michel's Mount, near Kiipfenberg. 
Roman castella stood at Schlossberg and Altmanstein. I have also 
found large remains of such castella in several places, as for instance, 
not far from the village of Petersbuch, by the entrance into the wood ; 
near Raitenbuch, near the linden tree at Hohberg, upon the Weil, at 
Haramerschmiede, &c. Their extent, their position upon hills„ on 
streams, and at the confluence of rivers, evidently shews that they 
were more than private buildings, that they were camps provided with 

6. Fortresses, still larger than these, lay behind upon the road, which 
ran at some distance from the wall. As the wall with its castella and 
towers formed the first and outward, so this formed a second line of 


defence. The road came from Regensburg atid Abensberg, and ran, 
as we have already said, by Celeusum, two Roman miles above the begin- 
ning of the wall across the Danube ; thence in a rectilinear direction to 
Oetling, where the enormously thick walls of a castle, sunk in the 
marshy ground of Kell, indicate its origin from the times of the 
Romans. From Oetling its direction passes through Tensing to Kosch- 
ing, which is two miles distant from the point of passage over the 
Danube. Aventinus found in the castle three stones with inscriptions, 
one of which is older than the year of Antoninus Pius's death. He 
names the place Caesarea, without giving his reason : but since the 
Germanicum of the [Peutingerian] table agrees with this country, 1 
believe one may with more probability place this station (i, e. Germani- 
cum) here, and transplant Vetonian is toPfinz (ad Pontes) IS Roman miles 
from Germanicum, upon the river Altmiihl. The coincidence of the 
distance, the straight direction of the road over Hepperg and Bemfeld 
to this place, the evident remains of a Roman fortress in the same place, 
and a district in the neighbourhood, which at this day bears the similar 
name of Wimpasing, are the reasons which determine me to this con- 
clusion. Near Pfinz, the road, without deflecting in the least from a 
straight line, takes a direction towards the village of Breit, and after 
passing forward three German or 14 English miles, in the district of 
Raitenbuch it approaches to the wall, and in the district of Fiiggenstall, 
not far from Oellingen is at last united with it, after dividing itself into 
two branches. At the place, where it sends an arm westward past Wild- 
sburg to Weissenburg, which is about 7 Roman miles distant, are to be 
seen considerable ruins of a fortress, to all appearance of great size. 1 
consider them to be the remains of Buricianis. The distance from Pfinz 
to Oberhochstadt, from which they are only one Roman mile, agrees to^ 
lerably well with the 18 Roman miles of the table, but entirely so with 
the position of Weissenburg, and still better with that of the old castle, 
which is a Roman mile off. The road which leads to it takes a direction 
full west For the space of about 5 Roman miles it is in a high state of 


preservation. We know that the Burgundii, and their neighbours the 
Burii have come into this country ; is it not likely that the Romans 
may have given their name to the piece of land which they took from 
them, and the castle built upon it ? A stone inscription, discovered at 
Abdach, bears testimony of a war with the Burii ; they opposed Marcus 
Aurelius in the war against the Marcomanni. But we should grossly 
deceive ourselves if we supposed this emperor to be the builder of 
Buricianis. That the Romans had great establishments here, and 
especially in the neighbourhood of Weissenburg, is proved by the 
numerous fortresses, the foundations of which exist every where, by 
the great number of barrows in the vicinity of the old castle, and the 
Roman monuments at Emenzheim, Treuchtling and other places. — 
Next in the table follows Iciniacum 7 Roman or li German miles from 
Buricianis. The distance agrees with Theilenhofen upon the Weil, and 
the neighbouring castle of Weissenberg. Numerous tumuli, fragments 
of urns, vessels, arms, and coins, which are constantly found here, 
announce the former existence of a Roman colony in this spot. Whe- 
ther the road ran from thence along the wall, or over the district of 
Weimersheim, I cannot venture to decide, as all the pains I took to 
discover its traces from Weissenberg were ineffectual. But that it 
united with it at Gunzenhausen, and with it passed over the Altmiihl, 
is the more probable, because the wall from hence becomes so broad, 
that one may suppose it to serve both for the road and the boundary 
line of defence. A castle stood on the hill near Gunzenhausen, not 
fSar from Sommerkeller ; and from this circumstance the wood still bears 
at this day the name of Burgstall (or Castle-stead) ; and the existing 
burrows and other antiquities found on the spot attest its Roman 
origin. It was intended to cover the passage over the Altmiihl. It 
was the central point of the whole line of fortification, and it is very 
probable, that it was that station, which the table calls Medianis — the 
middle of the second line : for 1 German mile (or S Roman miles) towards 
the north-west, near Lollenfeld> lies the turning point or angle of the 


first line or boundary wall. From thence to the ruins near Ham- 
merschmied» not far from Tambach, are exactly eleven Roman miles ; I 
can therefore hardly err^ if I consider the Roman camp, which, accor- 
ding to accounts which may be relied upon, was found here, as the 
Losodica of the table. Seven Roman miles farther, on the spot where the 
wall passes the Sulz, stood Septemiaci, and at an equal distance farther 
on, the castle of Opie, which defended the passage over the Wernitz 
into the district of Willburgstetten. The succeeding station of Aquilia 
lies in the kingdom of Wurtemberg. I dare not decide upon its exact 
position, till I have visited the country. If it lay upon the boundary 
wall, the curious enquirer might find its ruins in the district of Gemiind, 
perhaps near Pfalbrunn ; but if, as I think is more probable, it lay 
upon a road situated more to the south, we must look for it in the dis- 
trict of Aalen, and more especially near Wasser Alfingen, on account of 
the resemblance of the name. The station Ad lunam, 20 Roman miles off^ 
we must seek for upon the mountain, which the Roman Historian calls by 
its present name, the Alba, and at a point, 52 Roman miles from Augs- 
burg and 22 from Ehingen, near Geislinger Steig. In the mean time, 
till actual inspection proves the contrary, we must believe that the 
boundary wall itself does not decline from the straight line, but takes 
the direction towards Urach, in the neighbourhood of the Neckar. 

7. Whoever casts an eye upon the whole line of the mound hitherto, 
described, and of the castella connected with it, and situated behind it, 
will soon satisfy himself, for what use it was intended. I'hey formed a 
large advanced work upon the river which the Romans looked upon as 
the boundary of their empire, and which they did not consider as suffi- 
ciently deep and broad for this purpose, between its sources and the 
district of Regensburg, and therefore strengthened it with a double line 
of defence. Within it they had planted colonies in the places intended 
for agriculture, forming a military population appointed to defend it.. 
As it can be shewn that many of these were established in the time of 
the Antonines, I might ascribe almost the whole of the second line ta 


Marcus Aurelius, and suppose that he built it during the war against 
the Marcomanni — from A. D. 167 to 180, as a defence against the 
German tribes leagued against him. 

8. Instead of pay, the soldiers, as we before observed, had portions 
of land allotted to them, from the cultivation and produce of which 
they were to maintain their families. This arrangement would serve 
as an additional motive to them to exert their utmost efforts in defence 
of their country. The biographer also of the Emperor Probus relates 
that here, on this boundary, the contest was carried on with unremitting 
obstinacy — nee cessatum est unquam pugnari. 

The names of these colonies are not distinctly pointed out by any 
Roman historian. We can find out many of them from the numerous 
Roman antiquities, of which this district is a rich mine, and from the 
traces of the byeurays, which are still visible. 

The colonists lived dispersed through the district, in granges, hamlets, 
and perhaps in villages, as the nature of their business required. We 
may reasonably however conclude that they had points of union, and 
formed various associations ; the bond of union was probably the same 
protecting divinity, and a temple built for his service. If we allow 
this position to be well founded, we may assume, that in RsBtia beyond 
the Danube there were at least four large colonies ; of which one had 
its point of union at Nassenfels, a second at Lauingen^ a third at Weis- 
senberg, and a fourth at Heselberg. 

Gatesheady Nov. «0M, 1821. 


Page 219, 1. 18.— ^1. Spartianas in vit4 Hadriani c. 12. — Per ea tempora — 124. p. ( 
et alias frequenter in pUirimis locis, in quibus barbari non fluminibui ted Hmitibtis dhndun^ 
turf stipitibuB magnis, in modura rauralis sepis fundatis, jactis, atque connexis, barbaroa 
separavit — germanis regem constituit^c 11. Britaniam petiit, in qnk multa correxit, 
BMntm que per octoginta millia passuum primum duxit, qui barbaros Romanosque divide- 


Capitolin. in vit& Antonini Pii c 5. Brltanniam per Lollium Urbicum legatum vicit, alio 
muro cespicitioy submotis barbarisy ducto. 

Spartian. in yit. S, Seven, c. 18. Britannianiy quod maximum imperii ejus decus esti 
muro per transYersam insulam ducto, utrimque ad finem Oceani munivit. — Eutrop. 1. v. c. 9* 
gays, — ** Yallum per xxxii. millia passuum k mari ad mare deduxit/' 

Page 221 9 L 12. — Vopiacus in vit4 Probi, c. 13. £t cum jam in nostrd ripA, imo per 
omnes Gallias ( Alamani) securi vagarentur, caesis propd quadringentis milUbus, qui Roma- 
num ^>ccupaverant solum, reliquiaa ultr^ Nicrum fluvium et Albam removit. Tantum his 
prsd® barbaric® tulit, quantum ipsi Romanis abstulerant: contra urbes Romanas et 
castra in solo barbarico posuit, atque illic etiam milites collocayit: agros et horrea et 
domos et annonam Transrhenanis omnibus fecit, iis videlicet, quos in excubiis collocavit, 
nee cessatum est unquam pugnari, &c. — Post base lll3rricom petiit : et • • Rsetias sic pacatat 
reliquit, ut illic ne suspicionem quidem ullius terroris relinqueret 

It is evident that he is here speaking of Rhetia and that part of it which lies beyond the 
Danube. Thoee who are versed in history need not be reminded that Alba is not the 
Elbe ; it agrees better with the Altmiihl, and still more with a chain of mountains, which 
at this day, under the name of Alba, begins between the Neckar and the Danube, and 
|iasses towards Ulm and Tubingen. Probus drove the Alamani across this chain of hillsy 
•and then over the Neckar«— o. 16. Veteranis omnia ilia, quse angusta adeunt Isauriae loca 
privatis donavit, addens, ut eorum filii ab anno octavo decimo mares duntaxat ad militiam 
raitterentur^ — ^What Probus did^n Isauria, must also have happened in Rhetia. The Ro- 
mans called these possessions ** terres limitaneas," the Franks gave them the name of 
** bona feudalia** — amongst the latter as well as the former, they were rewards for the 
performance of military services. 

Noie by the Trandator^ p. 226, L II. Peutinger's table has received its name from 
Conrade Peutinger, in whose library it was found after his death, by the noble and learned 
Mark Velser, who sent it to Ortelius for him to publish ; but Ortelius, dying before he 
could effect it, left the care of it to John Moret, by whom it was published, in the year 
1596«— For a further account of this table, see Reynold's Iter BrUanniarum, p. 113. 



Observations on the Altar and Inscription found at Tynemouth in the 
year 1781, by Mr. Thomas Hodgson. 

As the illustration of the ancient state and history of these Northern 
Counties forms one of the leading objects of this Society, the following 
observations suggested by a consideration of some Roman remains 
found in this neighbourhood, may perhaps not be considered irrelevant, 
though their discovery is not of recent date. The remains to which I 
allude are the Altar and Tablet, whicti forty years ago were found 
about six feet underground, on the north side of Tynemouth Castle, 
where they had been buried as foundation stones of some of the ancient 
buildings or churches. They were communicated soon after their dis- 
covery to the Society of Antiquaries of London^ by their Secretary, 
the Rev. John Brand, and figures of them, with explans^tions by Mr. 
Brand, were published in the eighth volume of the Archaeologia^. 
They were also published by Mr. Gough, in his edition of Camden's 
Britannia. t The inscription on the altar is, 

Jovi Optimo maximo^ JElius Rtifus, prafedus Cohortis Qmarta Lingofmm. 

The inscription on the tablet is not so easily defined, the two first 
lines having been so injured that it is difficult to ascertain what they 
have been. The figures given by Mr. Brand and Mr. Gough, though 
taken nearly about the same time, differ exceedingly; but as the 
stones themselves are now in the possession of the Society of Antiqua- 

• Pl.xxLp.826.fig. 1,2, 3,4.. 

f Vol. iii. pi. xxii. fig. 14, 15. ed, 1789. 


rtes, it is not in our power, by a personad inspection, to ascertain wbich 
is most correct. Mr. Brand's was probably taken on the spot, soon 
afler tbeir first discovery, when tbey nught possibly be in a more pe^r- 
fect state than when seen by Mr. Gough, and may therefore perbaps 
be more to be depended on. As he has given it, the inscription seems 
tolerably legible, though tt is not easy to ascertiun the exact meaning. 
With the explanation he has glven^ I cannot wholly agree ; but it is 
not necessary for -my present purpose to ascertain it with minute ac- 
curacy ; it is sufficient for 'that purpose to know, that it evidently 
records the erection of a temple and some other public works, by a 
person named Maximinus. 

The fact of the erection of such works being thus clearly proved, 
the question naturally arises^*— at what place did this erection take 
place ? The answer is apparently obvious, that no doubt it must have 
been very near the spot where the stones were found. But as there 
is no record of a station having ever been at this place, and especially 
as no name has been handed down to us, which can be applied to it, 
it has been denied by many that the Romans had any station or esta- 
blishment at Tynemouth. Amongst those writers who support such an 
opinion, appears to be Mr. Gough, who suggests,^ that the stones in 
question might, perhaps, have been brought from South Shields, where 
undoubtedly there has been a station, and used as foundation stones 
in the building of the first Christian church at this place. But the futi- 
lity of this opinion must be apparent toevery one at all acquainted with 
the topography of the situation ; for it can scarcely be believed that 
the builders of that church would take the trouble of bringing founda- 
tion stones a distance of at least a mile^ and across a wide river, when 
stones of all sizes could be had in such abundance close at hand. It 
is much more probable that they found them on the spot, and with 
the other remains of the temple, &c. used them in the building of their 
church. It is indeed a matter of great surprise to me, that any doubt 

* Camd. vol. iii. p. 285. 


should ever have arisen on the subject; for independent of the fact that 
these inscriptions have been found at Tynemouth^ it requires, I thinks 
but a very slight knowledge of military affairs to convuice us that the 
Romans must have maintained a fort, or post of some sort, on the 
north side of the mouth of the Tyne. The district of country from the 
Tyne to the Sol way Frith was, we know, considered of the utmost 
importance by the Romans. Jt was here they erected the bulwarks of 
their empire in Britain, against the invasions of their northern neigh- 
bours ; and in this district maintained more numerous forts and garri* 
sons than in any other part. To supply, to succour in case of need,, 
and to preserve the communication with, these forts, must have been 
objects of primary importance in their eyes. Can we therefore sup- 
pose that they would fail to occupy a river like the Tyne, which 
afforded them such extreme facilities for the purposes in question ? or 
that they would not take every precaution, by the erection of forts, &c. 
to prevent the possession of the river being wrested from them ?* 
That they had a post at South Shields is quite certain, but, I think, it 
can scarcely be maintained that that fort alone would afford them the 
adequate security. Is it at all probable, I would ask, that they would 
erect a fort upon a comparatively low point of land, easily accessible 
on every side, and situated so far behind another, that the approach of 
an enemy by sea from the north, could not be observed until they 
were close upon them, and leave unoccupied a promontory fortified 
almost* by nature, and commanding a view of the coast as far as the 
eye can reach ? It is impossible to believe it ; indeed, it is, 1 think, self- 
evident, that if they considered the fortifying of the point on the south 
side of the mouth of the Tyne, necessary for their security, they must 

* As for obvious reasons they could not retain similar possession of the Solway Frith,, 
being in fact obliged from its great extent and its separation from their other positions, 
to abandon the whole of the north shore of that estuary to their enemy, the secure posses- 
sion of the Tyne became consequently of greater consequence to thenu Besides it waa' 
from the east coast that their supplies would naturally come. 


have felt the fortifying of the point on the north side of infinitely more 

Of two of the three barriers, or pratentura, erected by the Romans 
across this isthmus, we have positive evidence that two of them did 
not extend as far as Tynemouth ; but what reason have we to suppose 
that the chain of forts drawn by Agricola across the island, might not 
extend so far ? and that those at the eastern extremity might not be 
maintained even after the building of the walls of Hadrian and Seve- 
rus ?^ Though those walls terminatedy the one at Newcastle and the 
other at Wallsend, we must not thence conclude that the country be- 
tween such terminations and the sea, was left unoccupied by the Ro- 
mans. The cause of their being terminated before reaching the sea, 
I conceive to have been, that the depth and breadth of the river were 
then deemed a sufficient protection against the sudden inroads of the 
enemy. The motive for extending the wall of Severus beyond that of 
Hadrian, was no doubt to secure the last place on the river where it 
could by possibility be forded. Beyond this point a wall was no longer 
necessary ; but to leave the country east of it unoccupied, would have 
been to expose unnecessarily their sea flank, to render it liable to be 
turned, and thus their immense fortifications, erected with such great 
labour and expense, rendered useless. Besides, what is there to mal^e us 
believe that the Romans should confine themselves on this point more 
closely to the wall than they did on others, — on this point where the 
want of a wall rendered precaution and vigilance more necessary ? 
We find, moreover, from the numbers of stations occupied by them on 
the sea coast at the west end of the wall, that the security of that sea 
flank was an object of the greatest importance to them, even though 

* Mr. Horaley neevoB to think, that after the building of the wall of Severus, the station 
at South Shields was abandoned — an opinion for which I cannot see much reason. If it 
ever was abandoned, it was in all probability owing to finding that the security afforded by 
the station at Tynemouth, rendered the other no longer necessary. The abandonmect of 
that station would, however, increase the importance of the one at Tynemouth. 


the wall 4id there readh to the very edge of the sea,-- -why therefore 
are we to conclude, that the security of the east coast was not also an 
object of the first importance to them, or that they would neglect it* ? 
But thUt they did es^tend their communications beyond the station at 
Wallsend, is a fact of which, fortunately, more convincing proofs than 
Jmere conjecture evince the truth. At Chirton, may yet be traced the 
"form 'of a Roman stiition, known by the name of Blake Chesiters-— a 
name silfTiciently expressive of its origin. In the neighbouring fields 
too coins have been found at various times; and I am told by good 
aufhdrity, that several squares and dblongs, extending from West Chir- 
ton 4o Tynemouth, may yet be traced, Supported by these facts, the 
conjeoture of a fort having existed at Tynemouth, amounts almost to 

If we are satisfied of the existence of a Roman fort or stetion at 
Tynemouth, there can be no uncertainty respecting the troops by 
iVhich it was garrisoned, since the inscription on the altar sattsfaotorily 
proves that the Cohors quarta Lingonum was stationed here. This is 
the only inscription 'hitherto discovered in this island, in which the 
name of this cohort is found, nor is there any other record of its pre- 
sence in Britain. The name of the Cohors secunda Lingonum occurs 
in inscriptions at Moresby in Cumberland, at Lanchester, and, as Mr. 
Horsley thinks, at Ilkley in Yorkshire. Now it is very renoarkaUe^ 
that neither the Cohors secunda,' nor the Cohors quarta, LiNGONUM, are 
mentioned in the Notitia^ but in that curious record there occur the 
names of the Cohors secunda, and the Cohors quarta, Leroorum. This 
circumstance has given rise to a doubt in my mind, which, if well 
founded, will be found of some importance to a correct knowledge of 
the geography of this part of Roman Britain. For it is further worthy 
of remark, that these two cohorts Lergorum have never yet been found 

* The secure possession, which the occupation of tiie points of land at the mouth of the 
Tyne, gave them of the country to the south, was no doubt one reason why they found it 
unnecessary to occupy so many stations on the east, as on the west coast 


mentioned in any inscription disooyered in Brifarti* So that tbe cohorts 
Lingonum occur in inscriptions^ and not in the NotUia^ and the cohorts 
Lergorum in the Notitia, and not in inscriptions. I am hence strongly 
inclined to suspect, that some of the early transcribers of printers of the 
Notitia have made a mistake, and put Lergorum for Lingonum. And 
that the orthography of the Notitia is not considered in&Hibly correct^ 
we have evidence in some literal corrections made by Mr, Horsley. 
Should the doubt which I have her^ throwa out be considered to bef 
well founded, it will> as I have said, be found to have an imt>ortant 
inlereace with regard to the Boman geography of this ptarl of the 
coontry, as it will decidedly prove that Mr^ Horsley was correcit ift 
beginning the stations ptr limam valli at the east end of the wall,, and 
not at the west, a$ preceding vrriters bad done. For by the Notiiie^ 
the first of these stations, Segedunum, is said to have bee» garrimned by 
the Cohors quarta Lergorum^ supposed Lingonum, and this altar erected 
by the prefect of the Cohors quarta Lingonum is foond sit TynemoHth, 
evidently shewing that that station was at this end of the wall, if my 
supposition be correct. Segedunum^ it is well known, is placed by Mr. 
Horsley at Wallsend ; a decision which the preceding remarks may 
perhaps at first sight be thought to invalidate, as should they be cor- 
rect, this station ought rather to be placed at Tynemouth. But as the 
assigning of such name to the station at Tynemouth would be entirely 
subversive of the principle of order in which these stations seem en- 
tered in the Notitia^ and by the observance of which Mr. Horsley 
was enabled to fix them with such apparent certainty, I see no reason 
for deviating from his arrangement. I am therefore inclined to be of 
opinion, that the station at Tynemouth was only a secondary station 
or fort, subordinate to that at Wallsend, and under the command of 
the prefect of the Cohort stationed there. Motives of pleasure or the 
nature of the service on which he was employed, would no doubt often 
induce him to fix his quarters here, and on some of such occasions this 
altar was probably erected. That no name has been handed down to 


us that can with probability be applied to this station ooght not to 
. surprise us^ or raise any doubt of this point of land having been occu-* 
pied by the Romans; for if a dependency on the station at Wallsend^ 
it of course would not be comprehended in the plan of the Notiiia, 
and its situation would naturally preclude it from being included in 
any of the Itinera of either Antonine or Richard. But with regard to 
name, I cannot help suspecting that it may, together with the station at 
South Shields, be included by Ptolemy in the appellation of Oslia Fe- 
dra. For as this name is in the plural, it must be inferred either that 
the Tyne had at that time more mouths than one, or that this phrase 
alludes to the forts, which, like gates, secured its entrance. In after 
times it may have had a more specific name, which has since been lost 
amidst the lapse of ages, — a fate which has no doubt attended that of 
many other stations. 

Newcastle, December 1, 1821. 


An Account of a Roman Station, near Glanton, Northumberland, in a 
Letter from John Smart, Esq. of Trewitt, to the Rev. John 
Hodgson, Secretary. 

Trewitt House, January 10th, 1822. 
My dear Sir, 

I HAVE great pleasure in commumcating to our Society of Antiquaries 
the discovery that I have made of a Roman Station, which I consider 
to be the " Alauna Amnis,'* of the 4th Iter of Richard of Cirencester, 
placed by Dr. Stukeley at Alnmck ; though others suppose that the 
village of Glanton occupies that station. It is situated at Crawley 
Tower, which, with the farm offices, occupies its east angle. It is on 
a considerable eminence, about 400 yards east of Watling-street, be- 
tween the village of Glanton and the river Bremish. It is 290 feet long, 
160 feet broad, and is surrounded by a foss of 30 feet wide, and an 
agger of 20 feet thick. It commands a most delightful view of the 
vale of Whittingham, and nearly the whole length of the Bremish from 
its source to Horton Castle ; and certainly the immediate neighbour- 
hood is the best fortified in *' ancient Britain,'' as from the station can 
be seen no less than seven strong British and Saxon camps, several of 
<which have triple ramparts ; namely, Harehill, near Bewick ; Brougb- 
law, by Ingram; the gorge of the Bremish, above ditto, through 
which the Britons must have passed when they quitted their strongly 
fortified town at the foot of Greenshaw Hill, between Linhope and 
Hartside; the Clinch Hill, Callaly Castle Hill, and Cross Hill^ Black 



Chester and the Castle Hill above Alnham. The farthest distance of 
these from the station is about four miles. The church at Alnham is 
built in the site of a small Roman camp, which most probably has been 
for a Centurion's guard, to protect their herds of cattle when grazing 
during summer in the rich pastures on the bank of the river Aln above 
Whittingham. I observed several small camps above Rothbury, be- 
longing to the Britons and Saxons, which must have been appropri- 
ated to a similar purpose. With respect to Richard of Cirencester's 
Itinerary, as it relates to the Roman province of Valentia, I am con- 
firmed in the idea that his ^' Alauna Amnisi^ in his 4th Iter, is the sta- 
tion at Crawley Tower, as the eminence on which I found it, declines 
down both to the rivers Aln and Bremish ; but in order to elucidate 
my opinion, I will transcribe a part of that Iter, only premising that 
Richard had a very imperfect knowledge of the castrametation of the 
Romans, along the eastern branch of Watling-street, as he omits four 
between Ad Murum and Alauna Amne^ viz. at Bolam, Thornton, Brink* 
burn Priory, and Framlington Hall Hill ; but his knowledge of the 
western branch, through the same province, is perfectly correct, and 
which is seen by uniting a part of the 5th and 9th Iters. 

Part of the kih Iter. 

IrUras Maximam Casariensem. 
Vinovio, Binchester. 

Epiacoy Ebchester. 

Ad Mummy Portgate. 

r Bolam. 

Trans Murum intras Valentiamy ) Thornton. 

j Bnnkbum Priory. 

VFramlington Hall Hill. 

Alauna Amne, Crawley Tower. 

Tueda Fluminey 

Ad Vallum, Falkirk. 


Part qf the 5th and 9th Iters. 

Ad Finest 
Corioy (Query ?) 
Ad Fallum, 

Chew Green. 
Near Jedburgh. 
Eildon Hills, 
Channel Kirk. 

I remain^ my dear Sir, 

Tour's, very respectfully, 



An Essay towards ascertaining the Etymology qf the Names of Places 
in the County of Northumberland^ by the Rev. Anthony Hed- 
LEY, M. A. 

** Much curious matter in philology might be gleaned from well selected lists of vulgar 
words — and the names of fiurm-houses, glens, brooks, and especially of fields.^ 

Inlroductaiy Addreu, by the Rev. John Hodgson, on the Study qf Antiputieu 

IT has been a long established custom with county historians to at- 
tempt to etymologise the names of places which form the subject of 
their descriptions. Their unfounded and often ridiculous derivations 
have very much tended to justify the contempt into which topogra- 
phical etymology is so generally sunk, and against which there are so 
many prejudices, as a vain and fanciful study— -to be ranked only 
among the " deliramenta doctrime.*^ But connected as local etymo- 
logy is with the rise, progress, and gradual decay of languages, it 
must surely, on this ground alone, be interesting to every scholar. 
Besides, it often affords curious and instructive notices with respect to 
the colonization of countries, which are no where else to be found.— « 
The barrow may be removed — the stone monument may be dashed in 
pieces by some modern Goth — the intrenchment may be worn out by 
the plough — but a local name is often nearly as imperishable as the 
mountain or the river of which it is the designation. It is by means 
of these curious and precious fragments of the long-lost languages of 
other times, that the '' pedigree of nations** may be best traced ; and 


it was by weapons from this armoury^ that the indefatigable Chalmers 
defeated in kerton and the Goths^ on the much contested point respect- 
ing the lineage of the Picts. 

Ought then a subject, which, if discreetly pursued, is at once so inter- 
esting to the Philologist, and so useful to the Historical Antiquary, to 
be so lightly esteemed ? The topography of few countries affords so fine 
an opportunity for this kind of research as our own. Its aboriginal 
inhabitants, the Britons, possessed a very descriptive language, and 
many of the names which they imposed upon mountains, rivers, and 
the other great features of nature yet remain, having triumphed 
over the numberless revolutions of all kinds to which our country has 
been since exposed. Their simple but finely discriminating terms, gene- 
rally painting as it were, some local circumstance, put to utter shame 
the whimsical, absurd, and altogether barbarous local nomenclature of 
modern colonizers and navigators ; and their superior good taste and 
ingenuity in this respect, argue a much higher degree of civilization 
and refinement than is usually ascribed to them. Many names of 
places throughout Northumberland still attest the abode and the lan- 
guage of this first people ; and this circumstance, added to the nume- 
rous remains of their cairns, and camps, and stone circles, scattered 
through most parts of the county, where cultivation has not interfered 
with them, sufficiently proves it to have been thickly settled in their 
time. The following Celtic terms enter into the composition, and 
form the elements as it were, of many names of places in Northum- 
berland : — 

Pil^ a moated fort, appears in the form of PteL Within my own 
recollection almost every old house in the dales of Rede and Tyne was - 
what is called a Peel house, built for securing its inhabitants and their 
cattle in the moss trooping times. 

Cainty a heap of loose stones. 

Crag, a rock. 

l/ch, a height, in the form of Heugh, with the Saxon aspirate A. 


Bre or Brae, applied to declivities. 

Lyn, a pool. 

Caer, a mound thrown up for defence, in a few places. 

Gleuy a valley, in Glendale and Glenwhelt. 

Dun or Don^ a hill, the Scoto-Irish or Gaelic form of the Britbh Din. 

Parc^ an inclosure. 

Ros^ a promontory. 

TrCy a dwelling. 

After the Britons came four successive hordes of conquerors, with 
each their own language, and each exercising the privilege of conque- 
rors, by giving new names, or by adding to, translating into their own 
speech, and otherwise changing the old ones. The Romans were un- 
doubtedly the first who came in upon the original settlers. The Ottar 
dini^ territory was probably not subdued till after the return of Agri- 
cola, from his campiugns beyond the Firth of Forth, in A. D. 84. 
Considering their long stay, and their unlimited dominion from the 
wall of Antonine southward, the Romans appear to have been the most 
moderate in the exercise of the privilege above-mentioned. They 
seem, for the most part, to have been content with the names they 
found in use, merely latinising the terminations of a few of them ; for 
if we may take Baxter for our guide, almost all the names of Roman 
cities in Britain may be traced to British roots. Notwithstanding their 
long continued residence in Northumberland, and where they have left 
us one of the most splendid monuments of their enterprize and 
power, I do not recollect throughout the whole of the county, the 
single name of a place that can, with any propriety, be traced to their 

* Cakdonia, voL iL p. 206. 

f It is probable, indeed, tbat tbe Latm Umgoige was rary liiUe spoken by the Roman 
soldiers in Britain. Paul was a Roman, but bom at Tarsus. Colonies of /tafiaMS^tled in 
the fine climates of France and Spain, where they introduced the use of the Latin 
tongue ; but Rome held Britain, not by Italian colonists, but by mercenary soldiers, drawn 
from different and distant parts of the empire. 

The Romanized Britons, to whose help against the invading Picts 
and Scots> the Saxons had been called^ soon found in that fierce and 
warlike people masters instead of allies. Their first visit to the island 
was A- D, 449 ; but they were long employed chiefly in its southern 
provinces, and the downfall of Ottadinian independence did not finally 
take place till the establishment of the Northumbrian kingdom by Ida, 
in A, Dp 547» If we did not know from history, we might from topo- 
graphy, that the Saxons had the most lasting^ genera! , and deep-rooted 
possession of the island; for throughout the whole of England and the 
south of Scotland, there are probably ten names of places of Saxon 
origin, for two or three derived from any other language. In the 
topography of Northumberland, most of the following Saxon terms are 
in frequent use, both singly and in composition :— 
J Botle^ a place of abode, in one or two instances. 

Bnrghy Brought or Burg^ originally a fortified place, 

Burn^ applied to small rivulets, 

Car^ a pool or lake, in Prestwic-car, 

Chesters, the Ceasier of the Saxons, and applied by them to the Casira 
of the Romans* as well as the Caers^ or forts, of the Britons, 

Cleugk^ a ravine- 

Combt a valley between two hills* 

Cop or Capi the top of a hilL 

Daley in composition Daly a valley. 

Dike^ a wall. 

DeuHy a wooded valley. 

Feriy a marsh. 

Ham^ a dwelling, 

Here^ in composition har^ an army. 

Hirst or Hurst ^ a small wood. 

How or Hoe^ a hi!K 

Holmy a water meadow, also a hiih 


Ingy a meadow. 
Kirky a church. 
LaWy a hilK 
Lee or Ley, a pasture. 
Rigy a ridge. 
Rawy a row. 
ShaWy a copse wood. 
Shank y the projecting point of a hill. 

Shiely originally a temporary hut for shepherds, afterwards applied 
to fixed habitations. 
Sikey a small rill. 
Steel or Stealy locus, a place. 
Steady a farm house and offices. 

Thorny often used, I think, in Northumberland, as a corruption of 
Thurriy an old word, according to Ortelius, signifying a tower. 
Thropy a village. 
ToTiy a place of abode. 
Wark or Werky a building. 

Wicky according to Bp. Gibson, has a threefold signification ; 1, a 
village ; 2, the curving reach of a river, or bay ; 3, a castle. 
Worthy a court, farm, or place of abode, in Vf^vkworth. 
The Danes, who long ruled over the north of England as absolute 
conquerors, have left us many memorials of their invasion in the to- 
pography of the country : their felly more especially, enters into the 
composition of many names in the northern counties, and has been 
very generally imposed on the moorland districts. 

From the entrance of the Danes into Britain to the coming of the 
Normans, in 1066, there elapsed a period of 274 years. It was the 
policy of the Conqueror to change the language and the institutions 
of the kingdom ; and yet it is astonishing how extensively and obsti- 
nately the ancient names of places have been retained. There are, at 
least in Northumberland, few traces of Norman local names though 


Belshawe, now Belsay, Beaufront, and one or two others may be given 
as examples. HopCy a mountain dingle or valley, a word, according 
to Chalmers, introduced after the Norman conquest, enters very exten<* 
sively into the names of places in all the upland districts, more 
especially in the north of England and south of Scotland. The Nor- 
mans likewise softened the pronunciation of many of the local names, 
by inserting and changing letters, as Charlton for the Saxon Carlton, 
by the insertion of A. 

In searching for the etymons of local names, two things are neces- 
sary to be observed : — 

L We should always, if possible, personally visit the spot in ques- 
tion, that we may have an opportunity of observing its natural fea- 
tures. The older the name is, the more likely is it to be expressive of 
some local circumstance, for it may almost be laid down as an axiom, 
that all ancient names of places, however unmeaning many of them 
may now appear, are significant in the language of the people who 
imposed them. 2. We should endeavour to find out how the word 
was anciently spelt and written. Without this precaution, our labour 
must often be in vain, and we shall be in continual hazard of justly in- 
curring the ridicule so, generally cast upon the local etymologist. 
Many names of places, transmitted through successive generations of 
people ignorant of the language of those who bestowed them^ have 
at length become so disguised and corrupted, that scarcely any of their 
original elements remain. For the greater part of England, Doomsday 
Book is a great help in this respect ; though there is little doubt that 
many of the Saxon names, both of places and persons, are sadly cor- 
rupted through the ignorance and carelessness of the Norman scribes. 
As Northumberland and some of the northern counties are not included 
in this curious and invaluable record, we must have recourse^ wherever 
we can, to old charters, and, in default of these, to the Testa de Nevil, 
the Inquisitiones post Mortem^ and the other parliamentary printed 
records^ several of which, so far as they relate to Northumberland, are 



contaioed in the published volume of Mr. Hodgson^s History of the 
county. The laborious and well-executed index to this elegant 
volume, is one of the most useful ever appended to any hook. It is in 
particular a most valuable present to the topographical etymologist. 

These hasty and desultory observations I have been induced to offer 
with much diffidence, as prefatory to a few specimens of an attempt 
to etymologize the more remarkable names of places in my native 
county. Should they be found acceptable to the Society, the subject 
may be further pursued at some future meeting. lu the mean time, 
as to the derivations about to be presented to their notice, I conclude, 
in the often quoted words of the great Roman Classic, 

• si quid Bovisti rectiuB istis ; 

Candidas imperii : si non — ^his utere mecuin. 


Wannje Crag, a high and steep hill, forming the western extre- 
mity of this parish, on the summit of which there has been a British 
strength, impregnable to the north from a precipitous rock of a stu- 
pendous height, and flanked on the accessible sides by a semicircular 
breastwork of stone, from whence the declivity is very swifl. The 
encampment has occupied the whole of the flat summit. The account 
given by Tacitus of the mode in which the British constructed their 
forts, is a most accurate description of the place* in question. *^ Tunc 
montibus arduis et si qua clementer accedi poterant in modum valli 
saxa prjestruit."* As this was probably one of the strengths of the 
Ottadini people in the days of their conflict with the Roman power, 
we may look for the origin of its name in the aboriginal language. In 
the Irish, which is a sister dialect of the British, uaine or waine is 
green. And in the parish of Kirkmabrak,f in Wigtonshire, there is 

« Tac. Aim. lib. 12, sec. S3. f Stat. Ace. xv. 552. 


a barrow which is CBiled Cairney H^annie, and which the writer of its 
statistical account says is mef ely the cairn toaine of the Irish, and means 
the green oairn. Wannie crag must then be the green crag. Crag^ 
though stiH Qsed in the common speech of this country, is a pure Brit- 
ish word, signifying a rock, or rocky height 

Wansbeck, the river which flows past Morpeth, and enters the sea 
at Cambois, takes its rise from the back of Wannie, and is, I have no 
doubt, a contraction of fVannies-beck. Becky which, in Cumberland 
and Westmoreland, is the generic term for a brook or rivulet, ap- 
pears nowhere else, so far as I recollect, in the topography of North- 

CATCHERSlDE.-^^Before the formation of a turnpike road across 
Harwood, the principal road ft-om Scotland to this quarter of North- 
umberland led past this place, which was noted for the resort and 
nightly accommodation of packmen and cadgers^ who, before the union, 
were the chief agents in carrying on the commercial intercourse be- 
tween the two kingdoms.* Hence, perhaps ^ the two first syllables of its 
name, though I beg to pronounce upon this with considerable doubt. 
Cadger y according to Jameson^ is the modem orthography of cacher^ 
from the old Scotch word cache, signifying to drix)ey and, in a neuter 
sense, to carry ; and catcher is no great corruption of cacher. The 
affix side is the terminating syllable of many other names of places in 
this county, and has usually been understood to denote their locality on 
the side of a hill. They have not all of them, however, this position -, 
and it is very questionable whether any of them ought to be referred 
to this etymon, but rather to the Celtic saidey'\ a seat, an abode, a 

* From this place they directed their course southward, across Shaftoe Crag, through 
a remarkable fissure in the freestone rock, still called the Sauter^s nick ; from whence we 
may learn that salt (provmcially saut or sole) was one of the great objects of their traffic* 

f Hence, perhaps, the Latin sedes^ which is a much more likely etymon than the Greek 
t^f assigned to it by Baxter. It may perhaps be asked, why not derive the Celtic saide 
from the Latin sedes. I answer, because saide is the Irish form of the word, and the 


Lady Well, so called from a fine spritig near it; and which/ in 
popish times, was probably dedicated to " our Lady". 

Register, perhaps a corruption of Rae-Chester^ a farm, forming 
part of what was once called Whelpington Fell. Here are very per- 
fect remains of a square camp of considerable dimensions, which proba- 
bly gives name to the place. Rae-chester is a compound of the British 
rae, or the Gaelic ra^ signifying a fortified place, a fort, and the Saxon 
ceaster or Chester, of a similar meaning. The British prefix to this 
name is a presumption that this encampment existed in British times ; 
and is, therefore, from its square form most probably of Roman origin. 
Rutchester, near Newcastle, the ancient Vindobala ; Riechester in Rede- 
water, the Roman Bremenium ; and Rochester, near Chipchase Castle; 
where, to aid the name, are strong and evident lines of a large Roman 
camp, and which has hitherto most unaccountably escaped the notice 
of all our antiquaries — are all formed of the same pleonastic com- 
pound, — the British rae or ra, a fort, and the Saxon ceaster or Chester, 
signifying the same thing. 

The Heald. This name is given to the quickly-sloping ground 
on the east side of the Ray burn, a few hundred yards before it 
joins the M^ansbeck, near Kirkwhelpington. It is a pure Saxon word, 
signifying shelving,* declining, or hanging downwards, which is very 
descriptive of the ground in question. 

Romans having had no connection with Ireland, its natives liad no opportunity of borrowing 
any part of its language from them. Besides, according to the rules laid down by Lhuyd 
and other etymologists, in any contested derivation, the monosyllabic claimant is generally 
the true root. Without deciding dogmatically on the subject, it is clear the Celtic and 
Latin languages must, in their origin, be nearly allied ; and that the latter at least cannot 
be the parent of the former. For instance, the Celtic terms /ir, awyr, mor^ and Ihvxh^ 
obviously agreeing, both in sound and signification with the Latin ierra^ aer^ mare^ lucus, 
designate common objects for which the Britons must have had names long before the 
arrival of Csesar and his legions ; and which were probably used, both in Britain and Ireland, 
long before the Romans even knew of the existence of such places. 
* Heald, devcxus^ — Benson, fit voce. 


SLEDEHOEy a considerable eminence about half way between Horas 
Castle and Corn Hills. This likewise is a very descriptive Saxon appel- 
lation from sledcj a valley, and lum or hoe^ a hill, meaning the hill in 
the valley ; the place in question being actually a detached eminence, 
unconnected with any mountainous range, and rising abruptly from 
the surrounding level space or valley. 


Elsdon, a village of great antiquity, which gives name to this very 
extensive parish, is said to have been a Roman town in the time of M. 
Aurelius Antoninus, two Roman altars having been found inscribed to 
that Emperor, in a hill called the Mote Hill, at a little distance N. E. 
from the town. Urns, and the remains of sacrificed animals, have like- 
wise been found here. It is supposed by General Roy to have been 
the first of a chain of forts between Watling-str^et and its eastern 
branch, called the Devil's Causeway ; the second having been on the 
Coquet, behind Hepple, on a hill now called Hetchester. From its 
name, however, it is evident that the Mote Hill (which I believe to be 
the most perfect and remarkable earth work with this appellation, to 
be found in Northumberland) was afterwards in the occupation of the 
Saxons. Hence, probably, its name £^-don, from the Anglo-Saxon 
eldcy old, and dun or dony a hill, or fort upon a hill ; referring to its 
ancient occupation by the Romans. £^-bury, in Scotland, is trans- 
lated by Baxter,* antiqua arx. It may, however, have been the dun or 
fort of Ellay a common name among the Saxons. 

GarRETSHEELS, in Redewater, a corruption of Gerard-sheehy or 
the sheelings belonging to a person of the name of Gerard. In the 
10th of Edward 1st, Gerardsheets is claimed by Gilbert de Umfreville, 
as part of his possessions in Redesdale. The surname Garrett is, I have 
no doubt, a corruption of Gei-ard. 

Ottercops, a farm occupying high ground, and forming the 

* Sub Toce Cindocelium. 


soudiern extremity of this parish. In old records it is uniformly written 
JUiriopps* or AltircopSy which gives us a name^ formed probably by 
different people, and in different aeras. The two first syllables are 
purely British, from alU^ a cliff, a height, or hill, and tir, land, country. 
AUir is, therefore, literally, the high or hill country, which is perfectly 
descriptive of its situation. The Saxons, however, seldom permitted a 
British name to remain quite in its original state, and had a strong 
fancy of adding to it, and that oflen pleonastically. In this instance 
they added their coppe, which signifies the top of a hill, thus making 
the whole name, AUir-copps, or the ///// country tops. 

Elishaw. As the most probable etymon of Ely, in Cambridge- 
shire, Bp. Gibson, in his appendix to the Saxon Chronicle, gives us the 
British heligy or elig^ willows, because that marshy region formerly 
abounded in them. About the time of the Norman Conquest, or toon 
after, the g was oflen melted into y or i,t and the aspirate was fre* 
quently dropped. ' Hence helig would, by these mutations, be ely 
or elij which affords a likely enough derivation of jB/i-shaw, i. e. the 
willow wood. It is a remarkable confirmation of this etymology, that 
there are yet growing here a few of the largest willow trees to be met 
with, perhaps, in the north of England. 

Gersons-FIELD, near Otterburn. The prefix to this name is 
nothing but the Saxon gaersy grass. There are Gerstons in Surry and 
Sussex, which Lye derives from this etymon. The provincial pro- 
nunciation of grass in Northumberland, is still the pure Saxon girsy or 

OvERACRES, a farm, about two miles west from Elsdon, from the 
Anglo-Saxon ofer, upper, and acer or aker, a field. Now, this word 
is used for a certain space or measure of ground, but not formerly. 
Overacres is, therefore, Saxon for the upper-fields. 

* Henry III. 52, Altirtoppes forfeited by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and given 
by the king to his son Edmund.— The king complains that it b kept wrongfully by Gilbert 
de Umfreville. 

f In fine vocum g apud posteriores Anglos saepe in y or i liquescit — Vid. Lye sub lit. g. 


RatTENROW, in Redewater; and Rattenraw, near Haydon-bridge. 
There are> I believe, some other places of the same name in the county. 
The hbtorian of the parish of Hali£uc, in considering the etymology 
of a place there of a similar appellation, seems to give way to the 
opinion of Stukeley, who, in his account of Richard of Cirencester, 
says* this name is of high antiquity, and relates to panegyres or fairs. 
And a writer in the ArchaeoIogia,t observes, Rattenraw is a name of 
great antiquity, which the learned Camden deduces from the German 
freebooters, or hireling auxiliaries : *^ rotten^ or rotteren, to muster," says 
he ; " hence rot maistery a corporar\ Neither appearance, tradition, 
nor history encourages us, however, to assign any extraordinary anti- 
quity to places of this denomination in this county ; and I would de- 
rive them from raw, row, a rapk, derived from the Anglo-Saxon raewa^ 
a series, ainl ton or tun^ signifying the houses in a row. Row has after^ 
wards been pleonastically added. 

Sills-burn, a rivulet so named, probably, from the strata through 
which it runs — provincially termed siUs, appearing bare iu various 
parts of its course, to a considerable depth. 

RuKEN-EDGE, a lofty ridge lying between Emblehope burn and 
Redewater, evidently from the German Rucken, dorsum, the back, and 
metaphorically, a promontory or ridge* 

DURTREE-BURN, is vulgarly written Dultree ; but both in Speed's 
map and in the index to the published volume of Mr. Hodgson's His- 
tory, it is spelt DurtrCy which is probably its true orthography. If 
so, it is a pure Celtic compound, from dur^ water; and tre^ a dwelling; 
signifying the dwelling at the water. The whole of the name Durtre^ 
was in time imposed upon what was at first only the dur^ or rivulet; 
and the Saxon burn^ was added by a subsequent people. 

Rede-swire, that part of the mountainous range between England 
and Scotland, from whence the river Rede derives its principal source. 
It is from the Anglo*Saxon swire^ signifying primarily, a neck ; and in 

♦ P. 44. t VoUx. 6L 


a secondary and metaphorical sense, used to denote the hollow or 
depression of a mountain, connecting higher mountains or hiils on 
each side of it. Thus the Rede-swire is the lower and connecting 
ridge between the Carter-fell on the west, and the Hound-law on the 
east. This was the scene of a famous border contest, 7th June, 1^7«^» 
called the Raid of the Rede-swire. 

Carter-fell, the dividing ridge between England and Scotland, from 
whence issues the river Rede. " On voit,*' says Bullet,* " par card, 
ardy que cart a signifi^ pointe, aiguillon." The Celtic cart, with 
the same meaning as ard, (which, according to the same writer sig- 
nifies what is — ^** le plus elev6 — montagne dans la mSme langue"), 
is most likely the root of Carter. In the south-west of Scotland, there 
is a hill called Carthur, but the village at the foot of it is Carter-ton. 
Near the southern extremity of the parish of Simonburn, we have the 
Green-Car/^, and the Black-Car/j, signifying, respectively, the green 
heights or hills, and the black or heathy hills. And a little to the 
south-east of Cheviot is a hill called the 

Caird, or Card-law, which, I have no doubt, is synonymous with 
Cart, t and d being convertible letters. Law has been afterwards 
added by a people who knew not that card already signified a hill. 

Gammels-PATH, the name of that portion of the old Roman road be- 
tween Rochester (Bremenium) and Chew-Green (Ad Fines), just before 
it reaches the latter place j meaning the old road, from the Danish 

gammel, old. 

Riding. There are no fewer than seven places of this name in this 
county. In searching for its etymon, the Yorkshire Ridings naturally 
present themselves; but Riding there is a corruption of Thridding^ sig- 
nifying the third part, i. e. of the county, and can have no relation to 
the Northumberland Ridings. Indeed, I gave up the word in despair, 
till 1 read Professor Magnuson's Dissertationf upon the Runic inscrip- 
tion upon the gold ring found near Carlisle, which throws considerable 

♦ Sur la Langue Celtique, sub voce Cart. t Vide p. 1S6 of thb ▼olume. 


light upon it. The inscription he thus translates^ — ^' This ring 
belongs to Earl Orme the trusty^ of Ridang.*^ And upon Ridong the 
Professor observes:—" I, therefore, read Ridong, Redong, or Readong, 
the same as Reading or Reding* (yet in use), or Vidang, signifying 
campus sylvestris. We know that the Northmen, occupying Normandy, 
imposed new names, derived from their own language, upon the places 
of that country. And that the same thing was done by the first Danes 
who subdued parts of England, is not at all improbable." 

Professor Magnuson thinks it not unlikely, as Northumberland and 
Cumberland are conterminous counties, that the ring in question be^ 
longed to Orme, Earl of Northumberland and Deira, who flourished 
about the years 941 and 942. This Danish chief probably lived at one 
of our Northumberland Ridings ; a word, it would seein, of Scandinavian 
origin, still used as a local name in Denmark or Norway ; and whiclt 
signifies, in English, a woody, uncultivated field or pasture, or what-^ 
ever else may be thought a better translation of " camptis sylvertrisJ* 


Eglingham, a village with a church, which gives name to a very 
extensive parish. Its prefix is evidently the British eglys, a church. 

Breamish, in Speed's Map Bremyshe, perhaps to be derived from 
breme, an old word, according to Jamieson, signifying furious, raging^ 
swelling, and uishg or uisge, a Gaelic term for water. It is some con- 
firmation of this etymology, that as soon as this rivulet loses its moun- 
tainous character, about Bewick Bridge, and pursues a more gentle 
course, it drops this name, and takes that of the 

Till, which, according to Bullet, means a valley. Nothing is more 

* In a Danish translation of this interesting paper, of which two or three copies ha«^ 
found their way to this country, the Author adds here *< or Rkling^^ which is, to a letter, 
the rery local name we are considering. 



common than for a river to take the name of the valley through which 
it flows. T^ile is a river in Burgundy. 

Pow-BURNy an evident corruption of the Celtic pwl or poU^ a ditch^ 
a pool, from which comes the Anglo-Saxon puL 

LiLLBURNy a small rivulet, which gives its name to a village and 
township, and falls into the Breamish ; from the Danish lilley little, and 
burn. Lile is still used for little in Cumberland and Westmoreland. 
We find LiUe^sund, in Norway. 

Bewick, a village overhanging the eastern bank of the Till, in a 
fine, open situation, with a most extensive and delightful prospect. — 
This is one of the few Norman appellations in the county ; imposed, 
probably, by the Monks of St. Albans, who, with the church of Egling* 
ham, had very early possession of the township and other lands in the 
same parish. It is compounded of beau^ fine, pretty, and the Saxon 
toicky in allusion to its happily chosen site. 

The Cateranes' Hole, on Bewick Moor, a natural cave, formed by 
a narrow fissure in the freestone rock, and descending towards the 
west, to a very great depth, at an angle of about 1^^ degrees. By 
this instructive name we learn, that this cave has probably been, in 
former times, the hidden retreat of Cateranes, aa old Scotch word, 
signifying '' bands of robbers,'' which Jamieson derives from the 
Irish ceathamach, a soldier. 

High Hedgley, antiently written Higley, and Higgley^ from thd 
Anglo-Saxon hig, high, and ley, pasture. Hfgh has been prefixed, 
pleonastically, in more modern times. Hedghope, a mountain imme* 
diately south-east of Cheviot, and almost rivalling it in height, affords 
an instance of a similar corruption of the Saxon hig ; for I have no 
doubt that it means the High-hope. 

BeaNLEY, an adjoining township, and part of it on still higher ground 
than Hedgley. In old records it is generally spelt Ben-ley^ composed, 
probably, of the Gaelic ben or bein, a hill or mountain, and ley, pas* 
ture. On the summit of the highest ground in this township, in what 


is called Beanley plantation^ ^are the interesting remains of a British 
camp, with a double foss and rampart. The road leading from it is 
still very perfect, winding down the northern declivity of the hill, and 
guarded with large stones placed edgeways* 

Gallow-law^ on the Beanley estate, but on the northern side of the 
Breamish. Here must have been the place of execution for the Barony 
of Beanley, before the Jus furca was taken from the lords. 

Crawley Tower, standing near the southern extremity of an old 
encampment, which Mr. Smart, in the preceding article of this volume^ 
rightly supposes to be Roman. The north-west angle, which is the 
most perfect part of it, is decidedly Roman in its features, and cannot 
be mistaken. That it was the Alauna amnis of Richard of Cirencester, 
is by no means so certain. Mr. Smart says, he is ^' confirmed in this 
idea, because the eminence on which it stands, declines down both to 
the rivers Aln and Breamish.*' Now it certainly has a fine command 
of the latter river, being not more than half a mile from it; but the 
considerable hill on which the village of Glanton is situated, lies be* 
tween it and the river Aln, from which it is distant not less than 
three miles. Had it received its appellation, therefore, from either of 
these rivers, is it not much more likely that it would have been named 
with reference to the Breamish than the Aln ? 

I think it probable that Crawley, or, as it is anciently spelt, Crawlawe, 
n a corruption of Caer-law, i. e. the fort upon the hill. Caer Al- 
fnondj the Roman naval station at the mouth of the river Almond, on 
the Firth of Forth, is, we know, contracted, in a similar way, into CtOr 

Bassinton, on the northern brink of the Aln, from hamfij* an 
old word, which signifies rushy, and ton. The surrouiiding fields, 
notwithstanding the progress of cultivation, still very much abound in 
the common rush {Juveus effiisus). This word appears in bass, a mat 
for cleaning the feet, and fto^^-bottomed chairs. There is another 

^ Jam. sub voce. 


Bassinton in the chapelry of Crainlington^ which has, probably, the 
same etymon. 

The following additional Examples are taken indiscriminately from dif- 
ferent parts of the County. 

Thorngrafton, from the Anglo-Saxon Thym^ thorn; graef a 
grove ; and ton i \. e. literally, Thom-grove-town. 

Melcridge, a corruption, per metathesin, of Mickle-ridgey from th^ 
Anglo-Saxon mickle, large. 

BOTHAL, the name of an ancient castle and village on the river 
Wansbeck, which gives name to the parish ; obviously from the Anglo^ 
Saxon botl or botle. It is, in fact, vulgarly pronounced Bottle. 

WOODHORN, i. e, the wood-comer, from the Anglo-Saxon horn, a cor- 
ner; having, probably, been the south-east corner of the wood which for- 
merly overspread this coast, however now denuded of it, as we learn 
from many etymological intimations in the neighbourhood ; e. g. fFid 
or fr(wrfrington ; Hirst; Longliurst ; Norwood, i. e. Norlhwood; Slobs* 
wood, from the Anglo-Saxon stub or stobbe, the stump of a tree ; North- 
hurst I Woodhouses Woodhouses, ko. 

Hepple, a village on the north bank of the Coquet ; in old records, 
Heppale, Heppal, Heple, and Heepeel.^ It is, probably, a corruption of 
hea-peel, from the Saxon hea, high, and peel, a border strength, from 
the British pit. *^ About the middle of the last century,'' says the 
writer of M'Kenzie and Dent's History of Northumberland, •^ thifr 
town consisted of 15 detached farmsteads, besides several strong 
ancient houses;" and afterwards adds, '' at. that time the exterior 
walls of a strong and stately house were still standing tolerably entire, 
and which had probably been the mi^ior house of the proprietors of 
Hepple." To this last-mentioned building, the appropriate appellation 
of Hca-peel was probably applied, to distinguish it from the neigh- 
bouring peels of inferior strength ; and from hence the village might 


derive its name. Hepplt^ it may be added^ is a Northumbrian local 

Harnham, in the parish of Bolam^ occapying a very singular and 
picturesque situation. ^' Seen before a setting sun/' says Mr« Hodgsod, 
in his article Northumberland, ia the Beauties of England, '^ it appears 
like one of the fine towered hills in the pictures of Nicholas Poussin." 
It is derived by Wallis from " ham or Ami, as a contraction of the 
Roman hermeriy from Hermes y the god of travellers and custos mani<» 
um of highways; and of the Saxon herman or haremany a military 
road.'^ Thus far Wallis, whose etymology in this article is singularly 
confused and inaccurate ; for Harnham cannot be derived both from 
the Roman, or rather the Greek Hermes, and the Saxon hetemdn, which 
are words that have not the slightest mutual relation. Besides, here^ 
man is not Saxon for a military road, but for miles, a soldier ; and it 
may be remarked further, that the place in question lies at the dis- 
tance of nearly two miles from the Devil's Causeway — the military road 
referred to by Wallis, and therefore not at all likely to derive its 
name from it. It is> I am persuaded, to be derived from the Anglo^ 
Saxon horn, a corner, and ham, a house or habitation. Nothing can 
be well more descriptive of its singular situation than this etymology, 
which will suflBciently appear, from Wallis*s own account of the place. 
<^ It stands,'' says he, *^ on an eminence, and has been a place of great 
strength and security^ a range of perpendicular rocks of rag stone on 
one side, and a morass on the other; the entrance by a narrow decli- 
vity to the north, which, in the memory of some persons now living, 
had an iron. gate. The manor house is on the south-west comer of the 
precipice." It is indeed, literally, a horn-ham or comer house, which, 
by the change of a single letter, has been converted into Harnham. 

CaMBOIS, a village situated on a small creek or haven, at the mouth 
of the river Wansbeck. We have here one instance, among num- 
berless others, that the vulgar pronunciation of many names is often 
the best guide to their true orthography. Cambois is commonly 


pronounced Camus, and is doubtless the Gaelic camus, a creek ot* 

Thropton, on the Coquet, a pleonasm, formed of the Anglo-Saxon 
tkrop, a village, and tan^ of the like import. 

Thropple, near Mitford, compounded o( throp, a village, and hills 
meaning the village on the hill. 

Kenton, a village on a commanding eminence near Newcastle, 
from ken, view, and ton; literally, view or prospect town, 

MlCKLEY, the extensive pasture, from the Anglo-Saxon mucel or 
mickle, large, and ley, pasture. 

AiRDLEY, in Hexhamshire, occupying a high situation. Aird, in 
the British, is height ; to which the Saxons added their ley, pasture. 
Airdley means, therefore, the high pasture* Aird is often corrupted 
into Ord, which is a local surname. 

MoLLER-STEAD, near Hexham chapel, from the Danish moller, a 
miller, and sted, a place ; i. e. the miller's house or place. 

Weldon, on the Coquet, has its first syllable from the Anglo-Saxon 
weald, a wood ; the affix, don, is the Anglo-Saxon den, a valley. 

Dunterlee, near Bellingham. Dunter is purely British, from 
Dun, a hill, and tir, land or country. Lee or Ley, pasture, has been 
subsequently added. The whole means the hill land pasture. 

Ponteland, from the Anglo-Saxon ea-land, compounded of ea, 
water, and lands i* e. the water land of the river Pont Eland is the 
name of an adjoining mansion. A similarity in sound long confounded 
some of our earlier Antiquaries, and led them to place Pons ^lii 
here, instead of Newcastle. 

Ingoe, anciently written Inghou, from the Anglo-Saxon ing, a 
meadow, and hoe, a hill. 

Shafto-CRAG, a lofty and picturesque^looking eminence, forming 
the southern extremity of the parish of Hartburn ; in old records, al- 
ways spelt Schqflhow, and probably compounded of the German schaf, 
a sheep, and the Anglo-Saxon hoe, a hill. This place gives a local 


surname to a very ancient family^ the chief branch of which has been 
long seated at Bavington^ in this county. 

Watch-CURRACK, on the hill south-west of Hexham, where there 
has been a beacon to alarm the country on the approach of an enemy. 
Currack is a slight corruption of the Gaelic cruach, a heap, a cairn i 
and the prefix, watchy denotes the purpose for which it was used. 

MiNDRUM, on the Beaumont-water, anciently written Myndrom, and 
a name of Celtic origin, compounded of the British myntiy a kid, and 
the Gaelic druniy signifjring the back ridge of a hill. Mindrum is, 
therefore, Kid-hill, and synonymous with 

KiDLAW, the name of a farm, in the parish of Kirkharle. 

Kyloe, in Camden's Britannia spelt Kiliey, and in the Mag. 
Britannia, Killy or Killejfy obviously a corruption of the British CelU 
or Kelliy a grove or thicket of trees; more strictly, according to 
Camden,^ " a wood where much hazel grows.'* Fenwick wood, the 
remains of a natural forest, still comes almost close to Kyloe, on the 

Kelly-burn, in Redesdale, must be referred to the same etymon^ 
and is the same in meaning as Wood-bvm. 

Penpuoh. This interesting name is marked in Speed's map, and 
in Armstrong's ; but I am sorry to find it omitted in Fryer's. It is 
purely British, from pen^ head, — figuratively, the summit; and /ww,f 
region or country. Penpugh^ which lies on the height south of Wylly- 
moteswick, and nearly on the water shed between the South Tyne and 
the Allen, signifies, therefore, the country about the hill summits. 

Carvoran, (the Magna of the Romans) a slight corruption of 
Caer-vofwyn, which, in British, signifies the Maiden Castle or Fort^ 
so named from the Maiden Way passing through it. 

Brisley, on the margin of the Aln, almost opposite Hnln Abbey, 
a corruption of Braes-lejfy i« e. the pasture of the braes or banks, by 
which it is environed on the south, and on the summit of which stands 

* Gibson's Camden, vol. ii« p* 785* f '^^d. Lhoyd, sub yooe Regio. 


Brisley Tower> so fine and conspicuous an object ip the neighbourhood 
of Alnwick. 

, BOLHAM» an ancient village, which gives name to a parish, is of the 
same import as Bolton, and a pleonastic compound of the Scandinap 
vian bol, a habitation^ and the Anglo-Saxon ham. 

Druridge, in old writings, is always spelt Dryrigg, of very obvious 

Kershope, a mountain stream^ having its source in Northumber^ 
land, but flowing into the Liddal, and the boundary between En^and 
and Scotland, throughout its course of eight miles. On the Scottish: 
side of this rivulet, there is a hill called Carby, in some maps spelt 
JTirby, upon which, within my own recollection, were the striking 
remains of a British fort, remarkable for the strength and peculiarity of 
its construction. The British Caer, a fortress, gives no doubt its sig- 
nificant name to Carby, and the adjoining hope or valley, would be 
called the C^^x-hope or iC^erx^-hope, which name has been subsequently 
transferred to the rivulet which flows through it. Kersho^ey near St^ 
Peter's^ in Allendale ; Kearsley, in the chapelry of Ryal ; Carsley, in 
Armstrong's map spelt Caesley, near Black Chester, a little way south 
of Alnham ; and Kersay cleugh, at the head of North Tyne, near an 
old British fort and settlement called Bels-hunkings, are all names in- 
debted for their prefixes to a similar origin. Kershope, it may be 
added, is a local surname in the form of Kirsop. The British Caer 
likewise furnbhes local surnames to the families of Car, Carr, Ker, and 

* Chester-hope, io Rede-water, obtains its name from the Roman station, Habitancmn,^ 
now Risingharo, which lies at the bottom of the hope or valley ; and is, in fact, synony- 
fl^ns with Kers'hope. 


Observations on the Roman Station of Housesteads, and on some Mi" 
thraic Antiquities discovered there^ in a Letter from the Rev. Johk 
Hodgson, Secretary, to the Rev. A. Hedley» of Netvcastle upon 

Read Decembers, 1823. 

My Dear Sir, Upper Hetvorth^ Nov. 22, 1822. 

Since I had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Gibson, Mr. Hodgson, and 
yourself, at Housesteads, on the 23d of July last, my professional engage- 
ments, and a long series of domestic afflictions, have, from day to day, 
put it out of my power to arrange the notes I have taken at different 
times among the ruins of that station, and to offer my promised obser- 
vations on the Mithraic antiquities lately discovered there. 

The study of Antiquities seems to have been little cultivated among 
the English prior to the time of Henry the Eighth. The Greeks, who 
had fled before the Turks, with the lamp of learning, from their own 
country into Italy, and the almost contemporaneous invention of the 
Art of Printing, spread all over Europe that spirit of enquiry, and 
that intense application to letters^ which contributed to produce the 
Reformation, and to bring out that constellation of talent, which be- 
gan to shine in Henry's reign, and continued into those of his children. 
In this, Leland was not one of the least of the luminaries. He ob- 
tained from Henry the title of ^^ Antiquary to the King,'* and travelled 
six years all over the kingdom, making notes and collecting materials 
for extensive works on the History and Antiquities of the kingdom. 



His observations on the Roman Wall and the stations upon it are, 
however, of a general nature, and contain internal evidence, that he 
never visited the neighbourhood of the place to which our present 
enquiries are directed. His information, he tells us, was derived 
chiefly from Dr. Delaval, the Master of St. Mary's Hospital, in the 
Westgate, in Newcastle; and from the Vicar of Corbridge : and from the 
former of these sources he learnt, that " betwyxt Thyrlwall and North 
Tyne, yn the wast ground stondeth yet notable peaces of the wall, 
the which was made ex lapide guadrato, as yt there appeereth yet." 

Camden's account of the Roman antiquities in Northumberland, 
from the first edition of his Britannia to that in 1594, is also very slight. 
In the edition of 1590, he says, that " the Wall after leavirlg Cumber- 
land and passing the Irthing, shows, in the first place, he carcase of a 
castle, which they now call Caervorran ;" and tells us that " at Carraw 
and Waltonne, there are manifest remains of old fortifications." This 
is all the information he gives us of the state of the Wall between the 
North Tyne and the Tippal. In 1600, he, however, came into the 
North with his friend Mr. Cotton, and saw some parts of the Wall near 
Caervorran, from which place, he says, it " goes on more winding by 
Iverton, Forsten, and Chester-in-the-Wall near Busy-Gap, infamous for 
robbers, where I was told there were castles, for it was not safe to 
visit them for the moss-troopers on the borders. They told us that 
Chester was a very great place. Here," he says, " is the inscription 
" PRO SALUTE DESEDIANJ, &c." and at Melkrig* they procured the 
altar " DE^ SYRI^E," which they took away with them. This Ches- 
ter, or Chester-in-the-Wall, is, I have no doubt, the same as House- 
steads, which is only about half a mile west of Busy-Gap. 

Dr. Hunter, in a letter, dated May 15, 1702, respecting some anti- 
quities found here, says, that Housesteads is " a place so called from 
the abundance of ruins" at it, and amongst which he " found several 

♦ '• Where women beat their bucks (i. e. washings) upon it." — Holland , p. 21 9. 


pedestals^ two or three pillars^ two images, but somewhat defaced/'* 
and several inscriptions. 

The strong impressions, which this remarkable place produced on 
the minds of other antiquaries, who visited it in the beginning of last 
century, may be conceived from the descriptions they have left of it. 
Gordon, whose Itinerary was published in 1727, says, it ** is unques- 
tionably the most remarkable and magnificent Roman Station in the 
whole island.'^ ^^ It is hardly credible what a number of august retnains 
of Roman grandeur is to be seen here to this day, seeing in every place, 
where one casts his eye, there is some curious antiquity to be seen, 
either the marks of streets, and temples in ruins, or inscriptions, broken 
pillars, statues, and other pieces of sculpture scattered all over the 
ground."—** We caused the place to be dug where we were sitting 
amidst the ruinous streets of this famous oppidum/' 

Horsley died in 1733, in which year his Britannia was published. 
His cool and accurate style is never brightened up with the least at- 
tempt at colouring; yet he calls the place the famous Station of House-- 
steads; and adds: — ^** There may be two or three other stations in 
Britain, as Burdoswald, Elenborough, and Lanchester, that exceed 
this in the number of inscriptions; but none, I think, equal it as to 
the extent of the ruins of the town, or the number, variety, and curio- 
rity of the sculptures, which yet remain here "f — ^* The vast ruins oj 
the Roman station and town are truly wonderful.''^ 

Gale and Stukely visited it in August, 1725, and " had reason to be 
surprised with such a scene of Roman British antiquities as they had 
never beheld." They « transcribed and drew an incredible number 
of the finest altars, inscriptions, and noble sculptures, in large letters 
and excellent work ; all of which Dr. Stukely, when he wrote his Carau^ 
sius, had by him unpublished. " Many of them,'* says he, ** are en- 
graven by Gordon and Horsley, but they have not done them justice." 

* PhiL Tnuu. voL xxiii. p. IISI . f Horsley, p. 219. 

j lb. p. 148. 


And, finally, Mr^ Brand, who was here in 1779, tells us that Dr. 
Stukely, with great propriety, calls this place " the Tadmor oj Britain T 
and that an ^^ immense quantity of ruins denote the site of this once 
famous station."* 

By the concurrent testimony of the Notitia Imperiiy and of nume- 
rous inscriptions found in and near it, it is clear that the Roman name 
of this place was BORCOVICUS, and that it was garrisoned by the First 
Cohort of the Tungrians, a people, who inhabited both sides of the 
Maese, in Belgic Gaul. 

It is seated opposite to the thirtieth mile stone from Newcastle, and 
on the ridge of the line of basaltic rocks, along which the Wall runs 
from Seweushiels to Caervorran. It measures within the walls ^^ from 
north to south about five chains, and from east to west about seven.'*f 
Severus's wall forms its north rampart. 

The southern part of it is upon a very quick descent, and the foun- 
dations, both of its walls and all its buildings, rest immediately upon 
the basalt, which appears in many places rugged and bare, and espe- 
cially in the street, which leads north from the southern gateway. 

The interior still consists of vast masses of grass-grown ruins. One 
heap in the south west compartment, and near the south wall, has, I 
think, been a sudatory, or adapted to some purpose for which a hypo- 
caust was necessary, as the pillars and the cement, composed of brick, 
pebbles, limestone, and calx of lime, which are usually found in such 
buildings, may be seen, where the ruins are not covered with weeds 
and moss. 

I found on the spot a traditionary belief that there were subterrane* 
ous chambers near the middle of it ; and employed some workmen to 
clear away the ruins and rubbish near the remains of a flight of steps, 
which were supposed to lead downwards* They, however, soon came 
to the face of the whin-stone rock, presenting the same weather-beaten 
appearance, which it unquestionably had before a Roman hammer 

• Hi&t. of Newcastle, vol \. p. 6ia f Horaley, p. 148. 


sounded upon it, and seeming to bear very defying features of resistance 
to the art of the miner. At the foot of these steps we found a heap of 
decayed mineral coals, and a quantity of such ashes and scoria as are 
produced in smitheries in which mineral coal is used. The place in 
the form of an inverted cone, a little to the east of the steps, is of 
modern construction, and has probably been intended for a kiln for 
drying malt, or for some such purpose. 

In the short intervals between the showers, which fell on the 22d of 
July, I also employed two workmen to clear away the rubbish from 
the southern gateway, the corner-stone of which on the west side has 
a rude scarcement upon it, and is somewhat of a Cyclopaean size. 
From the outer wall-line inwards, as far as the rubbish was removed, 
the passage-way, which measured seven feet two inches, was laid with 
large freestone flagging, pretty well squared and jointed, but obstructed 
by a stone three feet two inches long, standing about one foot high 
above the flagging, and placed nearly two feet within the outer wall- 
ine thus : — 

The lower bed of this stone was hewn, and laid on the same level as 
the under surface of the flagging, which was closely jointed to it. Its 


upper surface was somewhat uneven^ as if it bad been worn by treading. 
The flaggings too^ on each side was much hoIJowed and worn down 
by treading, as if the persons passing in and out had had some obstruc- 
tion put in their way, which caused them to turn sideways, and always 
step in the same place. 

From the threshold outwards the way was made of small pieces of 
rounded basalt, cones of ill-burnt limestone, and gravel, amongst 
which I picked up a piece of very solid glass of a paleish green colour, 
which had been cast in a mould, and was of the same kind as some 
larger specimens, which Mr. Adamson and myself, in 181 7> found 
within the area of the station at Caervorran. 

The width, as here given, is from actual admeasurement; but the 
height of the side wall, the arrangement of the masonry, and the 
perspective, are drawn, I hope pretty faithfully, from memory. 

The stone used in the inside of the walls, and for other ordinary 
purposes, has been quarried out of the cliffs in the sandstone ridge, 
along which the present military road passes. The altars, columns, 
coins, and much of the ashlar work, have been taken from a stratum 
of freestone on the north side of the Wall, and similar to that in which 
the recesses, called the King and QueetCs Caves,* on the south side of 
Bromley Lough, are formed. 

The only Well, which I saw near the station, b in front of the house, 
and at present in use. It affords, through the whole of the year, a 
plentiful supply of water, and is sunk through two yards of soil and 
three of very compact whinstone. The hind at Housesteads told me 
that in dry weather in summer, when it is " ebbest** of water, " they 

* In 1SI7, 1 examined the fiu^es of all the remarkable rocks near the Wall from Caervorran 
to Sewenshiels for inscriptions ; but found nothing of the kind, excepting a rery rude re* 
presentation of a human being, with something like an ensign in its right hand, appa* 
rently executed with a pick, in one of these caves ; and five yards from this figure, there 
is a rude cross, very legible and deep ; but whether formed by design, or furrowed by the 
hand of time, I could not venture to decide. 


lave it out/* for the purpose of cleaning it If there be any well within 
the station, it is probable that it is formed in the basalt, to the depth 
at least of the boggy ground, immediately to the north of the Wall. 

The ruins of the Bath are on the east side of the brook, which 
divides the Kennell and Housesteads estates. Mr. Dryden, the pro- 
prietor of Kennell, told me, that a quantity of stones were " won** out 
of it about forty-three years since, when a fine inscribed altar was 
found in it, and taken away by Mr. Bullock, then steward to Mr. Er- 
rington of Beaufront. The flues of the hypocaust were full of soot, and 
there was an iron grating in the front of it, and in other parts much 
iron soldered into the stone with lead. Nearly all its walls to the 
foundation have been taken up, and the stones of them used in the 
field walls to the south east of it. Much of its interior, in a sadly 
. ruined state, is still remaining. In i 8 1 0, the floors of its basins appeared 
on the edge of the brook, composed of the usual cement found in Ro- 
man baths, and laid alternately with two layers of thin freestone slates, 
the under surface of the lower of which was black with fire. A great 
flood, occasioned by the rain that fell in a thunder storm in the hot 
weather, in June, 1817> broke up the foundations of this building, both 
in the channel of the brook, and in Mr. Gibson's side of the wall, and 
swept them away into the inges below. These foundations were of 
very large ashlars laid on fine clay. The whin rock had been quar- 
ried away to a plain surface, to make room for the area of the bath, 
and for the sake of commencing all its walls on the same level. At 
its lower corner the rock under it has the appearance of baked schist.* 
The tyles found in it are red, and intimately mixed with coarse sand. 
Amongst the common mortar of its walls I found a part of the shell of 

* This appearance I have found through the whole range of the basaltic clifls from Glen- 
whelt to Thockrington, that species of rock passing through every variety of stratum, either 
exposed to day in the ravines, or found in the mines in its course. Near Cock-Play and 
Swinburne Mill the schist is nearly as hard as Welch roofing slate. The coal beds on the 
south side of the basalt are charred dote to it, out of which state they pass into a soft sooty 


Venus Islandica. There are also found in it (as in the neighbourhood of 
almost all the Roman stations which I have visited) considerable quanti- 
ties of limestone, having partly the character of stalagmite, and partly 
that of such celular stone as forms about the mouths of petrifying 
vt^ells.^ Some of it is in amorphous lumps ; but the greater part of it 
has been either sawn into rectangular pieces* or formed in a fluid state 
in moulds. 

AVhere a flat stone is set up in a meadow called Grospoolhole, on 
the north side of the station, there is a circle of nine yards in diameter, 
the verge of which is hemmed with a mound, that produces grass of 
richer green than the ground about it. Has it the custody of the ashes 
of some Roman soldier? The people say, that a chorus of fairies, who 
live in caves in the neighbouring rock, give it the deepness of its verdure 
in their moon-light dances. A little farther to the east, close under 
the north side of the Wall, there is a basin thirty yards across, and ten 
feet deep next to the Wall, and six at its entrance, apparently made 
by human labour; but whether it was used by the Tungrian cavalry as 
an amphitheatre, or is merely the alveus of an ancient quarry, it is 
vain to conjecture. 

Knagg-burn, which runs past the bath out of the mosses of the forest 
of Lowes, the brook from the neighbourhood of Bradley, and indeed all 
the water which falls within the extensive basin, which the eye over- 
looks towards Kennel, runs into Grinden Lough^ from the west end of 

substance, and then gradually again into the coal common to each stratum. This is parti- 
cularly the case in the Blenkinsop and Haltwhistle-Common coal mines ; in the latter of 
which, a little to the east of Caervorran, the coal is, as I have been told, in a solid and 
compact form, having in -some respects obtained the character of graphite and become in- 
combustible. It is said to be in a similar state in one part of the Town-moor of Newcastle, 
* There is a very curious stratum of tufaceous limestone, in the parish of Kirkhaugh, 
near Alstone Moor, which resembles this in the character of being porous ; but differs from 
it in being much lighter, and not having the same decided appearance of having been 
formed by incrustation and stalagmitical deposition. 



which it finds its way, bj subterraneous passages, a mile and three- 
quarters in length, through a stratum of limestone into Bardon-bura, 
In winter, when the swallow-holes are too small to admit the water as 
it falls, the lake overflows its summer boundaries, and extends itself 
over the meadows and pastures as far as the military way near KenneL 

The prospect from the station from the south-east to the south-west 
is very extensive, taking in, in its range, t>.e high land about St. Os- 
wald's chapel, the plantations of Minsteracres, I^ngley Castle, Gelston 
Moor, and the hills on each side of Knaresdale. Behind it, to the 
north, is the vast and almost pathless solitude of the forest of Lowes, 
here and there studded with a few enclosures, a farm house, or a shep- 
herd's shield; and, in places, ealivened with grassy, limestone gairs, 
edged about with beds of deep ling, or impassable peat-mosses. 

The ridge, on which the station stands, as far as Bradley to the west, 
is covered with a fine soil, which rests on limestone, and is thrown into 
long lines of regular terraces, a mode of culture, which, I think it pro- 
bable, was introduced here by the Romans, and is very suitable to the 
sloping position of the ground. 

Immediately to the south and south-west, the brow of the hill is 
covered with the ruins of very extensive suburbs, amongst which are 
lying fragments of massy columns and carved stones ; but, in general, 
the streets and the heaps of decayed buildings are overgrown with net* 
ties, " hemlock, and rank fumitory." 

The inges, or moist meadows, which occupy the valley from Kennel 
bridge to Housesteads, may perhaps at some period be found to con- 
tain the common burial ground of the station. I infer this from the 
frequent discovery of urns and sepulchral remains in similar grounds 
near to Rochester, in Redesdale; and in your estate at the Bowers, as 
well as from the ruins of temples and other buidings, which lie along 
their southern margin. 

These inges, in ancient times, have been covered with birch, willow, 
and hazel trees, as appears by the great quantities of the two former 

N n 


kinds of wood, and of the nuts of the latter, which have been 
met with in cutting drains through them. Indeed, in Mr. Wallis's 
time, they were over-run with brush-wood, and particularly with the 
sweet-scented willow. Forty years since they were ridded of bushes, 
and since that time have been gradually assuming a firmer consistence 
and thicker sward, by the imprbvements made in them by draining. 

On the west side of Knagg-burn, where it enters the inges, the 
ground is irregular, with the remains of considerable buildings. Here, 
close to a hedge, Horsleysaw three female figures (North. L.) seated 
each in a separate chair, and a broken altar of the largest size, but no 
visible letters upon it ; and there is at present lying here a broken 
column, about four feet long and seven feet in circumference. 

At the head of these inges, and opposite to the station, is a gentle 
ridge caused by the protuberance of a freestone rock, and which 
bears the name of The Chapel-hilt. At present it is pretty thidkly co- 
vered with soil and grass, and is still a little unequal with the remains 
of buildings ; but the plough has gone over it, and the materials of the 
buildings have been removed, probably to make the adjoining wall, 
which, according to Dr. Stukely, was in 1728, *' composed of dry Ro- 
man stones and fragments of carved work, thrown one upon another 
in the rudest manner, in order to make a sorry fence to a meadow.*' 

On this hill, in 1702, Dr. Hunter found the altar dedicated to Ju- 
piter by Q. Verius Superstes ; that by QL Jul. Maximus, which wants 
the superscription I. O. M. on its capital ; and the base of the altar num- 
bered XLIV. in Horsley's Northumberland, which he says, had been 
torn up by the plough before he was there, and of which he was in 
hopes of recovering the remaining part as soon as the harvest of that 
year was over. The people on the spot told him that " within the 
memory of their fathers they used to bury their dead here," but he 
adds, " I dare not determine this point.*' 

Horsley says, that the " altars" and other antiquities, numbered from 
XXXVI. to XLVilI. in his work, « were dug up at a place called the 


Chapel-hill, supposed to be the ruins of a considerable temple ;'' and 
Wallis tells us that '^ it was of the Doric Order, a large fragment of a 
Doric capital lying prostrate by it some years ago, consisting of two 
toruses plain, also many columns;'' but this is an inference drawn, 
and, I think, very unjustly, from Stukely's account, which evidently 
places this Doric temple on the slope of the hill, and either in or very 
near the station. 

Immediately to the west of Chapel-hill, where a plot of gently 
swelling ground begins to slope off into the angle formed by one run- 
nel from the north and another from the west, the antiquities repre- 
sented in the annexed plate were discovered in June last; together 
with some uninscribed altars, and other articles of little antiquarian 
value. Some workmen, who were employed by Mr. Gibson to build 
a dry stone fence at a short distance to the west of this place, and had 
permission from him to dig up for that purpose any loose stones or 
old walls, on condition that they neither used nor destroyed any that 
were inscribed or curiously carved, after removing a few loose stones 
near the surface, struck upon the top of the altar. No. 7. The per- 
fect state of its finely carved horns and incense basin induced them to 
remove away the soil and rubbish around it with great caution ; and 
in the progress of this curious and careful investigation, they found 
the spot in which they were working, bounded by four walls of com- 
mon masonry. These walls faced the four chief points of the winds, 
and formed a rectangular area twelve feet eight inches from north to 
south, by ten feet from east to west, and having in the west end a 
recess thirty inches deep and seven feet long. The east wall to the 
level of the floor, which was between four and five feet below the sur- 
face, was faced on both sides; but the other three, and especially the 
west one, did not appear to have ever been so on their outsides 
which were rough and irregular, as if they had originally been built 
below the level of the adjoining ground. The floor was paved with 
thick sandstone slates of irregular sizes and shape?. The two lar<^e 


inscribed altars, and the stone bearing the zodiac, were still standing in 
their first situation, their backs being nearly in a line with the outside 
of the recess. No. 3. also appeared to occupy its original place ; but 
No. 1.^, was lying on its face before the zodiac, and No. 3. on one 
side immediately behind it, and on a sort of pedestal of hewn stone, 
thirty inches square, but very slightly raised above the level of the 
floor. The fragments. No. 1 . 6, c, rf, and ^, were near No. I . a. The 
rubbish cleared out consisted of fine mould, slightly intermixed with 
peat moss, decayed roots of small trees, and such unhewn stones as the 
side walls were made of. 

The head of the largest altar appears to have been slightly affecte<l 
by the weather ; that of No. 6. considerably so, the words DEO SOLI 
being almost wholly eaten out of it; but the base and the body of each 
of them are still as fresh and perfect, as on the day in which they were 
turned off the bench of the workman who hewed them. 

Though there had been a long continuance of dry weather till the 
day before I met you there, yet you will remember, that the sides and 
floor of the place 1 have been describing, were still oozy and wet ; and 
upon enquiry I found, that a considerable feeder of water used to rise 
on this spot, till about the year 1809, when a drain (x. x.) was made to 
its north-east corner, where the spring burst off, and from whence it 
has continued to run ever since, under cover, into the letch fed by the 
springs in the field immediately to the north. 

At the time this drain was made, great quantities of stones were also 
dug out of the foundations of very extensive walls to the east of the 
room containing the altars, and employed in making the drain x. x. 
and a field wall to the west of Housesteads. From the information I 
procured on the spot, from the hind at Housesteads and his sons, I was 
well satisfied, that the door-way in the east wall of this room communi- 
cated with the inside of some of the apartments, which these extensive 
foundations enclosed. 

This was an artificial cave, dedicated to the worship of Mithras, and 


in itfetf and the antiquities found in it, affords one of the finest 
and most copious illustrations of the nature of that worship, of anj 
that has been hitherto discovered. Concerning Mithras much curious 
information may still be derived from the religious books, the histories, 
traditions, and antiquities of the Persians, and out of the writings of 
the Greek and Roman authors ; but most of all out of Porphyry, who, 
in a critique upon the following description in Homer's Odyssy, of 
the Cave of the Nymphs in the island of Ithica, shows an accurate 
acquaintance with the Mithraic ceremonies, as practised in his time, in 
the Roman Empire. ^ 

** A broad-leaved olive decks the haven's head, 

" Near to a cave, how lovely ! but how dark ! 

" The holy place of Nymphs, the Naids called. 

<< There goblets are, and jars of marble made, 

** Wherein the honey-bee constructs its cells : 

" There, too, long looms of stone, on which the nymphs 

•* Sea-purple garments weave, a wond'rous sight. 

*' Fountains it has eternal, and two gates, 

" The northern one to men admittance gives, 

** That to the south is more divine-^a way 

" Untrod by men — t' immortals only known.** 

This he takes to be an allegorical sketch of the rites and doctrines of a 
religion, which prevailed in Homer's time, and in the course of his ex-^ 
planation of the symbols contained in this passage, he observes that, '^ the 
ancients consecrated caves and grottoes* very appositely to the world, 
making a part of it stand for the whole. For they made the earth the 
symbol of the matter out of which the world was formed. For the world, 
when contemplated as a mass of matter, is gloomy and dark ; but when 

^"AfT^u Kxi mnxam* Ammonius censet, "^t^fl^m esse caveraas sponte ortas; vwixam vero 
manufactat.— VossiuSf sub vocCf antrum. 


viewed in connection with the contrivance that is seen in it, and with that 
admirable order from which it has derived the name of Cosmos^ it is 
full of beauty and cheerfulness. Hence it may be aptly enough called 
a cave, delightful to one just stepping into it, on account of the share he 
has in the beauty of its parts ; but dark to him who would explore its 
depths, and penetrate it with his mind. So that the things, which are 
exterior and superficial, are delightful ; those, that are internal and pro* 
found, are obscure. Thus the Persians typified the descent of souls 
into inferior regions, and their return from them by initiating a priest 
in a place, which they called a Cave.* For, according to Euhulus, 
Zoroaster first of all, in mountains, which bordered upon Persia, con- 
secrated a natural cave to Mithras, the Father and Creator of all things. 
This cave was adorned with flowers, and pervaded with running waters, 
and furnished with representations of the cavern of the world, of which 
Mithras was the architect This internal furniture was disposed in 
such a methodical manner, as to afford symbols of the elements and 
climates of the world. Moreover, after the time of Zoroaster, it conti- 
nued a custom to perfornri sacred rites in caves and grottoes, either in 
such as were natural or artificial. For as men had founded temples, 
and shrines, and altars to the Olympic Gods ; but hearths to the terres- 
trial gods and the heroes; and pits and f^%yafaio the infernal gods; so 
they set apart caverns and grottoes to the world, which were also sacred 
to the Nymphs, on account of the water which dropped and flowed in 
them, and over which they preside. And they not only made a cave 
the symbol of the natural and sensible world, but also received it as the 
symbol of all invisible virtues. For as caves are dark, so the essence of 
the virtues is obscure. And hence Saturn built a cave in the ocean, 
in which he hid his children. So likewise Ceres educated Proserpine 
in a cave with the Nymphs. Numerous examples of this kind are to 
be met with in reading the works of the Theologians. And on these 
accounts it was, I think, that the Pythagoreans, and after them Plato, 
* See also Justin. Dial, cum TryphoM, p. 294. Reins. Sjntag. p. 94'. 


were induced to call the world a cave and a grotto. For in Empe- 
docles we hear the Virtues, which are the guides of souls, saying : — 

* This roofed cavern we have reached at length/ 

And in the seventh book of Plato's Republic it is said : — ^ Behold the 
men are, as it were, in a subterranean cave, and in a dwelling formed 
like a grotto, having its entrance opening widely out to the light 
through the whole of the cave. For the seat, which is visible, is to be 
compared to lodgings in a prison, but the light of the fire in it to the 
power of the sun.* Why the theologians have, therefore, made caverns 
to be the symbol of the world, and of the powers of the world, is 
manifestly obvious from these observations/* 

In another place, the same author observes, that the ancients, even 
before temples were thought of, consecrated cells and cayems to the 
gods : as was done by the Curetes, in Crete, to Jupiter ; in Arcadia, to 
the Moon and the Lycian Pan ; in Naxus, to Bacchus ; and in every 
place where Mithras was known, he was propitiated in cells.* Justin 
Martyr also says, that they, who are addicted to the worship of Mithras, 
affirm, that he was born from a rock, and call the place a cave.f Sta- 
tins also advances a similar opinion in the following passage in his 
Thebaid :J — 

" Or in a cave, in rocks of Persia hewn, 

** Mithras, who writhes, th* indignant horns, t* adore/* 

** The infant Jupiter, the children of Saturn, and the ark-exposed 
Anias and Bacchus, are all said to have been born and nursed in a 
sacred cave.*'|| Bacchus was surnamed DytltyrambuSy from being 
brought up in a cave called DythyrytcSy because it had two gates ;§ 

• De Ant. Nyropb. p. 263. f Dialog, cum Tryphone, p. 296. 

X Lib. I. 720. II Faber*8 Origin of IdoL iii.p. 1S5. 

§ Notes to the Delphin Ovid. Met iii. 914. 


and in Montfaucon^ we hare Mithras, in the character of Bacchus, rising 
out of a cave, and holding up a cluster of grapes, which he seems 
to admire. On the side of the rock out of which he rises, the word 
KAMA is inscribed, which is, perhaps, explained in the sculpture im- 
mediately below it, in which the words NAMa SEBESIO, the fountain 
to Bacchus^ are written on the neck of the bull. For Porphyry says, 
that caverns are sacred to the Naids, who have their name from r«/i€, 
a fountain; and Macrobius tells us, that in Thrace the Sun and Bac- 
chus are the same, whom they call Sebadius, which name, Meursius says, 
ought to be written Sabazius^ and quotes Eustatius as his authority, 
who affirms, that the SabaB, a people of Thrace, call Bacchus ^SafraziW.f 
The symbols and the inscriptions mutually explain each other. The 
wound in the neck of the bull is the fountain ; the blood issuing out of 
it, is wine; the dog licking the blood, is Sirius ; all which may be in- 
tended to signify the gratefulness of wine during the influence of the 
Dog Star, 

In clearing the rubbish out of the Mithraic cell at Housesteads, some 
fragments of praefericula of red terra-cotta, ornamented with black 
figure, were found, and were lying amongst the other antiquities by 
the side of the cell on the 22d of July; but carried oflF by some of 
the country people, who were led to the spot on that day by the en- 
quiries and search I was then making. A few observations, connected 
with these and the spring that rises on the site of the cell, will show 
that both of them were necessary to make up the series of symbols 
required to complete a Mithraic cavern. 

We have already seen that in the opinion of the Greeks, Mithras and 
Bacchus were the same Deity; and Porphyry tells us, that "goblets 
and jars of stone were symbols of the Naids; and vessels of terra-cotta, 
of Bacchus ; for these are gifts grateful and acceptable to the God of 

« Vol. I. p. 23S, pi. 96, No. 7 and 10. 

\ Macro. Sat. lib. 1, cap. 18 ; also Cicero dc Nat« Deor. lib. iii. c. 25. 


the Vine, since its fruit is ripeaed by celestial heat; but goblets and 
jars of stone are proper types of the nymphs, who preside over water 
which flows out of rocks/' *^ Hence in the rites of Mithras a goblet is 
the symbol of a fountain."* 

Sir R. K. Porter visited ** a.Mithraic cavern" not far from the ruins 
of Pasargadae, called the Cave of the Forty Daughters, which he de- 
scribes as " deep, and containing two or three interior caves, whence 
issues a particularly translucent spring. The natives told us that it 
was formerly inhabited by a succession of holy persons. Innumerable 
old lamps, still left in the place, testify something of the story ."f 

These testimonies of ancient authors to the mysteries of Mithras 
being performed in caverns, is corroborated by inscriptions in Gruter 
and other authors, where we find one person appropriating a cell, spe- 
Hum, DEO SOLI IN VICTO MITHRJE ; another dedicating a cell " CUM 

SIGNIS £T CET£RISQU£" to the same deity; and a third, an 


Let us now see how these accounts are borne out and agree with 

• De Antro Nymph, p. 258, 261. The classic authors abound with descriptions of 
caves sacred to the Gods and the resort of Nymphs. Ovid, for instance, spealcs of caves 
bedewed with fountains, where Diana and her Nymphs resorted. Met. lib. iii. 1. 177; and 
in lib. xiv. 1. 514, he says, that 

Venulus the realms 
Of Calydonia, and the Apulean bay. 
And fields Mesapian leaves ; in which are caves 
With thick wood dark, and oozing waters light. 
Where lives old Pan the semi-goat ; but erst 
The dwelling of the Nymphs. 

Pan and the Sun were considered as the same by the Arcadians, who called him Innus and 
Lord of Matter, r^v tuV vx^i »vfu9 Mac. Statur. I. xxii. p. 3S1. There was a cave sacred to 
Pan and the Moon in Arcadia.-— P0179A. de Ant. Nymph. 262. 

f Travels in Georgia, Persia, &c. vol. i. p. 510. 

X Vide Gruter, p. xxxiv. no. 5, 7, 9. Beyeri Addit. ad Seld. de Dis Syris, 53. 

o o 


the several inscriptions and sculptures, to the illustration of which our 
present enquiries are directed. In entering upon the subject, it will, 
however, serve the purpose of clearness, to give some brief sketch of 
the history of the Mithraic worship. 

The Sun in different nations and times has been worshipped under 
different names. In Egypt, he was named Osiris j in Phoenicia, Baal ; 
in Thrace, Sebazius, or Bacchus; amongst the Greeks, Apollo ; and in 
Persia, he was called Mithras ; a word which, according to Vossius,* 
is derived from the Persian MiTHER, a Lord. Hyde says,t that in 
Persia the Sun, in religious matters, was specially called Mihr^ a word 
which, in its primary signification, means love, commiseralion^ pifj/y 
which name it has, because it cherish^ and renews, and, as it were, 
embraces the whole world with the tender affection of love. But Plu- 
tarch, in his treatise on Isis and Osiris, after some reasoning on the 
origin of good and evil, tells us, that Zoroaster, who is said to have 
flourished 5000 years before the Trojan war, called the good god, Oro- 
mazes, and the other, Arhimanius; that Oromazes resembled light 
more than any other sensible thing ; Arhimanius, ignorance and dark- 
ness ; and that there was one between them, named Mithras, for which 
reason the Persians call a mediato7\ Mithras. It is, however clear, 
from the same author, that by Mithras they meant the sun ; for, in his 
life of Alexander he says, that Darius invoked Tiraeus, one of his 
Eunuchs, " as he honoured the mighty light of Mithras, and the right 
hand of the king, to tell him if the death of bis wifeStatira, was not the 
least of the misfortunes which he had to bevvail."J Herodotus, in 

* I>e Orig. et Prog. Idol. lib. ii. c. 9. 

f Hist. Relig. Vet. Pers. p. 105. The word Mithra h common in Persian names, as in 
Mithradates, Mithrobarzanes, Mithropaustes, Mithracenes, &c. 

X Zenophon says, that Cyrus used to swear by Mithras ; Plutarch also makes Artaxerxes 
swear by him— Nii row M<lfi«v, &c. ; and Curtlus, (as quoted by Montf. Antiq. Exp. vol. ii. 
^%) speaking of the march of Darius against Alexander, says, ^ he invoked the Sun, 
Mithras, and the Sacred Fire.*' 


his account of the Rdigion of the Persians says, ^' they worship the 
sun, the moon, earth, fire, water, and the winds ; which may be termed 
their original deities. In after times " they borrowed from the Assy- 
rians and the Arabians the worship of Urania (or the celestial Venus), 
whom the Assyrians call Mylitta, the Arabians Alytta, and the Persians 
Mithra/'* Indeed, it is plain from antiquity, that this divinity was 
considered to exist not only in the several characters of a male and a 
female, but also in that of an hermaphrodite ; and this opinion has the 
rapport of the best modern authors on the subject. The Chevalier 
Ramsay says, that ^* the Persians adored but one supreme deity, called 
Oromazes ; but they considered the God Mythras, and the Goddess 
Mithra, sometimes as two emanations from tlie substance of Oromazes^ 
wid at others as the first production of his power;'' — ^that *^ Mithra was 
the living image of his beauty, the original mother, and the immortal 
virgin ; that she presented to Oromazas the ideas of all things, who 
ga^e them to Mythras to form a world resembling those ideas." And 
again, ^* in the spaces of the Empyreum, a pure and divine fire ex- 
tends itself, by means of which not only bodies but spirits become 
visible. In the midst of this immeisity is the great Oromazes, first 
principle of all things. He diffuses himself everywhere; but it is 
there that he is manifested in a more glorious manner. Near him is 
seated the god Mithras, or the second spirit; and under him Psyche^ 
or the goddess Mithra.'*t Faber sajrs, " like Siva, Osiris, Bacchus, 
Adonis, Venus, and Minerva, Mithras was an hermaphrodite, and 
was venerated at once as the sun and the moon ; that is to say, as the 
god both of the solar and the lunar gate. That he was the sun is well 
known ; but Herodotus informs us that he was called the moon, and 
the same as Mylitta, the Assyrian Venus, or female principle of gene- 
ration. . Or if we suppose Mithra to be rather the feminine of Mithras^ 

* See Encjclop. Methodiq. — Antiq. under Miliir. Beloe's Herod. Clio, 131, vol. i.p. 135. 
Also Strabo, lib. ii. and Justin, lib i. 
f Travels of Cyrus, book ii« 


as Sana is of Janus ^ and Maia of Maius^ the position will be virtually 
the same."* In this hermaphrodite capacity he is not difficult to be 
recognised in the following passage : — ^•^ There is amongst the Brachmins, 
in India," says Bardisanes, as quoted by Porphyry, " a natural cave of 
great magnitude in a very lofty mountain, near the middle of the 
earth; and in it a statue of ten or twelve cubits in height, having its 
hands crossed, the right side exhibiting all the parts of a man, and 
the left those of a woman. In the right breast the figure of the 
sun is sculptured, on the lefl that of the moon. In the two arms 
the artist has carved a great number of angels, and of other things 
which the world contains, as mountains, the sea, a river, the ocean, 
plants and animals, and every individual creature.f 

Without entering into the controversy about the era in which Zo* 
roaster flourished, or the still more dubious questions, — ^who was the 
founder of the Mithraic worship, and when it commenced, — we can 
with great certainty affirm, that it prevailed in Persia before the time <tf 
Herodotus, who wrote 440 years before Christ ; but it does not ap^ 
pear to have been known to the Romans till about 350 years after that 
time ; for Plutarch tells us that the pirates against whom Pompey was 
sent into Cilicia, A. U. C. 685, after plundering and destroying many 
temples, which till then had been held sacred and inviolable, '^ cele- 
brated foreign sacrifices, those for instance of the town of Olympus, 
and performed certain hidden rites, of which those of Mithras are kept 
up even until now, and which first began with them." From the time 
of their being introduced to the' knowledge of the Romans by the 
pirates, to the year A. D. 101, I have met with no notice of them: 
in that year a dedication occursj to Mithras ; and Pallas, in Porphyry ,§ 
mentions the Mithraic mysteries in connection with the abolition of hu- 
man sacrifices, by the Emperor Hadrian, who reigned from A. D. 117 

♦ Faber Orig. of Pag. IdoU vol. iii. p. 182, f ^e Styge, p. 283. Ed. Cantab. 1655, 
X Gruter, p. xxxv. 2. § De Abstin. lib. ii. sec. 5% p. 9i. 


to 137. Plutarch, we have just seen, says, they were kept up in his time 
and he died in A. D. 140. During the reign of Commodus they are. 
frequently mentioned:* also in A. D. I97;t ^^^ about this time they 
had extended all over the western Empire ; and from their prevalence 
and the openness with which they were professed, appear not only tq 
have been tolerated, but to have been the favourite aqd fashionable 
religion of the Romans. A taurine tablet of Mithras was found at 
York in 1747> ten feet below the surface of the earth. Dr, Stukely 
saw an image of him at Chester, which is given by Horsley,| who also 
has an inscription that mentions him, found at Cambeck-fort, in Cum* 
berland. We shall presently see that he continued to be worshipped 
at Housesteads in A. D. 253. 

No. 1 • a. This sculpture is in very high relief, and, with the fragment 
of it represented by the wood*cut at page 287, measures nearly six feet 
in height. It was found, lying on its face, immediately in front of the 
2odiac. By comparing that which remains of it with the delineation^ 
of similar, but more perfect, sculptures in Montfaucon and other au- 
thors, it will be seen, that it is only part of a very large table. That 
of the same kind which was found at York, in 1747, is described by Dr. 
Stukely in the Philosophical Transactions,^ and figured ix\ Cough's 
edition of Camden's Britannia. When perfect, we suppose this to have 
represented Mithras, habited in a candys and Persian tiara, kneeling 
in a spirited posture on the back of a prostrate bull, the head of which 
he pulls back, by a horn or its muszle, with his lefl hand, while, with 
his right, he plunges a dagger into its neck. One fore leg of the bull 
is usually bent under its body ; the other stretched out. Iq seven of 
the sculptures in Montfaucon,|| Mithras is also attended with two 

* Gruter» p. xxxv. 1. Lamprldius in the Life of Commodus. Reinesii S^ntag. Vet. 
Insc. p. 89. 
i Reinet. Syntag. p. 89. 

-^ Gent. Mag. 1751, p« 102. and Horaley's Brit. Rom. Cheshire, no. V. 
§ No. 493, p. 214. 
II Antiq. Explained vol. i. p. 233, pi. 96. llyde^u Hist. Relig. Vet. Pers. p. iii. tab. 1. 


torchbearers, clad like himself, and with the figures of a lion, crow, 
scorpion, serpent^ crab, dog, or other signs, either of the zodiac, or some 
planet or constellation. 

Montfaucon thinks these two attendants are also Mithrases ; and that 
he, who is before, represents the rising snn ; he, on the bull, the sun 
at noonday ; and the one, to the right hand of the spectator, the setting 
sun. And he is further confirmed in this opinion by a marble, which 
Gruter describes, in which these young men have each a star over their 
heads, one of which be says is the star of the east, the other of the west. 
If, however, under the silence of antiquity on the subject, we be al- 
lowed to hazard a conjecture as to the meaning of these symbols, I see 
no objection against the supposition, that, with the centre figure, they 
were intended to represent Mithras or the sun, in a triple state; and 
that in the capacity, in which they are here placed, they are the genii, 
or guides of souls, passing through the two gates mentioned by Homer 
in his description of the cave of the nymphs. On these gates Porphyry 
is very diffuse. In the theology of the ancients he says, they repre- 
sent the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. That Cancer being in the 
north, and the sign of the summer solstice, is the way, by which souls 
descend I'/c y^rwtr ; and that the way to the abode of the gods is by 
Capricorn, which is in the south, and the sign of the winter solstice. 
" The gates,'* he adds, " which look towards the north, are rightly said 
to be open to the descent of men ; but the southern quarter is not 
merely the way of the gods, but of those going up to the gods. For 
which cause Homer doed not say, the way of the gods, but of immor- 
tals.*'* Indeed this, in a measure, seems to be the view, which M. De- 
puis has taken of the matter, in his account of the sculpture repre- 
sented by the following wood-cut :— 

* De Antro Nyinphanini, p. 264. 


" The points of the equinoxes," he says, " are represented on one 
side by a bull, or by the head of a bull, suspended in a tree covered 
with leaves, in which also hangs a lighted torch ; on the other side is a 
tree loaden with fruit, to which a reversed and extinguished torch is 
attached, and at its foot is a scorpion. All this is designed for nothing 
more than the two signs of the equinoxes, the state of light, and the 
departure of the sun ; the birth and death of nature, the limits of the 
empire of light and darkness, of good and evil, of the reign of Oro- 
mazes and of that of Arhiman. So likewise are the two genii on the 
right, which are habited nearly like Mithras, one of which bears a 
lighted flambeau pointing upwards, the other, one extinguished. The 


one is the genius of Taurus, or of the animal, whose blood fecundates 
the earth ; the other, that of the Scorpion, or of the sign of Autumn, 
which we find placed by a tree loaden with fruit and a torch reversed."* 
But it may be objected to all this, that, however plausible it appears, 
it is nothing but conjecture ; that the Mithraic signs were symbols of 
mysteries which were never divulged, and concerning which antiquity 
is silent. It cannot, we allow, be asserted that any regular treatise 
on the subject has descended to these times ; but, I think, that very 
satisfactory evidence may be found to prove, that the two attendants on 
Mithras were the guides, or guardians, of souls in their passage into 
and out of life. No one disputes that the caduceus, which we find in 
the left hand of the figure under illustration, was one of the symbols of 
Mercury, who is constantly represented as the guide of souls from the 
higher to the lower regions.f The Egyptians, according to Macro- 
bius, asserted, that it was an emblem of the generation of men, qtia 
genesis appellatur^X Indeed, the author of one of the Mithraic sculp- 
tures in Hyde has not left this office of the genius of the northern 
gate to be explained by the unambiguous symbol, the unfolding leaf of 
the lotos, which he places behind him ; but confirms the Egyptian 
exposition of the meaning of the caduceus, by an exhibition which 
cannot be misunderstood; while, in the palm-branch, with the skull in 
the middle of it, he strengthens our hypothesis, that the figure on the 
right side of the Mithraic tables, is the genius of Homer's southern gate ; 
for, among the Abraxas gems,^ we find Anubis (the Mercury of the 
Egyptians) represented with the caduceus in his left hand, and a palm- 
branch in his right ; and Apuleius tells us, *^ that this errand-goer both 
of the heavenly and infernal gods was carried aloft in the processions of 
Isis, having his face sometimes black, at others gilded, stretching 

* EncjcL Methodique. Antiq. art. Mithras. 

f Phornuti de Natur. Deor« Specul; ed. Lugd. 1608, M. 6* Macrob. Sat. lib. 1. cap. 

\ Sait lib. i. c xiz« § Montfiittcon li, 230, pL 50. 


forth his long dog*s neck, and bearing the caduceus in his left hand, 
and shaking a green paUn branch in his right/'* Now Porphyry, speak- 
ing of the rigid severities practised among the Egyptians, previous 
to the observance of any great religious festival; says, *^ they slept 
upon beds made of the boughs of the palm or date tree, which 
they call, * bats,*'' a word, which, according to Pignoriusf, signifies 
in the language of Hierapolis, the souL Apuleius calls;^ it, palma 
victrix i and says, that the sandals of the moon were made of its leaves. 
I would, therefore, infer, that the hieroglyphic of the palm-branch and 
the skull was meant to convey the idea of the soul triumphing over 
death, and in this sense it appears to be placed with great propriety 
behind the genius of the gate, which leads to the abode of the immortals. 
That this exposition is entitled to some consideration, it will be fur- 
ther apparent from an enquiry into the meaning of the lunette, a 
symbol in the Mithraic mysteries. On our table, only a fragment of it is 

left, as in the annexed wood cut What 
accompaniments it had, when perfect, it 
would be idle to conjecture. In two of 
the sculptures in Montfaucon, and in 
two others in Hyde, the bust of the 
moon is placed over the genius of de- 
scending souls, with a crescent either on 
her forehead, or behind her shoulders: 
and in each sculpture the bust of the 
sun occupies a corresponding situation' 
over the genius of ascending souls. Now 
Macrobius says, ** there can be no doubt 
that the moon is the author and framcf 
of mortal bodies :"|| and Porphyry tells us, 

* Metamorph. lib. xL vol. ii. p. 698. ed. BasO, 1560. 

f Menss Isiacae Expos, fol. 10. a, ed. Venet 1605. % ^^ ^^^* Aureo 1. xi. vol. ii, p. 643. 

II In Somn. Scip. lib. i. cap. xL 



that the moon is the ^^ queen of generation ;'* and ebewhere that 
'^ Plato mentions two doors, one of which is open to such as are afih 
cending to heaven; the other, to those coming down to the earth. 
And thus the theologians make the snn and moon the gates of souls, 
and say» that they ascend by the sun, and descend by the moon."* 
But I forbear to load my letter with further quotations from the works 
of the ancients, in illustration of this part of my subject ; many of 
whom, and Porphyry especially, contain curious notices, mixed with 
much unintelligible jargon, respecting the various views in which the 
Mithraic gates were taken. There is, however, some reasoning in 
Macrobius, which seems to throw considerable light on the meaning 
of the principal figures on these tablets, and with it I shall conclude 
this part of my enquiry. Mercury, he says, and the sun were the 
same deity, and among the Egyptians the former was painted with his 
lower wing of an azure colour, by which the sun's course through the 
winter signs was represented : the upper wing was clear, and showed 
his progress through the summer part of the zodiac. In the fable of 
Argus being slain, and his eyes put out by Mercury, Argus is the 
heavens, lighted up by stars, and watching over the earth, which the 
Egyptians, in their hieroglyphics, represent by an ox. The starry 
vault of heaven is, therefore, then said to be killed by Mercury, when 
the sun, as it were, subdues the stars by obscuring them in the day 
time, and by hiding them from our eyes in the brightness of his own 


The fragments of this table, represented by figures I. b,Cy d, and^, 
were found near the middle of the cave ; and, by the cleanness and 
freshness of their fi'actures, appeared as if they had been very recently 
broken off. This, however, might be owing to their having been 
buried at a depth in the earth, where the uniform consistence and 
temperature, imparted to the soil by the springs about the cave, would 
preserve them for many years in the same state. It was plain that 

« De Antro Nympb. p. 268. f Sat. lib. i. cap. xix. 


diey had been stricken off with a hammer and by design — I would 
say, to give the atone on which they were formed a flatter bed, and 
thus make it usefnl for building purposes, or as a cover for a drain, 
not with any view of destroying a carving, which was viewed in the 
light of a pagan idol, and on that account abominated. 

Figure l.b,\s the shoulder knot of the candj/s, as Lucian calls it, of 
^ Mithras the Mede, who also wore a tiara ; but could neither speak 
Greek, nor know when people drank his health." 

Figure I.e. b the right hand of Mithras, grasping the dagger, with 
which he stabs the bull. 

Figure 1. ^, is broken in twa X suppose it to be the figure of a dog 
in a rampant posture, having its fore feet upon the necU of the bull^ 
for the t^onveuience of licking its blood. In an astrological sense it 
might represent the coostellatioB Canis, or rather Sirius, which is the 
principal star in Canis ; for, aocording to Plutarch^ when Oromazes 
had amplified himsdf three times, and removed himself as far from the 
sun as the sun is from the earth, he embellished the heavens with stars, 
one of which he made superior to all the rest, and as it were, the guide 
and guardian of them all, namely, Sirius, or the dog-star. Porphyry 
however, endeavours to iriiow, that the doctrine of the transmigration 
of souls was intended to be shadowed out by these symbols. For, in 
speaking of the religion of the Persians, he tells us, that '^ the highest 
order of the Magi neither ate nor killed any animal ; that the second 
order slaughtered no tame ones ; and that the third sort did not lay 
hands indbcriminately upon all kmds : for their fundamental dogma is, 
that souls undergo transmigratioB, which they seem to point out in 
the mysteries of Mithras; for, in noticing our conformability to ani- 
mals, they are wont to call us by their names. Thus the priests, who 
officiate at their orgies, they call lions ; the women, hyaenas ;^ and the 
servants, crows. So likewise those, whom they call Patresy or fathers, 

* This should probably be lionesses, the text hayiog w$ifni instead of xtmhtif. See n(Ae$ 
to the Cambridge ed. of Porphyry. 


are denominated eagles and hawks. But he, who is initiated into 
those rites, of which the lion is the symbol, assumes the forms of 
various animals. Concerning which Pallas gives us a reason in 
the treatises which he wrote respecting Mithras. For the people, 
he says, imagine this to have reference to the circle of the zodiac ; 
but the opinion is founded in truth, which makes them allude to the 
mystery of human souls^ which they say are destined to inhabit dif- 
ferent kinds of bodies/** 

Figure 2. consists of two fragments of a neatly executed statue in 
sandstone, three feet high, in the usual Mithraic dress, and bearing 
something like a torch pointing upwards. When found, it was lying 
on one of its sides on the square flag-stone immediately behind the 
zodiac. It was broken in two at the middle of its legs, and wanted its 
head. Its left arm and the upper part of the torch are also much mu* 
tilated. A similar figure, already alluded to as having be#n seen by 
Dr. Stukely at Chester, is described by Pennant as dressed in ** a Phry- 
gian bonnet, with a little mantle across his shoulders, and a short ^^w^ket 
on his body. He is placed standing with a torch in his hands de- 
clining."! ' 

From the situation in which this statue was found, I suppose it U> 
have stood at the outlet of the cavie, representing Mithras as the Greniiia 
of the winter solstice and of the mystical gate, which led to the happy 
mansions of the celestial god Oromazes. Too much of the western 
wall of the recess had been taken up to enable me to form any correct 
notion how this symbolical gate was formed, but I could have no doubt 
that the large, well-hewn stone, upon which the statue was Ijring, was 
intended as the first step of the initiated out of *^ the valley of the 
shadow of death," into day-light and scenes of cheerfulness and joy. 

* Porph. de Abstin. lib. iv. cap. xvi. p. 165, 166. See aUo concerning the dog-star, 
under the name Sothis, in the treatise De Ant. Nymph, and in Plutarch de Is. and Osiride; 
but especially Macrobius In. Som. Scip. lib. i. cap. xyU. 

f Tour in Wales, I. 159. 


Figure 3. was found at the north-east corner of the cave. It was 
Blanding with its back to ^the wall. The bust of the sun on its capital 
has seven radii round its head| and is in very rude and low relief. In- 
deed the whole altar, which is twenty inches high, is a very poor spe- 
cimen of masonry. The inscription, which is also rude and inaccu- 
rately cut, may be englished thus: — 

Hieronymus, performing a vmo, freely and duly dedicates this to the Sun. 

The number 4. near the plan of the Mithraic cave, marks the spot 
where a plain altar, seventeen inches high, and bearing an illegible in- 
scription, was found. It has the patera on its right side, and the pra^ 
fericulum on its left. 

No. 5. This stone, when perfect, has been four feet high, and two 
feet and a half broad. The upper part of it has been thinned away, 
probably for the purposeof making it less top-heavy, by which it has 
been made more liable to be broken. At present it is in several pieces^ 
and the arms of the figure in the centre, and the signs Cancer and 
Libra, in the zodiac, are wanting, as well as something on each side 
of the plane of the lower hemisphere, as fractures in the stone, in these 
places, plainly show, that the tablet is mutilated there. Euough, how- 
ever, of this very remarkable, and (as far as 1 have been able to learn) 
unique relic, remains to show both its original form, and for what pur- 
pose it was constructed: and while we cannot, I think, be wrong in 
supposing, that it was intended, in common with the ^^ signs and orna- 
ments'' of caves similar to that in which it was found, to convey some 
dogma or precepts of the Mithraic religion, in a dark and enigmatical 
manner, I would still ask this meed of praise to it, that, in its solution, 
there is a more learned, more connected, and more philosophical deve- 
lopement and discovery of the doctrines which it symbolizes, than can 
be conceded to the taurine tablets. For, while all these bear strong 
features of resemblance to each other, as well as proofs, that their 
origin was in some system of Sabianism, there is in the number, variety. 


and arrangement of their symbols^ a s6rt of indioation, not only that 
tki^y were not cbnstructed According to any known canon, calculated 
to teach a stated and unifoftn system of doctrines, and consequently to 
offer an equal portion of knowledge to the mind of eriery aspirant ; but 
that most of them were the mere common-place productions of very 
ordinary ministers at the altars of Mithras, — of mystics, who had neither 
enlightened their minds by any extensive reading, nor methodised their 
knowledge by any system of reasoning. The caduceus and the cres- 
cent on our tablet of this kind, db indeed bespeak, for that which is 
wanting of it, considerable exemption to this remark, and by thus fur- 
nishing us with a sort of argument, that it originated in the same skil* 
ful theologian, that designed the zodiacal tablet^ excite an unavailing 
regret that so little should have been left of it. But the sculpture be- 
fore us, like the Caervorran inscription to Ceres, excites no such f<^eU 
ings. They connect us with men of genius, learning, atid piety, who 
inhabited the bleak mountain-ridges on the line of the Roman wall, in 
Northumberland, sixteen centuries ago. Marcus Cecilius in his ele- 
gant lines to Ceres, gives a masterly and a beautiful example of his 
skill in Pagan theology. And here we have a table of symbols, dis- 
posed in such methodical order (xara! w/Afi^rpif onr^fle'mc) to borrow an 
expression of Porphyry respecting the arrangements of the symbols in 
the Mithraic caverns, tliat, on comparing them^ it might be supposed^ 
that either that philosopher's exposition of some of the doctrines of the 
Persian Magi had been derived from this tablet, or the tablet designed 
from his exposition. 

The figure in the centre I take to be that of Mithras, placed be* 
tween the two hemispheres of the earth, holding a sword in his right 
hand, and a spiral object in his left. The greater part of which I 
conceive is either explained, or not obscurely hinted at, in the following 
passage in Porphyry : — ^' Now," says he, ** since a cave is the image 
and symbol of the world, Numenius and his friend Cronius say, that 
there are two extremities in the heavens, of which the southern one is 


the winter tropic, m^ ^t Capricorn ; the northern one, that of sum* 
mer, and at Cancer : and, )>ec!ause Cancer is the pearest to us, i( is 
very properly assigned to the moon, which is tl\g nearest planet to 
the earth; but as the southern pole is invisible, therefore Capricorn isi 
given to Saturn, the highest and most distant of the planets. And the 
signs of the ;9odiac have their respective situations in the following 
order, namely :— 

Froip Capricorn to Can- 
cer [upwardsj. 

In the 
House of the Sun. 

From Cancer to Capri- 
corn [downwards]* 







The Moon, 












*^ Therefore, the theologians have placed these two gates at Cancer 
and Capricorn. Plato calls them the two doors, Ji/$ r/^aa. Of these 
Cancer is the one by which souls come down, and Capricorn that by 
which they again go up.* Both the Romans and Egyptians had some 
tradition concerning them. But neither of them make these gates in 
the east or the west, nor at the equinoxes, that is, at Aries and Libra, 
but in the south and'the north, and the most humid ones in the south ; 
because this cave is sacred to souls and to the river nymphs ;f and to 
souls they are the proper places of production and reproduction. Hence 
they have assigned to Mithras an appropriate seat at the equinoxes^ 

* See also a similar and very curious account of the gates of the sun in Macrobius' Com- 
mentary on the Dream of Scipio, lib. i. cap. xiii. f Sec Ovid's Met. lib. i. 576. 


and hence he bears the sword of Ihe Ram, which is the zodiacal sign 
of Mars, and is carried on the Bull, which is the sign of Venus; for 
Mithras as well as Taurus is the operative cause of all things, and the 
lord of generation.** 

The names, ghbcj orb^ SLnd [sphere, which the ancients gave to the 
earth; Ovid's account of its being at equipoise in the air by its own 
weights i* of its being turned at the creation into the form of a great 
orb, or ball ;t his and Cicero's account of the gravitating nature of its 
component parts, which makes them tend every way to a centre ;j: 
Macrobius's description of a method of measuring its diameter ;§ and 
numerous other hints, as well as plain assertions, sufficiently testify 
that the learned amongst them considered its form to be that of a globe. 
This opinion is also well supported by Proclus, who describe^ with 
great accuracy the five zones of the earth ; the cold occasioned at the 
poles by want of light; and the heat on each side of the equator, by 
the sun's constant course being between the tropics of Capricorn and 
Cancer : as well as the division of the our planet into hemispheres at the 
equator : and, if we be right in supposing that the symbols^ betweea 
which the figure of Mithras is here placed, are hemispheres, the proof 
of their being acquainted with the spherical form of the earth becoa\es 
irrefragable. This truth was indeed perpetually exemplified to them 
by the shadows of the earth upon the moon ; and analogically by the. 
form of the sun, moon, and planets. 

There can, I think, be no doubt that this peculiar seat of Mithras 
at the equator and between the hemispheres of our globe, was in- 
tended to symbolize the sun^s entrance into the vernal and autumnal 
equinoxes ; when the sun entered into the summer signs, and the days 
began to be longer than the nights, he was welcomed with every 
demonstration of joy. Hence the uplifted sword in his right hand 
may be intended to show that he is coming forth as a conqueror, 

• Met. 1 12. Lucan, ¥.94^ f M. $6. Fasti, vl. 269. 

% Met. i. 26-— 369. Cic de Nat. Deor. iL 45. $ In Som. Soip. 1. i. c 20. 


at that seasofi^ to subdue the earthy ot Taurus^ \vhich, in ther language 
of astrology^ is the house of Venus. For as Macrobius remarks, 
^ the Assyrians affect to believe, that Adonis is returning to Venus, 
when the sun, having passed Che six lower signs of the zodiac, 
begins his march through our hemisphere with increase of light and 
day/' And, ^' when the sun emerges from the lower parts of the earthy 
and passes the bounds of the vernal equinox, encreasing the day, thea 
it is that Venus is glad and beautifiil, the fields gre^n with corn, the 
meadows with grass, the trees with leaves; and hence our an* 
cestors dedicated the month of April to Venus '' '^ The principal 
matter attended to in these ceremonies of the Sun may be col- 
lected from hence-^-4hat the time of its descent being completed, and 
the feigned grief performed after their manner, the commencement of 
die season of fruitfiilness is celebrated on the 25th of March, which 
day they cBWHilknria, becawe tiie Sun then makes the day longer thim 
the night.*'* 

At the autumnal equinox, when the nights began to be longer than 
the days, when the Sun had perfected the productions of the year, and 
nature was beginning to sicken and to fall into its annual grave, the 
mournful period had arrived, when the ceremonies of valediction to the 
great demiurgic power were to be performed. What the symbol is, 
which Mithras holds in his left hand, I have been unable to determine. 
At first sight I supposed it to be a torch; but the part which should 
represent the flame is much too long, too formally twisted, and too 

* Sat. lib. L c. xxi. ^ The andmit Peraians particularly venerated the bull, from the 
leMont they had leamt of the Chaldean astronomers, of its association with the sun» when 
that genial luminary enters the constellation of Taurus, an event which filled the whole 
nation with joy, as proclaiming the approaching renovation of nature ; and the Magi, more 
clearly to impress upon the people the regenerating power of this celestial conjunction 
between the divine Mithra and the planetary emblem of the animal most useful in reple- 
nishing the earth, ordered that, on great occasions, the bull should be slain in sacrifice to 
that creative god.''— Por^ei^i Traveh in Georgia^ Persia, ^c. voL i. p. 588. 


near the hand for any thing of that kind, and thedranring of the whole 
very unlike the torches on the other Mithratc antiquities. From its 
place, opposite Virgo, it mi^t be supposed to be the sibuUa^ or hand* 
ful of corn, respecting which Hyde has drawn together much curious 
information,^ and from which the Celestial Virgin had the appellation 
Spicifera :f but its spiral form and single stalk forbid that conjecture.| 
Is it a rock or distaff ? and thus explanatory of the '^ sea-purple gar- 
ments," which Homer mentions in his description of the cave of the 
nymphs. For Porphyry would have it, that these purple webs were 
nothing more than human bodies, which are elaborated from blood : 
and says, that ** Proserpine presides over every thing that springs from 
seeds, and is represented by Orpheus as employed in weaving a web ; 
and that men in old time called the heaven, peplum, as if it was the 
veil of the celestial Gods."§ These dark hints will be rendered some* 
what clearer by a passage in Macrobius, who says, that ^* no one, who 
has looked into the religion of the Assyrians, will doubt that Adonis is 
the Sun ; and among them there was formerly the greatest veneration 
for Venus Architis, and for Adonis, which worriiip is still preserved 
among the Phoenicians. For the natural philosophers worshipped* the 
upper hemisphere, which we inhabit, by the name of Venus ; but they 
called the lower hemisphere of the earth. Proserpine. Hence> amongst 
the Assyrians and Phoenicians the goddess is brought forth weeping, he* 
cause the sun, in his progress through the twelve signsj enters the part <^ 
the lower hemisphere; for of these twelve signs of the zodiac, six are 

♦ Relig. Vet. Peri. p. 393. 

f See before, at p. 107. D2od. Sic. lib. i. cap. ii. Mac. Sat. lib, i. cap. xxi. 

f Macrobius relates that the Sun, under the name of Attis, was pourtrayed with a pipe 
and a rod ; that the pipe was the symbol of the winds, which derived their essence from 
the sun ; and that the rod 8igni6ed the power of the sun, which governs all things. — Sai. 
lib. t. cap. xxi* In great numbers of the Abraxas gems, that god holds a whip in one hand 
as driver of the chariot of the sun. In one of them in the library of the Dean and Chapter 
of Durham, he is in a 'triune capacity, and holds a sword, a whip, and a torch, on each side. 

§ De Ant. Nymp. p. 259. 


superior, and six inierk>r ; and wke&he is io the lower,, and tbe days 
on lifaat account grow shorter, the goddess is supposed to weep, as if 
the sun were taken off by a temporary death, and lost and detained by 
Proserpine^ whom we call the deity of the lower* circle, and of the 

If it should be thought, that the part, which is 
wanting or mutilated between Virgo and Sagittar 
rius, is too small to admit both Libra and Scorpio 
in a size any way corresponding with that of the 
other signs, the difficulty may be explained by 
supposing that they were represented here after 
the Chaldann manner, in which there were only 
eleven signs, the claws of Scorpio occupying the 
place of Libra. Hence the astronomical work, 
attributed to Hyginus, calls the fore part of Scor- 
pio, Chel6, I. c. the pincers, and represents Scor- 
pio, as on the Farnese globe, holding a balance in its extended claws* 
Hence also these expressions in Macrobius: — ** The whole of Scorpio, 

. * Sat. lib, L c xxi. According to Hyde, the Persian year begins in Ivlarcb, and their 
seventh month, which is the same as our September, they call Mihr-month^ or Love-motUk^ 
** because the sun embraces the whole worid with lore, and makes it cheerful with his 
Ught, cherishes it with his warmth, and renders it fruitful.'* The 16th day of this month 
was also called MAr-rta, because on it the greatest of all the reh*gious festivals of the 
Magi and ancient Persians, except Nauruz, or New-years^day, commenced. It continued 
six days, in which the Mihragh&n, or Mithralia, were celebrated. What these Mithralia 
were is very doubtf\il, and the Persian authors are much at variance respecting the origin of 
this festival ; but Golius, out of Nuveirus, an Arabian writer, says, that the Persians used 
to anoint their kings with the oil of Bftn. The king also put on a light and party-coloured 
robe, and wore the ctdaris upon which was the image of the sun, begirt with the circle of 
the universe. The first, who approached him was the chief of the Magi, bearing a dish, 
on which was placed citrons, a piece of sugar, grains of the lotus, quinces, sysipha, apples, 
a duster of white grapes, and seven myrtle berries, over which he muttered certain words. 
After him, in like manner, the people approached their monarch, according to their rank. 
Some authors say, that on the festivals of Mihraghin and Nauruz, all kinds of clothing 


io which is the Balance, shadows ^m% the naiura of the ran:'- and, 
'^ presently after we see the Balance arising, which is^the pinoeit' o£ 
Scorpio." The Romans probiAlj imitated the Egyptians in reckoning 
twelve signs, though it would seem from the compliment, which Virgil 
pays to Augustus, that the claws of the scorpion were scarcely ae^ 
counted a sign among them in the Aulguatan age, and that Libra, 
tiU then, had not been thought of as a separate sign :— > 

'* Or new star in th^ slow months add tbysdf, 
•' Where, tiyixt the Virgin and the Pincers, wide 
** A place expands; and burning Scprpao now 
<* His arms ^raws in, and ample sky-room gives/' 

I refrain from entering upon any minute explanation of the circle 
of the zodiac, as it is connected with the Mithraic rites. Much curi- 
ous information on this subject may be found in Porphyry. At present 
it may suffice generally to observe, that in this as well as in other 
tables of Mithraic symbols, all the devices, being in some manner con- 
nected either with the heavens or the seasons, clearly enough point 
out their origin in some system of astrological theology 5 that, in their 
first and simplest state, they consisted of a mixture of natural religion, 
and notes for the direction of the husbandman in his affairs ; but that, 
in the lapse of ages, they be^me perplexed with nice and allegorical 
subtleties, referring to the generation, the moral renovation, iand the 
future condition of man. As they lost the character of the calendar of 
the year, they assumed that of a series of mythological symbols. 

and coTerlet8 were brought out of the magazines and distributed to the people aceovdhig 
to their rank. But little reliance is to be put upon these accounts* For this one thing is 
plain, that the Mithraic rites were instituted in honour of the sun, according to the custom 
of the ancient Persians, in March, at the approach of the sun ; but^ by the modems, in 
September, when he was returning, celebrating, as it were, a feast of valediction to 
the sun, when he entered the tropic of Capricorn.^- HydL Hkt Relig. Vet. Pen. p* 244*- 


B«t the egg4ike shape of the interior marghi of die arocKa^ is too 
particular to pass unnoticed. Is it intended here for thait general 
symbol of the world, which has received the welUknown and appro- 
priate appellation of the Mundane Egg f It is clear from ancient 
authors, and from monuments, customs, and traditions, still existing in 
pagan countries, that there was a general opinion in former ages, that 
the world, under omnipotent influence, rose out of its chaotic form, 
in a manner something similar to the oviparous process, by which it 
has been ordained, that animal reproduction should be carried on,— a 
process not obscurely intimated in the Mosaic history of the creation, 
where it is said, that ** the Spirit of God brooded upon the &ce of the 
deep.** On this subject X refer the curious for further information to 
Mr. Faber's learned work on " The Origin of Pagan Idolatry,'** content- 
ing myself with adding the opinion of a friend of Plutarch, who, on the 
question being proposed for discussion, — '^ Whether the hen or the 
egg were first ?*' told the company, '^ tliat on deliberating on that short 
problem, they, as it were with a machine, shook the great and pen* 
derous matter respecting the generation of the universe.^f 

The altar. No. 6. is three feet seven inches high. The injury it has 
sustained from the weather has been already noticed. Its sides are 
plain. In the inscription (besides the words DEO SOLI, on its capital, 
being nearly obliterated) there is an I wanting in INVICTO, as well as 
in MITHR£; though these apparent omissions may be owing to the 
weather having eaten out a small 1 in the first of these words, as in FiL 
in the fifth line of this inscription ; and the top of a Y formed on the 
last stroke of the M in the latter, as in the third line of the altar. No .7. 

• Vol. I. p. 175. 

f Sympos. lib. ii. quest. S. Where it is said, that '* in the mysteries of Baediiis, an ^g 
was consecrated and accounted holy, because it was a model (^^n^) of that principle, 
which produces and comprehends all things in itself.** Oromazet made twenty-four gods 
and enclosed them in an eggi which a like number of the gods of Arihmanius eventually 
succeeded in breaking. Since that time good and evil have been blended U^ther.— >P/fi- 
tarchf de Iside el Osiride. 


Imperfections and omissions being supplied, the inscription and its 
reading at length may statid thus : — 

DEO SOLI Deo Soli 

INVICTO MYT Invicto Myt- 

Rfi SiECVLARi r^e Saculari 

PVBL PROCVLI Publius ProculU 

NVS' D* PRO SE nusy Centurio, pro se 

ET PROCVLO FIL et Proculojilio 
SVO* V S L M suoj votum solvit libens merito ; 

DD NN GALLO ET Dominis nostris Gallo et 

VOLVSINO COS. Volusino consulibus. • 

And in English thus : — 

Publius Proculinusy a centurion^ performing a vow^for himself and his 
son ProculuSy cheerfully and duly dedicates this to the invincible God, the 
Sun, and to Mithras, Lord of ages ; their highnesses Gallus and Volu- 
sinus being consuls. 

The attributes of the Sun, as a deity, were very Tariously designated 
by the ancients. He is described as ** the eye of the world^^ as " iyoer- 
seeing all things, and hearing all things.'** Apuleius calls him, " that 
Sun the seeing God.*"f In conjunction with the Moon, he is frequently 
styled ** ETERNAL.'* J. In the character of Mithras, ** unconquerable*' 
is one of his commonest titles ; and under the same character he is called 

^ Hoiiier't Gdys. a. lOS. ^ S28. Pliny, lib. ii« cap. ti. Platarch says the tun is Uie 
most beaadfbl image of Go<L— Afoitib, p. 1S99. H. Stephen^s td* Bvo* 1672. JuL Firmie. 
de Ercr. jtrcf. Relig. p. 27. The Egyptians depict Osiris holding a sceptre, in the head 
of which is an eye, by which they mean, that this god is the Sun, and with regal authority 
'sarreys an things from on high ; for antiquity calls the Son, ike eye qf Jupiter. — Mac. Sat. 
Ub.i. cap. xxi. See also other quotations to the same efiect in Pontanus's notes to the 
above passage ; Pignorius, de TeiUbut octdalu Osiridii ; in his Explanation of the Isaic 
Tables, foL 16 ; and Weston on a Mithraic sculpture, Archaeologia, voL xix. p. 100. 
f Metamorph. lib. 1, p. 47. it Gruter, p. xzxiii. Reines. 2Sd, &c 


« Lord;' ^ omnipotent;' and *^ mast hofyi** but the epithet *• SeCC- 
LARis/' on this and the following altar, is, as far as I have obtenredt 
no where else applied to him. In translating it Lord of ages, I sap* 
pose it to have neatly the same meaning here, that it has in Carmen 
seculare in Horace, and that ftWr/»c some times has in Greek; for we 
know, that their games, which recurred once in some stated number 
of years, were called (lm'uh by the Greeks, and Seculares by the 
Latins, as may be seen in Herodotus and Suetonius«f They were games, 
which, in the phraseology of the timies in which they commenced, were 
instituted ybr ever. Similar expressions are to be found in title deeds 
and foundation charters m our own country. If, indeed, I could 
bring sufficient reasons for deriving the Latin word SECULUM, an age, 
from the Greek mh/um€,X a circle, I should be furnished with a still 
stronger argument for this meaning of ^ect/Zami as seculum brought 
from that origin, would derive its meaning from the fact of the several 
periods of time being performed in cycles ; and in this sense, Mithras, 
seated at the equinoxial line, and surrounded by the circle of the 

* Gruter, p. xxziii. j xxxv* Reinesius, 89—97. &c. Beyer! ad Seld. Addit 52, 58. 

f See also Vossiub' Elymologicooy under seculum. 

X The Latins wrote lUmx^u cyclus; and we have instances of the Greek » being changed 
into the Roman #, as in asiimare, from »rtfuif ; and the Roman c into the Roman s in 
mulsum^ from mulceop &c. Stc See Vos. Etym. p. ?> and ike Tables to Gruter and Reiner 
siuSf on thingi relating to grammar. There can, I think, be no doubt, that umtxisft to surround^ 
and M4x^mf to turn round, are only various spellings of the same verb ; and that s^x^ ^^ 
iM;^«f » A shell ; «i;^x«{» a pebble ; kmOuW^, a circle ; and several other Greek words, all owe 
their origin to one root, as they all stand for modifications of the idea of some thing circular 
or orbicular, or of girding or turning round. To which it may not be out of the wagr to 
add that the French dick^ and our word sede^ which seems to be derived immediately from 
seculum, when they mean a century^ have a strong affinity in signification to MmX»i, in 
Greek, and cycle in English ; and that Virgil, in his Pollio, inrites saclum twice, and Ovid has, 

** Dii te submoveant, 6 nostri infamia sacH^ 
. « Orbe suo!'*— 3f<<,viii. 97; 

Instances which shew, that Sieclum for seculum^ even taking the poetic licence of Synaeresis 
into account, was not offensive to the Roman ear. 


zodiac, tnigfat with great propriety be stiled Secularise or Lord of ages ; 
39 well io 9eq>ect to tfae life or generations of men» as to the periods 
in which the planets perform their various revolutions. 

Vibinis Trebonianus Gallus, and his son C. Vibios Volutianns, 
wiere Emperors of Rome for two jears and eight months^ and joint 
Consuls in A. D. i58j^ m which year they were slain. 

The altar^No. 7. is still in very bcMitifid preservation, and four feet 
seven inches high. Its catpital is twenty inches broad, and is orna- 
mented with a deep moulding of various members, and of which a 
hollow and a bead form the principal part The mouldings of the 
base consbt of two narrow fillets and a pigeon-breasted ogee. Its 
right side bears a prsefericulum, and its left a patera, in bold relief. 
The mouldings, as well as the scrawb, formed by the ends of the horns 
on eadt side of the incense basin, are continued round its back. Tfae 
back of the capital is also figured with seven semicircular lines, the 
diameters of which are formed by a groove immediately under the 
horns. The inscription upon it should be read thus :-^ 

DEO Deo 

SOLI INVI Soli Invi- 

CTO MYTRiE cto Mytra 

SAECVLARI Saeculari 

LITORIVS Litorius 

PACATIANVS Pacatianus, 

BF- COS' PRO Ben^ciarius ConsuliSy pro 

SE ET SVIS- V s. se et suis, votum solvit 

L -M libens merito. 

Which in English is : — 

Litorius Pacatianus, a Consular Ben^ciary, for himself and his 
family y cheerfuUy and duly dedicates this altar to the unconquerable God, 
the Sun, and to Mithras, the Lord of ages. 

« HelWd Theal. Histoiicum, p. 9^ 


I would gladly have concluded mj letter with these cursory reniBrks; 
but as you impose upon me the task of answering the very natural 
question^ which the country people put to me, while we were digging 
in the ruins of the penetralia of the temple of Mithras, at Housesteads — 
^* What were the ceremonies that were performed, and the doctrines that 
were taught in this place i"—l will endeavour to explain them in the 
best manner that my leisure, and my reskience in a country village will 

There can be no doubt^ that all the mysteries of paganism had one 
common origin : that the secrets, to which the aspirants were admitted 
in the orgies of Ists and Osiris, in Egypt; of Ceres, at Eleusis; of 
Adonis, in Phoenicia ; of Bacchus, in Samothrace ; of Hu, in Britain ; 
and of Mithras, in Persia, all emanated from one common fountain. 
Though in their progress through different countries and ages, nume- 
rous causes, such as vice, a fondness for novelty, the schemes and ani-^ 
mosities of politics, national aversions, were incessantly employed, not 
only in perverting and debasing them, but increasing their numbers, by 
setting them up in one place in opposition to their establishment in 
another ; yet still, such was the power with which the pageant, which 
they exhibited, preserved its ascendency over men's minds, and kept 
alive the fear of departing from their forms and injunctions, that they 
seemed only to di£fer from one another, as the produce of the seeds of 
the same plant dififers, from being stinted or luxuriant in its growth, in 
dififerent soils and altitudes, and under different modes of treatment. 
Under all their moral austerities and licentious impurities, they kept a 
common likeness to each other. Bishop Warburton, in the last age, 
did much to recover and to unfold correct notions of the scene, that 
was exhibited at their initiations : and Mr. Faber has still more clearly 
and more satisfactorily traced them to their origin and developed their 
meaning. Porphyry, we have seen, contended, that the description of 
the cave of the Nymphs related wholly to the doctrines that were de- 
livered to the initiated i the tale of Aristasus, of his bees and his bulls, 

R r 


in the Georgics of Virgil ; and that of the descent of i£neas into Hade8, 
in the iEneid^ are poetical representations of the prodigies that were 
performed in the temples of Egypt and Greece^ and in the grottoes of 
Mithras. The poetry, theology, and philosophy of the ancients indeed 
abound with allusions to them ; and Apuleius, in the beautiful episode 
of Cupid and Physche, and of the progress. of Lucius .from the human 
into the bestial form, his restoration by Isis to hb original likeness, 
and initiation into her mysteries, and into those of Osiris-^uufolds, as 
far as it was lawful, all the captivating scenery, and the curious and 
high promising doctrines of the penetralia of the pagan temples. 

For a long lapse of centuries the heathen nations had taught their 
dogmas, and practised their most favourite rites in the depth of mid* 
night secresy ; but the intrepid spirit of enquiry after truth, which 
attended the fathers of the Chiistian church, brought both their 
doctrines and their rites mifficiently into daylight for us to discern, that 
it was amongat the first articles of their creed to believe, ^* that at the 
close of every mundane revolution, the whole universe, together with 
both mortals and bero^gods, was absorbed in the essence of the one 
great hermaphrodite parent; that, during the intermediate period of 
desolation, he remained in solitary majesty, contemplating, with intense 
abstcaction, his own physical properties ; and that, when the appointed 
time of renovation arrived, he produced afresh, from his own essence, the 
frame of another world, with all its subordinate hero-gods and mortal 
inhabitants :"* that, in passing through the caves and chambers of the 
mysteries, while the moral renovation of the aspirant was the object prin- 
cipally intended, he was surrounded with the terrific imagery, which, at 
every step, called to mind the transition from this world, tliroiigh the 
regions of the dead, into the cloudless light and happiness of the celestial 
paradise. In M. Belzoni's drawings and description of the tomb of 
Psammis, and of the scenery exhibited on its walls, we have a striking 
and most interesting illustration of many parts of the mysteries of Isis, 
* Faber's Origin, &c. vol. iii. p. 139. 


in passing through which, every thing that was terrible in nature, or 
dreaded in futurity, would appear to have been brought together to 
appal and over^awe the minds of the initiated. 

The tale of the Golden Ass seems, indeed, to have been written 
expressly for the purpose of illustrating the doctrines, and supporting 
the falling interests, of paganism. The spread of Christianity had 
brought into the field of controver^al theology a great host of talent. 
Hence, in the contention for truth> between the champions of the new 
religion and of paganism, while the Fathers laboured to expose the 
licentious impurities that were openly practised in the heathen tem- 
ples, heathenism began to develope resources, which, in the days of her 
undisputed power, had been carefully kept ^rom the vulgar eye. In 
her dying struggles she made confessions respecting her system, which 
consisted of truths half suppressed, and half unfolded. When she 
found her commands unavailing, she attempted to stand upon her me* 
rits ; but the comparisons, which she drew between herself and her 
adversary, the discussions she entered into, and the illustrations she 
advanced, only served to expose her weakness. That invisible ar* 
mour, in which she had gone about for so many hundred years, awing 
kingdoms and working magical delusions, began to fall off The Mi- 
thraic rites, however, seem to claim some exception from this remark. 
They do not appear to have become extensively popular in the western 
parts of the Roman dominions, till the systems of paganism, which 
had formerly flourished in Italy, Gaul, and Britain, began to be 
withdrawn from, or neglected or abolished. I will endeavour to ac- 
count for this preference that was given to them. It has been shown 
out of Porphyry, that Mithraism had its origin from Zoroaster, in Per* 
sia: and from Plutarch, that the orgies of Mithras began to be known 
to the Romans about the time when Pompey was sent against the 
pirates in Cilicia. From that time to A. D. 101, we hear no account 
of them. It is, however, I think, pretty evident, that they continued 
to be practised during all the intermediate time, though, perhaps, with 


some reatrictioDs. Pliny tells us^ that ^< it was h^d amongst authors as 
an undoubted fact, that magic, which is the most fraudulent of all the 
arts, sprang from Zoroaster, in Persia; and no one will wonder, that 
its authority has been so very great, when it is considered, that it is 
the only science, which has reduced into one, and united with itself, 
the three others, which sway the most powerfully over the human 
mind. For who has doubted, that she was the eldest daughter of me* 
dicine, and that, under the pretence of healing, she insinuated herself 
into society, as one that was higher and holier than her mother ? that 
to the most delightful and long^longed-for promises, she added the 
influences of religion^ which, even to this day, have contributed greatly 
to keep mankind in daricness? and, as a further auxiliary, that she 
employed the mathematical sciences, every one being anxious to know 
the plans of futurity respecting himself, and believing them to be 
the mort authentically derived from heaven ? The minds of men being 
thus enthralled in this triple bond, magic grew into such authority^ 
that even till now it prevails over a great part of the world, and in the 
east rules over kings of kings/' '^ However, in the 657th year of Rome^ 
when Cn. Cornelius I^ntulus and P. Licinius Crassus were Consuls, a 
decree of the Senate was passed, forbidding the ipimolation of man ; for 
till that time monstrous solemnities (sacra prodigiosa) were openly 
celebrated. It is certain, that magic continued to hold possession of 
Gaul even within our own memory. For it was not till the reign of 
Tiberius Csssar, that the Druids and all the herd of prophets and phy<» 
sicians were put down in that country. But why should I relate these 
things respecting an art, which passed over the ocean and advanced 
into the deserts of nature ? Britain, to this day, so devotedly honours 
it with such ceremonies, that she might seem to have given it to the 
Persians : so consentient in this matter is all the world, however dif* 
ferent or unknown to each other. It cannot be sufficiently estimated 
how much society is indebted to the Romans for putting down 
these horrid rites, which made it not only a most indispensable act 


of religion to take men's lives, but even essentia) to health tp eat 
their flesh/'* 

Now I take these *^ sacra prodigiosa'' of the Magi to havje been the 
very same as the mysteries of Mithras, which we find expressly accused 
of the horrible practice of offering human sacrifices* Porphyry says, 
that ^ according to Pallas, who was the best author on these mysteries, 
offerings of men as sacrifices were almost wholly abolished under the 
Emperor Hadrian/'f Lampridius, however, accuses ComAiodus '< with 
violating the sacra Mithraica with homicide, since, in them, it was a 
rule, either to say, or to exhibit, something, which bad the resemblance 
of fear ;'* and Photius, in his life 4>f Athanasius, asserts. << that there was 
a Greek temple in Alexandria, in which, in ancient times, the Greeks 
performed sacred rites to Mithras, sacrificii^men, women, and children, 
and auguring from their entrails/';); 

The success of Mitbraism in Gaul and Britain, must not, therefore, 
be attributed to novelty y but to the obstinacy of anciecNt habits. In 
the cell at Housesteads many of the same rites were performed, as in 
the groves of the Druids. The Gauls and the Britaips finding the open 
profession of their ancient creed denounced by the Roman law, and 
that law enforced by the sword of the Roman armies, willingly de- 
serted the temples of Hu for a cognate warship in the cells of Mithras. 
Or, if it should be said, that w^e have no authority for asserting, that 
the native population of Britain, ever joined in these rites, but that 
they were confined to the stations and soldiers of the Romans, it is stilly 
I think, manifest, that they owed their extensive influence over the 
human mind to their conoection with magic — ^to the open profession 
and practice of the demoniacal arts of sorcery and witchcraft, at a 
time when Apuleius and other pagan authors, were endeavouring to 
disclaim all knowledge of them, and to defenc^ the mysteries of Isis 
and other deities against the charge of using them. 

* Nat. Hist. lib. xzx. cap. L 

f De Abst. lib.ii. cap. 56. p. ^02. ed. lac de Rhoer, 1767. % P- 1**6* 


The little glimmerings of light, which continue to shine on the reli- 
gion of Mithras, have fallen on no part more distinctly than upon the 
severities, which it enjoined upon the candidates for admission to its 
mysteries. But even this distinctness is comparative. It is brighter 
than those " glimpses of the moon,** which *^ made night hideous" 
in his caverns ; but it is only a twilight. It is, however, strong enough 
to enable us to perceive, that among the many apparent contradictions 
and real difficulties, which accompany them, the primary object of 
these severities was to prepare the mind and bodies of the aspirants, 
by a long course of rigorous discipline, to undergo every species of 
self denial, and by an exhibition of that part of the pagan creed, which 
relates to the passage of the soul from life to immortality, to impress 
upon them the necessity of that great moral regeneration, which was 
to fit the soul for entering upon a new, happy, and eternal existence. 
The following extracts comprise nearly the whole of the direct infor- 
mation, which I have been able to collect on this part of my subject. 

Origen, endeavouring to refute some positions of Celsus Respecting 
the seven heavens, or the seven planets of the Greeks, by which, 
according to Plato, the souls of men went up into heaven, quotes this 
passage from the work which that author wrote against Christianity : — 
" The doctrines of the Persians and the mysteries of Mithras enigma^ 
tically explain this ; for there is in them a symbol of the two celestial 
periods, that of the fixed stars and that of the planets, and also of the 
passage of the soul through them. This is a ladder from one gate to 
another as far as the eighth. The first of the gates is lead, the second 
of tin, the third of bronze, the fourth of iron, the fifth of the mixture 
for money {"H^ ufurfMfnij, the sixth* of silver, the seventh of gold. 
The first they attribute to Saturn, as lead represents the slowness of 
that star; the second to Venus, comparing her to the softness and 
splendour of tin; the third, from the firmness and solidity of bronze, 
to Jupiter ; the fourth to Mercury, because iron and Mercury stand 
all sorts of work, and are useful in business, and especially in mecha- 


nics ; the fifth to Mars^ on account of its anomalous and various mix- 
ture; the sixth of silver, to the Moon, and the seventh of gold, to the 
Sun, because of their similarity in colour to these metals."^ Now all 
this is clearly enough of a piece with the dubious and enigmatic cant 
of magic and astrology ; and might fall under the merited censure, 
which the same Celsus, in another part of his work against the Chris- 
tians, passes upon Mithraism ; for, says he, " they, who are irrationally 
credulous, are no better than those, who delight in charlatans, jugglers, 
Mithraic and Bacchic mysteries, or in certain phantasms of Hecate and 
other demons."f 

Gregory Nazianzen, who was born A. D. 3$4, and died in 390, in 
his first oration against Julian, says:-^*' You not only have no reve- 
rence for, but despise, the heroism and the bravery of the Christian 
martyrs,, while you admire those of the Phrygians, who are soothed 
with the sweetness of the lute, and after the air is over, suffer reproach, 
and maiming, and the merited and mysterious burnings, practised in 
the Mithraic rites :"| and " they, who deservedly undergo the torments 
of the Mithraic rites, inflicted all sorts of cruelties and indignities on 
Marcus Arethusius."§ 

In the 39th oration, which is a panygeric ** on the holy light,'* 
after speaking of the excellency of the rites of the Christian religion^ 
he charges the Gentiles with hiding and folding up in fable the doc- 
trines which they believe to be true : but, says he, " ours are not the 
orgies of the Thracians, nor the merited severities of Mithras on those, 
who can bear to be initiated into his mysteries, nor the mangliugs of 
Osiris, nor the misfortunes of Isis/'|| 

On these passages, Elias of Crete, has the following commentary : — 
" Some say, that Mithras is the sun, in honour of whom festivals were 

♦ Orig. cont Cels. lib, vi. p. 280. Ed. Spenceri Cantab. 1677. 

+ Id. lib. i. p. 8. 

X Oratio iii. adv. Jul. vol. i. p. 29. latin. ADtverp. 1612. 

§ Id. p. S3. II Id. p. 236. 


celebrated) and especially amongst the Chaldeans. And it is cer^ 
tain that they, who had to be initiated into his mysteries, underwent 
twelve torments, namely, fire and frost, hunger and thirst, the scourge, 
the hardships of travelling, and other such severities." ^^ Our author 
calls torments of this kind just^ because they are worthy of them, who 
undergo them ; and mj/sterious, because they esteem them as such."* 
And Nonnus, on these passages observes : — " This Mithras is thought 
to be the sun amongst the Persians : and they sacrifice victims to him, 
and perform certain rites to his honour. No one can be admitted into 
his mysteries, unless he has previously undergone all the punishments, 
the number of which they say is eighty, some of them of the gentler 
sort, others more severe. The milder are undergone first, then the 
severer : and after the whole course are gone through, they are initi- 
ated. Fire and water are the sort of punishments which they enduref . 
These torments are said to be inflicted to produce examples of piety 
and greatness of mind under sujBferings. After they have been many 
days in water, they cast themselves into fire ; then live in desert places, 
and there subdue the cravings of hunger -, and thus, as we have said, 
the aspirant goes through the whole course of eighty torments : which, 
if he survive, then he is initiated into the mysteries of Mithras."{ On 
the words, ^^ if he survive^* U» C(#?, Salamasius observes, that the in* 
stances of aspirants passing all these ordeals and trials without danger 
of their lives, were few. 

The following quotation is from St. Jerome's letter to Leta on the 
education of a daughter : — ** Conversion is never too late. The thief 
passed from the cross into paradise. Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 
after his brutalized state of body and mind were subdued in the desert, 
received a human disposition. And, that I may omit examples belong- 
ing to ancient times, lest to the incredulous they may appear too like 
fiction. — ^Did not your relation, Gracchus, a name of patrician dignity, 

* £li« Cret. Comment, in S. Greg. Naz. Orat. iiu p. 156. 168. 
t Id. p. 240. t W. 245. 


within these few years, when he bore the office of praefect, overturn^ 
and break, and stamp to powder, the cave of Mithras and all the por- 
tentous images [simulachra] to which Corax, Niphus, Miles, Leo, 
Perses, Helios, Bromius, Pater, are initiated^ and, sending these before 
him, as it were for hostages, beg the baptism of Christ."* 

These images I suppose to have been the tutelary divinities of thef 
several degrees or classes of the disciples of Mithras. I will endeavour, 
as briefly as I can, to mention the substance of the note$ I have col« 
lected resjptetitig them ; premising, however, that, according to Pallas, 
the common opinion was, that they referred to the circle of the zodiac ; 
but the true one, that ceftdin secrets coimected with the human soul, 
and its tenanting different* kinds of bodies, was intended. And Por- 
phyry adds, that the Latins called some wild boars, and scorpions, and 
bears, and thrushes. While Diana was a wolf; the Sun a lizard, a 
lion, dragon, or hawk; Hecate a horse, bull, lioness, or dog; and 
Proserpine a dove.f As these several fraternities of the followers of 
Mithrad had each their peculiar rites, 1 think it very probable, that the 
hierophant, or father of each» was called by the name which designated 
his class ; that is, that the priest who superintended the Coradca, was 
called Cdrax, and so of the rest Indeed, nothing was more common 
in the various branches of heathen worship, than for the priests and 
priestesses to take the names, and arrogate to themselves the characters 
and attributes, either of the divinities at whose altars they officiated, or 
else of s6me cognate god or goddess. Thus Apuleius calls the chief 
priest of the Isiac mysteries, Mitkras;^ in allusion, no doubt, to the 
Sun, which was the same as the Osiris «id Serapis of th^ Egyptians* 

Concerning Corax, we have seen from Porphyry, that one of the 
classes of those, who were admitted to the orgies of Mithras, were a 

* Opera S. Hieron. p, 50. col. 2. E. ed« Lut. Par. 162^ 
f Porph. de Abstin. lib. iv. cap. 16. 

X Metamorph. voL iL lib. zL p. 7S5, ** ipaumque Mithram ilium suum Bacerdotem pr»- 
cipuum," and p. 755, ^ complezus Mithram sacerdotem^ et meum jam parentem/* &c. 

S S 

sort of senritors, and were called Cdracai, or Crows. Is there in this 
some allusion to the ^^ loquacious crow/* which forms part of the con- 
stellation. Hydra ?^ for astrology was no inconsiderable part of the 
religion of Zoroaster. This bird was sacred to the sun.f An old 
commentator (supposed to- be St. Ambrose) on the Epistle to the 
Romans, mentions the Coracica sacra of the pagans ; and there are in- 
scriptions on which certain Mithraic solemnities, called Hierocora€ica% 
occur, and Pater et Hierocorax Dei Solis invicti Mithra^ i. r. the father 
and sacred-crow of the God the Sun, the unconquerable Mithras.§ 

NiPHUS, to me is full of difficulty. Reinesius and others copy from 
editions of Jerome, which have Griphus, and he thinks the word comes 
from Mfifm, hidden, because the rites of Mithras were performed in 
darkness and secrecy. Another interpretation of Griphus is taken 
from a passage in Apuleius, where he says, that one part of the cere- 
mony of admission into the rites of Isis, consists in putting on a long 
flowing garment, on which animals were represented in various colours, 
such as the dragons of India, and the hyperborean griffins : this gar- 
ment they called the Olympic Stole.l Instead of Olympic in this place, 
Reinesius proposes to read Leontic. In the Paris edition of Jerome, 
in 1624, Nipfaus is explained by Nisus — accipitris, a hawk. And Por- 
phyry, we have seen, says, that those, who were admitted into the class 
called Patres, were termed eagles and hawks. He also says, that this 
bird was sacred to the sun, and held in great veneration by the £gyp- 
tians.f It also occurs very frequently among the hieroglyphics on the 
walls of their temples and on their mummies. Their Arueris is drawn 
with a hawk's head. Were not masks used in these m3rsteries, and the 
doctrines of the regeneration of the human mind, and of metamorphosis 

« OrkL Mean. lib. U.5S5. f Fulgwithis lib. i. foi. ISI, a. Aiad PhMon. &L 196, b. 
X Gruter, 2. ccciii. $ Reins. Syatag* 48, L 

II Met. lib. xi. yoI. ii. p. 748. 

f De Abstin, lib* iv. cap. 9. See also Dtod. SicuL Kb, L p. 88. Latin, BmH. 1578. 
Virg. GeoTg. L 404. 


iDtended to be symbolised by the aspirant passing tl^rough the 
cave under a bestial fortPnin skins of wild beasts, to the southern gate, 
where he again assuqaed the human likeness; and by which the pan- 
tomime of metempsychosis was represented ? 

MiLESy or the SoldUcry as connected with Mithras, occurs twice in 
Tertullian. At the conclusion of hig book, entituled the Soldier's 
Crowfij he bids the soldier of Christ blush at being outrivalled by, and 
therefore having to be judged by, some soldier of Mithras ; and in the 
same place, as well as in his Pleadings against the Heretics, he enters 
into a description of the ceremonies used at the initiations into the 
rites of Miles.* 

Leo, the Lion, was the divinity that presided over the rites called 
LewUica. As it was one of the doctrines inculcated by the Persian 
Magi, that there were certain things common both to animals and 
to men, they used to de^nate men by the names of animab. Thus, 
those, who were partakers of the mysteries of Mithras, they called 
lions ; and he, who took upon himself the Leontics, invested himself in the 
forms of all sorts of animals. It was also peculiar to this fraternity, to 
have honey poured upon their hands instead of water, at their initia- 
tion ; by which it was implied, that they ought to preserve their hands 
undefiled by any thing that was offensive, or hurtful, or abominable. 
Hence the purifying qualities of fire were resorted to at the initia- 
tion of a mystic, for they were averse to water on account of its 

* '< Erubescile Romani commilitones ejus, jam non ab ipso judicandi, sed ab aliquo 
MMr€B mUHe^ qui quum initiatur in spebdo, in castris rerd tenebrarnm, coronam interpoaito 
gladio sibi oblatam, qaan raimoni maityrii, ddiinc capid tuo acooatiinodatain, monetnr 
obvia maau ca|Mte d^dlere, et in humerum si forte transferre, dicent, Mithram ease coro* 
nam suam. Atque exinde nunquam coronatur : id quod in signum hab«t ad probalionem 
sui, sicdn tentaluB fberit de Sacramento: tUUmque creditor Miikra miltit si dejecerit 
coronam, si earn in deo suo esse dixerit. Vcl. L p. 294. Ed. Pari. 1616. — ^Tinguit et i^se 
[diabolus] quosdam utique credentes et fideles sunt) expiationera ddtctorum de lafacro re- 
promittit et sic adkuc initiat Mithrtt : s^;nat ilMc in frontibus ndUiet sues ; oelebrat et panis 
oblationem, et imaginem resurrectionis inducit ; et sub gladio redimit coronara. — Id. p. 839. 


enmity to fire. They also used honey to purify the tongue from all 
eviL^ Tertullian says, that the pagans, who attempted to reduce the 
reveries of their religion into any thing like reason, thought that the 
lions of Mithras referred to the mystery of dry and burning nature.f 
The symbol, which in Montfaucon is called the Mithraic Lion, is some- 
times a lion with a bee in its mouth, and surrounded with stars, a 
lunette, or magic characters ; or it is a man, or a serpent, with a lion's 
head, with similar accompaniments, and generally with Abraxas as a 
legend, with Mithras rarely.J 

When honey was offered to Perses, in the character of a guardian 
of fruit, it was made the symbol of preservation. § The rites called 
Persicay were known at Alexandria, as appears from a quotation out 
of Dkmascius by Suidas. J Perseus is the name of one of the ancient 
constellations, and a very ancient god of the Egyptians, Babylonians, 
and Persians.^ He was habited like Mercury, and was considered 
to be the same as Mithras, or the sun, in Persia; and as Osiris in 

Helios, is the Greek name of the sun ; but I have met with no 
mention of Heliacal or of any rites under this name, in connection 
with Mithraism. 

Bromius is one of the names of Bacchus. 

" Hail Bacchus, Bromius, and Lycaeqs, hail ! 

" Twin bred, twice born, alone of mothers two."f f 

I have found no mention of any Bromica, or Mithraic orgies under 

* Porp. de Abstin. iv. 16. De Ant. p. 260. Reines. Syntag. p. 95. 
f Aridfe et ardentii naturae sacramenta, Leones Mithre philosophantur. — Advert. Mar^ 
cionemy lib. t. p. 624. 

% Antiq. Expl. vol. i. p. 227, plates, 48, 49. § Porph. De Ant. Nynip. p. 260. 

II Sub voce, iiri^tlf. f Herodotu8, lib. ii. cap. 91. lib. vi. cap. 54. 

«* Albricius Philos. de Deor. Imag. c. 6. Tzetz. in Ljc. ver. 1 7* Notes to Jerome, p. 56^ 
col. 2. cd. Par. 1624. Faber's Origin, &c. ii. 437, *c. 
f f Ovid's Metamorph. lib. iv. L IL 


this name. But as Liber Paler was a ccmMioa epithet of Bi^dchas, we 
perhaps ought in this place to*read Br&mius Puter^ and in that case 
the list of the *' perlentutosa simulachra'' of Jerome would end here. 

Porphyry, however, expressly affirms, that those who were admitted 
into the Patricn^ were called eagles or hawfcs. And we have *^ PATER 
PATRUM sous MERITI MiTHRiE" and <^er inscriptions in Gruter and 
Reinesius,* which not only show ttiat there was a sort of Mitfarlaic 
lodge or guild, which called themselves FATHERS, but that the prre^ 
who presided over it was called Pater, or Father. We find one Mar- 
cus Aurelius dedicating an altar to Mithras> when Bictorinus, the Father, 
and Calpurnius Januarius were presidents of their fraternity, in A. D. 
184; and in 197> the same Aurelius and his children making anotiier 
dedication, " NUMINI INVICTO SOLI MlTHRjE/' when the same Calpur- 
nius Januarius was Priest.-f 

Now I think it probable, that the eight gates of Celsus and the 
eight " porterUuosa simulachra'* of Jerome, were symbols and shadows 
of the eight gradations through which the devotees of Mithmi^m bad to 
pass, till they became eye-witnesses of all, that their religion bad to 
unfold to them, in the scenic revelations that were e^thibked in ite holy 
grottoes. The stages from the first to the seventh were all rugg^ and 
wild; the threshold of the eighth was the entrance into ParadiM. 
Hence, in Celsus, we have only seven metals. The Patrica of Jerome, 
over which the mitred abbot, the Father of Fathers, presided, were, 
I apprehend, the Teleuti of Mithraism — the last act exhibited in the 
pantomime of the mysteries — the final vision and revelation presented 
to the extatic eyes and ravished minds of the Epopth i while the 
CoracicUy the orgies of the servants, were the first. The seven simula- 
chra of the grottoes, were symbols of the seven gradations, through 
which the aspirants had to grope their darkling way in the mysteries, 
till, in stepping into the light of the sun and the glories of surrounding 

* Gruter, 2. xxvii, mcii. &c Reines, Syntag. p. 89. 
f Reincs. Syntag. 55. !• 


nature^ they were figuratively initiated into the eiuoyment of beatific 
rest in the mansions of Oromazes. The metallic gates of Celsns, and 
the ladders which connected them, represented the arduous ascent into 
these mansions; and, as symbols, might have h^ their origin in the 
connection which Mithraism had with magic, metallurgy, and medi- 
cine. The seven planets clearly enough were tlie introduction of 
astrology, and while they were supposed to refer to the seven proba* 
tionary states of the aspirants, they were believed to preside over the 
birth and future fortunes of all mankind : and I submit to the opinion 
of the learned, whether *^ the seven times," in which Nebuchadnezzar 
was driven from men, and had his dwelling with the beasts of the field, 
were not the seven periods of that*figurative metamorphosis, which the 
religion of his country enjoined upon every one, who was admitted 
into its mysteries, and in which Daniel, at that time, was ^ master of 
the magicians.'' But I dare not venture to suppose that the ** den" 
or vault ^' of the lions^ into which Daniel was cast, was the artificial 
grotto of the fraternity of Mithraic lions ; though some critics have 
thought they have seen a resemblance between the '* stone hewn without 
hands out of a mountain,^** and the cave of Mithras ; and that a passage 
in Isaiah referred both to it, and to the terrific rites that were prac- 
tised in it.f 

This is the substance of the greater part of the information I have 
been able to collect, and of the reflections that have occurred to me, 

• Cap. ii. ▼• 84 and 45. Justin Martjrr* dialog, cum Ttyphone, p. 296, 2d7* JuL Fir- 
mtcuf de Er. Prof. Relig. p. 42. 

f Cap. xxxiiL y, IS— 19. See notet to Tertullian de Cor. MiL Farit ed. 1616. p. 307. 
As the heathen mytterieB were of exoeediog high antiquity, and very widely diffused, we 
cannot wonder thatalluaiona to tbem are very frequent in the tcripturea. Mr. Faber very 
ingeniously supposes that the plague of darkness, (Ezod. x. 21-* 23.) was intended to 
punish the Egyptians in express allusion to their ^oomy, nocturnal celebration of thelsiac 
Orgies : so that they, who were aocuMoned to sit In mimic attifidaldarimess, during three 
days, in honour of their defunct god, were suddenly plunged by the true God into a horrible 
preternatural darkness of the very same continuance**' And he also thinks that ** the 


respecting the nature of the worship performed in the Mithraic grotto 
lately discovered at Hoosesleads. I have omitted several interesting 
particulars connected with the subject.^ But from an unwillingness to 
extend my letter to a greater length, shall now close thk inquiry with 
the following general, though mutilated account of the religion of Mi- 
thras, by Julius Firmicus,f and with some short notices on its connect 
tion with Abraxism. 

<^ The Persians and all the Magi of their country had fire, and indeed 
all the elements in great esteem. Jupiter, by them was considered in 

aathor of the apocryphal wisdom of Solomon (chap. xtiL) has preserved a most curious Jewish 
tradition, relating to the specific nature of this plague, which intimates, that the Egyptian 
votaries of Osiris were not only wrapped in palpable darkness but diat they heard the iden* 
tical noises, and beheld through the horrid f^ro, the identical speclres, which so emi- 
nently distinguished the first, or mournful part of the mysteries."— Orijgr, of Pag. Idol. vo/« 
it. p. 157. 

* Much interesting information respecting Mithras is contained in Mr. Faber's learned 
work ^ on the Origin of Pagan IdokUry:** besides which, I have met with the followbg 
references to treaties and criticisms ap<Ni it, bM haire had no of^M^rtanity of oonsuking 
them :— > 

Gyraldus Synt. viii. Hist Deon 

Salmasius ad Hist. Aug. fol. 117» S49, 367, 382, 383. 

Job. Quintinus, Heduus, c. 40. schol. in TertuL 1. de Phescrip. adv. Hseret. 

Julius Cos. Capacius, 1. 1. Hbt. Neap. c. 14. which is upon the andent religion of the 

Guther. L 1. de vet. Jure Ponti£ c 25. 

Jul. Caes. Bulenger. lib. i. de Magift lie et vet. c. 4, S, 6« 

Grotius, Annotat. ad Levit. xxvi. 30. 

The above list is chiefly from Reinesius ; the following references are from Cudworth's 
InteUeaual System, book I.'cap. 4.: — 

Anton : Van Dale Dissert, ix. ad Antiquit. et Marmora, p* 16. 

ScaRger de Emendat. Temporum, Kb. vi. cap. de Hebdon. Dan. p» 588. 

Maxinnis Tyrius Dissertat zxxviii* p. 371* 

Plato in Alcibiade, torn. I. Oper. p. 39. 

Dionys. Areop. Epistol vii. ad Polyearpnm p. ^l. tdn iL Oper. 

f De Errore Proftn. Rellg. p. 10—12. 


t3ao twofold light of a i^ale and a female ;* and the substance of fire 
as having the attributes of man and woman ; the latter of whom they 
represented with a triple countenance, and entwined with monstrous 
serpents* The male part they worship under the cbaiacter of a stealer 
qf. cattle^ and refer his rites to the energies of fire^ as one of his own 
poets telb us: — 

" Priests of the lowing ox, O celebrate 
^ The holy father's feast, Bouclopia.f 

** They call him Mithras, and perform his mysteries in secret caverns, 
that out of the thick gloom in which they are involved^ they may not 
perceive the blessing of clear and serene daylight O blind consecrati^m 
of a deity. O hateful contrivance of a wicked law. You believe him to 
be a God, and you acknowledge him to be wicked. You, therefore, 
who say that sacrifice is not duly performed after the Persian mode of 
the Magij why do you praise the Persian mysteries ? But let the in- 
jutictions of the Persians beadvanced* * * * * * * 

* In addition to the account of the hermaphroditic character of the Indian God, in the 
quotation at page 282, from Bordesanes, Porphyry has preserved the foUowing curious de- 
Bcription by the same author, of tiie ceremonies performed in the cave in which his statue 
was placed : — f* Bdiind this statue, the interior of the cave is dark to a considerable dis- 
tance. Such as have a mind to enter it proceed with lamps, till they find a certain door, 
through which water flows, and forms a lake at the end of the cave* This door is to be 
passed by such as submit themselves to be tested. Those who are free from the defilements 
of life pass unhindered, the doors opening widely, and they find a very large fountain of 
the most iin^ and delicious water, whidi forms the stream I have mentioned before^— 
But those who have been guilty of any erime, strive ia vain to obtain admission, the doors 
closing themselves against them.''«-Z)e *^MSP»P' ^^^ 

f That is, the Qx<teaUng FesUvaL Porphyry says, that one of the names of the moon is 
Taurus : and taurus is the exaltation (v^«^) of the moon, and bees sprang from an ox. 
Hence souls coming into existence at generation are called ox*bom, and the god who hears 
generation privately, Ox'ihiefi" — De, Antro^ p. 262. Set also Mac, Sat. tib. u cap, xix. 
Ovid. Met. lib. n. I 680, S^c. Sfc. 


that he is consecrated^ arfised with a shield^ cuirass, sword, and spear. 
m » « f}|^ iiijrd part has its dominion allotted in nigged and 
lonely places, among woods and dens of wild beasts. The last of this 
tripartite division has reference to the habits of libidinous desires ; which 
point out depraved lusts, and the allurements of absurd appetites. 
Therefore they ateign one part to the head, as it seems in some manner 
to denote the anger of man. Another they place in the heart, as it 
may seem to occupy the variety of the various thoughts, which, like 
woods, we entertain with manifold intensity. The third part is placed 
in the lirer, where lust is bred and voluptuousness; for there the col- 
lected fecundity of the seeds of generation excite the appetite of lust 
with' natural incentives,'' &c. &c. 

Basilides, of .^exandria, flourished in the second century He was 
a great corrupter of Christianity, against which he published twenty- 
four books. His own divinity was ^^a rhapsody of monstrous notions 
and magical schemes*''^ His^ doctrines are mentioned by Irenseus 
and Tertullian; but, in reference to our present subject, anost perti- 
nently by St.^ Jerome, in the following passage in his Commentary, on 
the Prophet Amos :— -^^ JSasilides gives the Almighty the monstrous 
name of Abraxas, and pretends that, aoeording to the import of the 
Ghreek letters, and the number of the days of the sun's course^ Abraxas 
is found in the circle of the sun, in like manner as he is by the gentiles 
called Mithras, from the same number contained in other letters.'* 
This passage is explained by others in Irenseus and St. Austin, who 
assert, that the Basilidians held, that ibere were 365 heavens, the num- 
ber of da3rs contained in a year ; and, therefore, they looked upon the 
name Abraxas, by which they meant the sun, as holy and venerable. 
The following table will serve to illustrate this subject :— - 

* Agrippa Castor, quoted by Parker, p. 79. 

T t 



lf9ITBlUa# . 




• 40 




- 5 


. . 100 


- - 10 




- . d 


- 60 


- loa 




- - 1 


- . 200 


. . 200 


Abraxas 565 

Meithrai 9SS 

Mlifm mmkes only 360, and Mpt^, as Macarius wrote it, tmly d6i ; 
but Mb$fm, which, as Mountfaucon observes, is a common reading, con^ 
tains the true number. One of the gems given in Mountfiracxm,! has 
Mithras inscribed on one i^de, and Abraxas on the ofher^ and several 
of them have the Mithraic hon, accompanied with the bee, stars, a 
lunette, or other devices, all of which evidently prove, that, in the mon^ 
strons mixtures of rdigion, which prevailed in the second century, 
Mitbraism, as well as the rest, was infected with the heresy of Basilides. 

In subrntitting this rude and immethodical dissertatioE to your pent*- 
sal, and to be read before the Society, I am senable that its imper* 
feotions require many apologies. For though much greater portion of 
time has been spent over it, than the subject of it deserves, and I have 
done my best to it that my leisure and opportunities would afford, 
yet I am sensible that it still stands much in need of lenity and indul* 
geiice from yourself and my fellow Antiquaries. 
Believe me to be always, and 

with the most sincere frioidsbip and regard, your's 


• Vol.ikp.228.pL48.DO. I£. also plate 49, iig 2, Ac 



No. I. — An Account of a Roman Altar ^ presented by Mr. G. A. DlCK- 

SON, of Newcastle^ to the Society. 

TdlS altar, of the mural kind, was discovered at Brougham 
Castle, in Westmoreland, and for many years .was placed iti 
the wall of a stable there. Brougham Castle is the Brova- 
cum of the Antonine JTter, according to Horsley, Gough, 
and others ; but according to the conjectures of Reynolds, 
the Voreda of that authority. It stands near the conflu- 
ence of the rivers Eden and Lowther, in the county of 
Westmoreland,- and the site of the Roman station near it 
has produced numerous inscribed altars and tablets, coins, 
urns, &c. This altar is made of red sandstone, is 15 inches 
high, and \% inches broad, and bears the following in* 
scription : — 




V. S. P. SS. 

Deo Belatucadro Audacus votum solvens posuit Sanctis- 

No, II. — An Account qftxvo Roman Altars^ by Mr. G. A. DiCKSON. 
In making a drain at Burgh upon Sands^ in Cumber* 
land^ in 1803^ an altar 6 inches high and 4 inches in breadth 
was found : it bears the following inscription^ and was, in 
1804, in the possession of Mr. Hodgson of that place: 





— ^VIS 

On (lie 9tb of Feb. 1804« while some labourers were dig- 
ging ft drain across thi foondatioii of the Roman waU, in 
the line of the foot path between Stanwix and Tarraby, 
and in a fidd belonging to Mrs. Graham^ of the former 
place, they found an altar, bearing the following inscrip- 
tion. Th^ ends of the altat rested on two stones, and 
the inscription was downwards, and a cavity below it. It 
is about 18 inches high, and a foot broad. 



LEG- 11 AVG* 
^ .SANC-fANA. 





No. III. — An Account of an ancient Sword, in n l^etter to Mr. Adam- 

SON, Secretary, by Mr. CuLLEY. 

The accompanying sword^ which I beg to present to 
the Newcastle Antiquarian Society, is a real Ferrara. I 
have been able to trace its history as follows : — 

It has been an heir-Ioocn in a family of the name of 
Gage (somMimes spelt Gagie) for centuries. They trace 
their lineage as far back as William the Conqueror. In 
latter periods it has performed doughty service in the hands 
of the hereditary bowmen of Wark Castle, descending from 
father to son, in defence of that border fortress. Its com- 
panion, the bow, was in being within these last twenty years, 
and is described as being formed of various coloured woods,, 
inlaid together, and of great length and strength. From 
the joining of different sorts of wood very valuable pro- 
perties are derived, which are well known to mechanics,, 
and more especially to ship-builders: this weapon, so 
dreadful in the hands of its ancient possessors, being no 
longer in request, was consigned to the children as a play 


Akeld, Nov. 26, 1814. 

No. IVr^'June 7$ 1815, Mr. G. A. Dickson communicated to the 
Society the following Inscriptions, which were found at 
Old Carlisle, in Cumberland, in the beginning of April, 
in the same year. 




No. v.— ifr. Dickson at the same time presented to the Society^ a 
Bronze Stamp, or Seal, 4n the form qf d Cross. 

Mr. Dickson was informed that this seal was purchased 
by the captain of a ship, at the isle of Pharos, and is of 
opinion the letters should be read in this order ci^no, and 
consequently, that it belonged to the town of Siphnus, which 
was the capital of a little island of the same name, situated 
in the Egean sea, and one of the Cyclades. 

No. VI. — Some Notice respecting an Inscription on the Bell of Hexoorth 
Chapel, by the Rev. JOHN HODGSON, Secretary. 

The late parish clerk of Heworth had heard from his 
predecessor, that the Bell of the Chapel there, was brought 
from Gateshead; and on enquiry into the fact, 1 have 
been furnished with the followng extract from the books of 
the Churchwardens of that parish. 

22 April, 1701.—*^ Ord*. That yMittell bell now in the 
Belfrey in the parish bhu'rch of Gateshead be p'sented to 

Robert Ellison, Esq. for y* use of Heworth chappell, in lieu 
of y* arrearages due to y* said Rob. Ellison, for the Blew 
quarry spring." 

This bell was taken down from its turret in the summer of 
the year 1815, in consequence of its iron clapper dropping 
out through decay, when it appeared that the original ears 
of bronze, by which it had been attached to its axle, had 
been broken off, and supplied by iron ones, which were 
nearly eaten through with rust. Its inside too was much 
worn by the action of the clapper ; and numerous small 
holes were drilled into its outer surface, apparently by the 
action of the weather. These circumstances prove that 
its age is considerable. But that, which principally makes 
it an object of antiquarian curiosity, is a singular inscrip- 
tion round its outside, consisting of three crosses and 
certain letters and characters in bass relief, concerning the 
import of which I have not been able to form the smallest 
conjecture. Neither am I certain that in the drawing I 
have sent, I have hit upon the true order in which they 
should be read. See Plate V. 

No. VII. — A List of a Collection of Roman Antiquities, found principally 
aty or near^ the station at House Steads, the ancient Bor- 
covicus, and which have lately (1822) come into the pos- 
session of the Society. 

An altar, 3 feet 10 inches high by 1 foot 9 inches wide, 
the inscription from which is erased, but from the evident 
traces of an O on the capital, it is probable, that it is the 
altar mentioned by Horsley, NORTHUMBERLAND, No. 

A mutilated figure of a Roman soldier, supposed to be 
Northumberland, No. xlvil 

Aq aitar, 3 feet 8 inches high and 1 foot 9 inches wide, 
uninscribed, but ornamented with scroll work quite round 
the capital. 

A large altar, evidently NORTHUMBERLAND, No. 


An altar, uninscribed, 3 feet 6 inches by 1 foot 7J 
inches broad. 

Sculptureof a Roman soldier, NORTHUMBERLAND, No. 

A headless figure, in a loose dress and robe, in a good 
style of sculpture. 

Another figure, nearly similar, but rather less, and hav- 
ing the hands clasped; both apparently monumental ef- 

Five headless female figures, seated like those repre- 
sented in Northumberland, Nos. xlvih. and xlix. 

A sculpture representing three female figures standing, 
supposed to be Northumberland, No. l., but wanting 
the fish and sea goat. 

A sculpture representing the lower limbs of a naked 
human figure. 

A monumental tablet, 5 feet high, with the figure of a 
hare sculptured in the upper part of the stone, and con<^ 
taining the following inscription : — D. M. ANICIO INGENVO 
medico ORD. COH. I. TVNGR. VIX. an. XXV. 

The figure of Victory, NORTHUMBEPLAND, No. LXV. 

Another Victory, Northumberland, No. cm. 

A large tablet, 3 feet 6 inches high by 2 feet 6 inches 

A curious fragment, containing on one side the follow-' 
ing commencement of an inscription :— IMPERATORIB. 

GAESARIfiVS RELIO AN ... . And OH the other side, 

the Gondading part of an inscription^ apparently .... 

Two fragments of a tablet^ oo one of which the letter O 
is very visible, but no other part of the inscription, which 
has no doubt once been on them. On the outer edges 
there appear a standard and an arm sapporting it. 

One large head, gigantic and savage, and two others 
with curled hair. 

An altar, 60 inches high and SOi wide, Northumber* 
LAND, No. XL. 

Another large altar, inscription very legible, North- 
umberland, No. XXXVL 

The upper part of a small monumental scalptored tablet 

The upper part of a larger and ruder monumental tablet. 

Sculpture of a Roman soldier, supposed Noathumber- 
LAND, No. U. 

The lower part of a monumental inscription, containing 

A fragment of a large monumental stone^ with the in- 
scription much defaced ; but there appear the letters A . . . 



There are also various small fragments of sculptured 
stones ; a large perforated stone^ prdbably the cover of the 
mouth of a drain $ two rough stone pillars, or props, &c. 




March 8. 


Eleren Coiii» and Medals. 

Three Coins of Endkh Silver; 51 of Roman Silver; 
74 Roman third Brass ; 14 Portuguese Silver ; and 
42 Portuguese Copper. 

Noble on the Mint and Coins of Durham ; and 
Smellie*s Historical Account of the Edinburgh 
Society of Antiquaries. 

A Fragment of a Roman Milktone, found on Carlisle 

A Roman Altar to Belatucader, found at Brougham 
Castle, in Westmoriand,— -see Appendix, No. 1.; a 
small votive Altar, uninscribed, found at Voreda, 
or Old Penrith, in Cumberland ; a centurial Stone 
inscribed > CLAUD! ; a Roman Millstone and 
the Head of a Roman Statue of Stone, all found at 
Caervorran, on the Roman Wall ; 2 Specimens of 
the Cement used in Boman Baths, found in Car- 
lisle ; and a Piece of Basak, which, from its form, 
appears to have been Part of a Millstone. 

Eightv- eight Tradesmen's Tokens of the old issue, 
with a Manuscript Description of them ; and 28 
Impressions, and 5 Casts of ancient Seals, prindpally 

Fifty Guineas. 
Nine Guineas. 


R. Surtees, Esq. Mains- 

Mr. John Adamson, 

Mr. John Bell, Treasu- 

Mr. G. A. Diwkson. 

Mr. G. A. Dickson. 

Thomas Davidson, Esq. 

His Grace the Duke of 

Sir C. M. L. Monck, 


Date, Danaiians* 

June 2. An ancient Urn, containing calcined Bones^.and dit- 
covered in Lincolnshire ; a centurial Stone, inscri- 
bed > OCTAVI SEBANI; a Roman Brick, in- 
scribed TIPRINUS; and a Fragment of an Am- 
phora, and a large Iron Ring, both supposed to be 

A circular British Earthen Vessel, Si Inches high, 
and 6 Inches in diameter, found near Corbridge, — 
see Plate VI. fig. G.; Fragments of Pottery, &c. 

A List of the Members of the Antiquarian Society of 

Thirty-three roiscellaneous Coins, chiefly English. 

July 7. Three Brick Flues of a Roman Bath ; 8 Copper and 
4 Roman Silver Coins; 4 Fragments of an Ampho- 
ra, one of them inscribed D* O. M. S. ; 2 Pieces of 
a Deer's Horn, &c. all found at Corstopitum, or 
Corchester, an ancient Roman Station, a little to 
the West of the Town of Corbridge. 

Addison's Dialogues upon the Usefulness of ancient 
Medals ; and Bell's Rhymes of Northern Bards. 

New Agricultural and Commercial Magazine, Vol. I. 

A Bottle of Roman Earthenware, found in digging a 
cellar in Carlisle; a Fragment of a Roman Ampho- 
ra, found under the foundations of the Roman 
Wall at Stanwix ; and another Fragment of Roman 
Earthenware, found at Benwell, m Northumber- 

A Drawing of the Entrance of Voreda, as it appeared 
when cleared from Rubbish in 1812, — ^fig. A.; a 
Drawing of one of the Comers of the same place, 
with an Arch in the Foundations of its Wall, — fi^. 
B.; and Drawings of two brazen Articles found m 
that station, — figs. C. and D. — see Plate IX. 

August 4. A Copy of the Royal Charter and the Statutes of the 
Society of Antiquaries, London; and four Plates 
of Roman Antiquities found near Capheaton. See ^ 
Archaeologia, Vol XV. p. 395. 

A Silver Ring, found at Towton Moor in 1770. 

Sept. 1. The Seal of the Society, designed by Mr. Howard of 
the Royal Academy, and engraved by Mr. Wyon, 
of the Royal Mint. 

A reversed Impression of the Inscription deposited 
in the Foundation Stone of the new County Courts 
of Northumberland. 

Oct. 6. A C(K>per Styca of Ec^frith, one of the Saxo-North- 
umorian Kings, — see Plate VL fig. H. 


A. M. L. de Cardonnell, 
Esq. of Cramlington. 

Joseph Forster, Esq. 

William Radclyffis, Eaq. 
Rouge Croix. 

Mr. J. T. Brockett. 

Rev. S. Claire, of Hex- 

Mr. John Bell, Treasu- 

Mr. John Clennell, Ho- 
merton, Middlesex. 

Mr. G. A. Dickson. 

James Losb» Esq. V. P. 

Sir John E. Swinburne, 
Bart. President. 

Rev. Wm. Turner. 

Sir John E. Swinburne, 
Bart. President. 

Thomas Davidson, Esq. 
Rev. J. Hodgson, Sec. 


Date* Donations^ 

Nov. 3. Three Fhigments of Roman Pottery ; an ancient Iron 
Key found under the Foundations of St. Albania 
Church in Carlisle ; another Key of Brass found at 
York ; and a Bronze Cast, bearing this Inscription, 
TIT. VESP. C. with the Head of that Emperor. 

Dec. 1. A Roman Copper Vessel, and some Pieces of Cop- 
per, which nad apparently belonged to it, two 
F^ibulae and a Ring, all found in a tumulus near 
Capheaton. Also a Penny of Queen Elizabeth, 
dated 1575, found in Hill- Head-Bank New-Planta- 
tion-Fence ; and a Counter found at Hamham. 

A Bottle of Black Earthenware from Pompeii ; a 
small Etruscan Earthen Vessel from Herculaneum ; 
aa Etruscan Vase ; a British Urn, with part of the 
calcined Bones it contained, found under a large 
Cairn, at Croglin, in Cumberlaod, — sec Plate Vl. 
6g. 1. The Pedestal of a Pillar, converted into a 
Mortar, found at Caervorran ; and Copies of two 
Roman Inscriptions, — see Appendix, No. II. 

A curious Mortar found near Chester-le-Street. 

A Copy of an Inscription on a Rock on Fallowfield- 
Fell, in Northumberland, — see Plate VI. fig. E. ; 
and a Copy of an Inscription found at Walwick 
Che8ters,-*see Plate VI. ng. F. 

1814. An Engraving, framed, of the Herald's College, Lon«> 
Jan.5. * don, in 1768. 

A Celtic Hammer of very hard granular stone, found 
near Kirkoswald Castle, in Cumberland ; a silver 
Penny of Henry the Second, found with a great 
quantity of the same kind of coin, at Cutherston, 
near Bowes, in Yorkshire, aboCit the year 1782 ; a 
Silver Penny of Edward the First, coined at Lon* 
don ; a Silver Penny of Edward the Second, coined 
at Canterbury ; a Swedish Copper Dollar, of Charles 
the Twelfth, dated 1716. 

Six Copper Stycas of the Northumbrian IGngs, Ean- 
red and Ethelred. * 

Feb. 2. Ei^ty-seven Cop^r Coins of various Nations; an 
Etching of two Roman Brass Vessels, with has re- 
lief Handles. 

Potter's Greek Antiquities. 

Forty Pounds* 


Mr. G. A. Dickson, 

Sir John E. Swinburne, 
Bart. President. 

Mr. G. A, Dickson, 

Isaac Cookson, Esq. of 
Whithill, Durham. 

Rev. John Hodgson, 

Thos. Davidson, Esq. 

Mrs. Atkinson, Temple- 

M. Atkinson, Esq. Carr- 
hill, Durham. 

Mr. G. A. Dickson. 
Mr. Thomas Hodgson. 
Ed. Hussey Delaval, Esq. 

* They were found a few yean since, near Kirkoswald, in Cumberland, by the blowing down of a 
large tree, the roots of which had taken bold of, and brought up with them, a large earthen vessel, ftiU 
of nmilar Coins. 


March 2. 

May 4. 

June 1. 

July 6. 

Ten Roman Silv^ Cotaa, and 8 English Silver Coins. 
Eighteen English Copper Coins. 
Chamberlayne*s Magnae Britannia^ Notitia* 
Two English Tokens* 
ITie " Testa de Nevill." 

A Silver Coin of Eugenius. 

A Bronze Ax or Celt. 

Twenty-four English Copper Local T<d[ens* 

Four Roman Sepulchral Urns, and Fragments of 
several others, found in Auckland Park, and near 
the Roman Station at Binohester« 

A Roman Lamp of red Earthenware ; a Fragment of 
another, with the figure of Jupiter and the Eagle 
on its top ; and 12 remarkably small Copper Coins, 
all found in removing a mound of earth in the 
Estate of J. J. Robinson, Esq. adjoining to Old 
Carlisle, in April, 1814. Also Kennett*s Roman 
Antiquities, 8vo. 1769. 

The six first Parts of << The Border Antiquities of 
England and Scotland/' 

The upper and lower Stones of an ancient Quern, or 
Hana Mill, found on Gateshead Fell. This dona- 
tion was accompanied by a Drawing of the Lines of 
a certain Enclosure or Camp, in which these and 
several fragments of mill-stones were found. The 
place was situated in a parcel of ground allotted 
to Mr. Henderson, at the time of the enclosure 
of Gateshead Fell. The west side of the entrenched 
ground measured 220 yards, the north end 66 
yards, and the breadth of the area from east to 
west at the south end, and from the N. £• to, the 
S. E. corner 33 yards. An oblong entrenched 
a,rea, 30 yards long and 14 broad, was also formed 
on the east side of it ; at its south end tliere was a 
circular enclosure, 14* feet in diameter, formed 
with stones, each 3 feet long, and set on edge ; 
and at 21 yards from the west side an entrenched 
line led to a spring opposite the north west corner* 

A small Vessel of Earthenware, in which several 
Copper Stycas of Ecgfrith, King of Northumber- 
land, were found in the Chapel Yard of Heworth, 
Durham ; and a Plan of an ancient Entrenchment 
at Wardley, in the Parish of Jarrow, Durham, — see 
Plate V. 

A Stone Celt, found on Throckley Fell, Northum- 
berland ; a Pipe of red Earthenware, for conveying 


Mr. N. Naters* 

Mr. J. Bell, Treasurer. 

Mr. G. A. Dickson. 

John Brumell, Esq. 

Sir C. M. L. Monck, 
Bart. V. P. 

Mr. J. T. Brockett. 

Mr. James Hawthorn. 

Mr. J. Bell, Treasurer. 


Mr. G. A. Dickson. 
Walter Soott, Esq. of 

Mr. Joseph Henderson, 
Gateshead FeU. 

Rev. John Hodgson^ 

Aug, 3. 

Date. Donations. 

Water; and a Piece of a Stag's Horn» found in a 
Roman Vault in the Station at Chesters, on the 
Roman Wall. 

Drawings of two Bronze Swords, lately found at 
Ewart Park, Northumberland. 

An ancient British Urn, found in ploughing a Field 
near Glanton, Nortbumberiand ; and a Drawing of 
an Urn found at Black Heddon, in the same 

Two Durham Tradesmen's Tokens of the old issue. 

Fourteen Copper Provincial Tokens. 

A Drawing of the old Tower formerly on Tyne 
Bridge, by Miss Mary Ann Hornby ; an Impres* 
sion of 3 ancient Sf als, in the posseision of R« 
Surtees, Esq. of Mainsforth, Durham. 

An ancient Buckle or Brooch, found by Mr. G. A. 
Dickson, in the Castle at Carlisle, and bearing a 
worn Inscription, in Saxo-Gothic Characters. 

Four Coins of Queens Anne and Mary, &Q. 

A Fragment of an ancient Bronze Shield^ of fine 
Workmanship, found in a Peat Moss, at Broomey- 
Holme, near Chester-le- Street, by the late Mat- 
thew Forster, Esq. of that place. 

An Edinburgh provincial Coin. 

Sept. 7- Some Pieces of Roman Tile, Brick, and Cement, 
found in levelling the North Bank of the Tyne, 
near Wall's End, for the foundations of the Staith 
of Fawdon Colliery. 

Dec. 7* Two Specimens of the Cement used in a Roman 
Bath at Wall's End ; and a Drawing of a Medal of 
Qoeen Mary the Second. 

Three hundred Foreign and Eiiglbh Copper Coins. 

An Iron Shirt of Chain Mail. 

A Ferrara Sword, — see Appendix, No. IIL 

A Harwich Token of 1653. 

Two provincial Coins. 

A Roman Fibula, found near the West Wall of 


Joseph Forster, Esq. 
M. Culley, Esq. 

Mr. G. A. Dickson. 
John Brumell, Esq. 
Mr. John Bell, Treasurer. 

Rev. H. Salvin. 

Mr. G. A. Dickson. 

N. Naters, Esq. New- 

Mr. T. WaUon, Silver- 
smith, Newcastle. 
Mr.John Bell,Trea8urer. 

Mr. John Bell,Treasurer. 

The Rev. John Hodgson, 

Mr John Bell, Treasurer. 

Sir R<^>ert Ker Porter, 

M. Culley, Esq. Akeld, 
Northumberland . 

R. Spearman, Esq. Each- 

Mr.John Bell, Treasurer. 
Mr. G. A. Dickson. 

* It was found in a little tumulus, called the Lamb-law; and in a cdl formed by tax flat stones, 
which also inclosed a human skull ; at present it b in the possession of Mr George Hepple, of Bygate. 
Its diameter at the top u 5| inches, middle 5}, bottom 3, and its height 7} inches. 


Jan. 4. 

March 1. 

April 5« 

May 8. 

June 7* 


An ancient Bronze Sword, found in Ewart Park,— 
•ee Plate IV. No. S. and page IK 

A Saxon Inscription, found near Fabtone, in North- 
umberland, — see Plate III. and page \QS. 

Seyer, on the Charters of Bristol. 

A larse Silver Fibula, found in the Tyne, near Ben- 

An Urn found in a Tomb near Denton, tn North- 
umberland; and an Arrow Head of Flint, found 
near Satley, in the County of Durham, — see page 

An Impression of the Seal of the last Treasurer of 
the Augustine Monastery at Canter\^ury, — see 
page 105. 

A Medallion of Hercules ; a Shilling of James I. ; 
and a Farthing of King William. 

An Iron Helmet, &c. 

Drawings of several Roman Antiquities, discovered 
at Bremenium and Habitancum, in Redesdale, 
Northumberland, and at preseDt at Catnpville, 
in the same County ; a small Urn, found in a larger 
one at Kirkhill, west of Hepple, in the Parish of 
Rbthbury, Northumberland : they were in a cell, 
formed by four upright stones, and covered with 
fine sand from the Coquet. 

Two Quern Stones, found at Abbey-Faws, on Throp- 
ton Common, Northumberland. 

Two small Bronze Figures, one of them a Female, 

the other a Priapus, both found at Benwell, on the 

Roman Wall, — see page 131. 
One hundred and forty-three Miscellaneous Coins. 
A Mortar, found near Wall's End in digging the 

foundations of Fawdon Staith. 
A Medal of " Ercole IIL Duca di Modena, di Rcg- 

gio, e della Mirandola:'' and an Engraving of a 

curious Gold Ring. 
A Set of Gold Beads found under a Cairn on Ches- 

terhope Common, Northumberland. 
Two Inscriptions, — see Appendix, No. IV. A Bronze 

Stamp or Seal in Uie term of a cross and bearing 

Greek characters, — see Appendix, No. V. 
A Medal of the Duke of Cumberland. 

A List of Buonaparte's Medals. 


Mrs. St Paul, Ewart 

Rev. James Wood, Fals- 

Rev. John Collinson, 
Rector of Gateshead. 

Mr. G. A. Dickson, 

Mr. Woodhouse, of 

James Gomme, Esq. 
High Wycombe, 

Mr. G« A. Dickson* 
Rev. N. HoUingsworth. 

John Smart, Esq. of 
Trewitt-house, North- 

The Rev. Robert Stout, 

Mr. John Stanton, Ben- 
Mr John Bell, Treasurer. 

Mr. John Straker. 

M. I. C. GinnasL 

His Grace the Duke of 

Mr. G. A. Dickson, 

Miss Hornby, Newcas- 
Mr. Reed, Newcastle. 

Daie. Donations, Donors. 

July 5. An Inscription on Heworth Bell, — see Plate V. and 
Appendix^ No. 6. 

Oct. 4* A Roman Vase, found in an entrenchment adjoining 

the old citadel of Carlisle. Mr. G. A. Dickson. 

Four miscellaneous Coins. Rev. Thomas Stout^ 

Fifteen Roman Copper Coins. M. J. J. Robinson, of 

Syke, Cumberland. 
A Plan of a Roman Aqueduct in the parish of W. T. GreenweU, Esq. 
Lanchester, Durham, — see Plate V. Ford, Durham. 

Several Plates ofAnglo Saxon Coins, and Mr. North's The Rev. R. Ruding, 
two Plates of Henry III. Coins. Maldon. 

A Series of Newcastle Silver Tokens, and a Roman Mr. John Adamson, 
Lamp. Secretary. 

Nov. 1. Two miscelliEineous Coins* Mr« John Bell, T^easu* 

Fenn*s Account of the London Society of Antiquaries. Mr. Thomas BelL 
An ancient Steel Spur, found several years since in Mr. Joseph Willis, 
a vault in the church of Jarrow, Durham. Gateshead. 

Dec. 6. Fifty-one English and Foreign Silver Corns. Hen. Gramlington, Esq. 

Mayor of Newcastle. 

A Ferrara Broad Sword, and an Arrow Head of 

Rint. Mr. G. A. Dickson. 

1816. One hundred and twenty Coins; a Roman Tile, in- 

Jan. S. scribed LEG. V. VI. ; some Specimens of blue and 

brown Glass, from the Roman Station near Cor- 

bridge ; several Fragments of figured Earthenware 

from the same place ; 2 Spear Heads found near D. W. Smith, Esq. Aln- 
Otterburne ; and a variety of other Antiquities. wick. 

Four Silver Coins. H. Cramlington, Esq. 

Feb. 7. ** A Catalogue of the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen 

who have compounded for their Estates:" Lon- Thomas Davidson, Esq. 
don, 1655. Newcastle. 

Gent's History of Kingston upon Hull and Rippon, The Rev. Wm. Turner, 

8vo. Newcastle. 

Circumstantial Details of the Battle of Waterloo, 8 vo. John Waldie, Esq. New- 
A small Roman Earthen Vessel dug out of the Sta- John Buddie. Esq. 

tion at WalPs End. Wall's End. 

An Account of the Great Flood in the River Tyne. Mr. John BeD, treasu- 
A Drawing of Pandon Gate, formerly standing in the 
town of Newcastle upon Tyne. Mr. Wilson. 


Date* Donations. 

March 6. Acts of the Parliaments of Scotlacidy Vdls. IL and III. 
the Registrum Magoi Sigilli of Scotland ; Invento- 
ries of the Royal Wardrobe of Scotland. 

A small Greek Bronze Com ; and a very old Clay- 

April 3. A Groat of Robert Bruce. 

An lUmniDated Pedigree of the Derwent Wkter 

May 1. Speed's Prospect of Uie World, 1627. 

De Anglonim Gentis Origine Dissertatio ; Authore 
Roberto Sheringhamo, Cantab, 1670, 8vo. Cmn- 
bcrland's ** Origines Gentium Antiquissimae, &cJ* 
London, 1724^ 8vo. Thompson's Translation of 
Jeffirey of Monmouth, London, 1718, 8vo. Wynd- 
ham's Wiltshire, extracted from Domesday Ekiok, 
Salisbury, 1788, 8vo. Vertot's critical History of 
the Establishment of the Bretons among the Gauls, 
&G. London, 172^, 2 vols. 8vo. 'Sir John Maun- 
deville's Voiage and Travaile, L4indon, 1725, 8vo. 

July S. Tho History of Hartlepool, by Shr C. Sharpe, Knight. 

A ifaie Tablet, bearing an Inscription to Ceres, in 
'^rse, discovered at Caervorran, — see Plate IV. 
fig. 1. and page 107; ako from the same place, 
two centuriai Stones ; a small Roman Altar ; seve- 
ral Specimens of Roman Millstones; and certain 
rude Figures of Roman Soldiers carved in stone. 

A Medal and a Roman Stiver Coin. 

Oct. 2. A Chart of Engli^ Silver Coins from 1066. 

Monumenta Romani Imperii in Scotia. 

A framed Eugravmg of the East Wmdow of the 
Cathedral Church of York. 

A Drawing of a Copper Vessel found near the 
Roman Wall. 

Nov. 6. A Book, containing numerous Fac-Similea of local 
Tokens of the la§t issue. 

An Impression on Wax of an ancient Ring found in 
the ruins of Pharos. 

A Ftoof of an Engraving of the Seal of the Hospital 
of St; Bartholomew, in Newcastle; also 200 Copies 
for Uie first Volume of the Society's Transactions, 
Plate Vm. 


The Rev. J. Hodgson, 

Mr. G. A. Dickson, 

Dr. Somerville. 

William Radclyffe, Esq. 
Rouge Croix. 

Thomas Davidson, Esq. 

R. i^seannan, Elsq. 

The Author. 

Lieut.-€olonel Coulson, 
Blenkinsopp Castle, 

Mk. John Walker, WaO's 

Mr. John Bell, Treasu- 

M. Atkinson, Esq. Carr^ 
hill, Durham. 

R. S. Hawks, Esq. 

Mr. John Adamson, 

Mr. John Bell, Treasu- 

D. W. Smith, Esq. Aln- 

Mr. J. T. Brockett. 


January L 

Feb. 5. 
March 5. 
April 2. 

August 6* 

October 1. 

Nov. 5. 

Dec. 3. 


June S. 

** Synopsis of the Brknh Museum.'' 8vo. London^ 

'< Hegge's Legend of St. Cuthbert/' a new EdiUoa^ 

1816. By Mr. Taylor, of Sunderland. 

Account of the Hunterian Museum, by Captain J. 
. Laskey, 8vo. Glasgow, 1813. 

Four Volumes of the Public Records of the Kingdom 
of Scotland, 

A Vindication of the Apamean Medal, and of the 
Inscription JUSlE. London, 4to* 1775. 

*' Cheviot," a Poetical Fragment, with Notes, &c. by 
Mr. Adamson, Newcastle. 8vo. 1817* 

An Arrow Head, with an Account of a Number of 
the same Description found at Mount Caucasus, — 
see Plate IX. and Paper. 

An Ornament found in the Roman Station near 

Various Articles of Roman Fabric obtained from the 
Roman Station of Carvoran. 

** Speculations on a Litwary Society." 

Two copies of the 24th Report of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne. 

A Silver Penny of Edward I. ; a small Brass Coin of 

A small Turkish Gold Coin. 

A Drawing of a Roman Rine in the possession of 
Lady Blackett, of Matfen, Northumberland, — see 
Description, p. 203. Abo a Drawing of a Fragment 
of a Statue of Neptune, now at Wiulington. 

" The Marrii^ of the Coquet and Alwyne," a Poem, 
edited by Air. Adamson, Newcastle. 8vo. 1817. 

" The Life of Henrv the Third," a Re-print, edited 
by Mr. Brockett, Newcastle. 1817. 

An Impression of a Seal found at Marathon by Sir 
Wm. Gell. 

<* Bartlett on the Episcopal Coins of Durham, and 
the Monastic Coins of Reading," a new Edition, 
with Notes and Illustrations, by Mr J. T. Brockett. 
Newcastle, 8vo. 1817. 

** Vallum Romanum ;" or Account of the Roman 
Wall, by John Warburton, Esquire. London, 4to. 

Drawing of Arrow Heads, and an Account thereof in 


Mr. John Bell. 

Mr. Taylor, Sunderland. 

Mr. William Clarke. 

Rev. J. Hodgson. 

Mr. Thomas BelL 

Mr. J. Adamson, Sec. 

Mrs. Beilby, Newcastle. 

Mrs. Beilby. 

Messrs. Hodgson and 
Adamson, Secretaries. 

Mr. John Straker, New- 

The Lit. & Phil. Society 
of Newcastle. 

Sir J. E. Swinburne, Bt. 
Mr. Naters. 

J. Trevelyan, Esq. Wal- 
lington, NorUiumber- 

Mr. Adamson, Secretary. 

Mr. J. T. Brockett. 

Sir J. E. Swinburne, Bt. 

Mr. J. T. Brockett. 

Mr. W. L. Rogers, Lon- 


Date* Donations*. 

Illustration of the Drawing preriously presented by 
Mrs. Beilby, — see Plate iX. page 201. 

The Drawing of a Ring found on King Moor, made 
by Richard Cust, Esq., — see page 136. 

Account of the Books printed at the press of George 
Allan, Esq. F.S. A. at the Grange, near Islington. 
8vo. Newcastle, 1818. 

July 1. Drawing of an Altar found in ISl?, at Walton House, 
near Brampton. 

An Impression in tin foil of the Inscription on the 
Ring found on King Moor. 

Funeral Sermon on Margaret, Countess of Richmond, 
&c. ; 8vo. London, 1708. Reflections upon Learn- 
ing; 8vo. London, 1727. 

1819. StaL and Ordin. Eccles. Cath. Dunelm, in MS. folio. 
June 2. Spearman's Inquiry into the County Palatine of 

Durham ; 4to. 1729, interleaved. Rudd's Euclid's 
Elements, with John Dee's Mathematical Preface, 
4to. 1651. Lithgow's 19 Years' Travels (1609, 
&c), 10th edition ; 8vo. 1692. Battle of Flodden 
Field, edited by Larobe; 12mo. 1774. PMin's 
Travels ; 12mo, 1679. Carleton's Life of Bernard 
Gilpin, 4th edition; 12mo. 16S4. Letters from 
Orinda to Poliarchuft; 8vo. 1705. Boscobel, Part 
L 1680; Part 11. 1681, 8vo. 

Collection of Papers which appeared during the Con- 
test for the County of Northumberland; 1774. 
Wilcock's Life of the AbboU of Wearmouth ; 8vo. 
Sunderland, 1818. Moule's Catalogue ; 1818. 

August 4. Reliquise Sacrae Carolina;, or the Works of that great 
and glorious Martyr King Charles I. 24mo. Hague, 
Drawing of a Sepulchral Stone found at Binchester, 
—see page 142. 

Dec. 1. An account of the Expense of Sir Thomas Swin- 
burne, Knt. as High Sheriff of Northumberland, 
in 1628 and 1629. 
An old Sword which had been used at the Battle of 
Naseby, by an ancestor of Mr. Geo. Sumner, of 
Desborough, County of Northampton. 
1820. Coins: Half-penny, Elizabeth; Penny, James I.; 

January 5. Half-penny, James 1.; Three-pence, Charles 1.; 
Penny, Charles I. ; Sixpence, Edwand VI. ; Lord 
Liverpool's Shilling; Half-penny, Edward; Four 
Pennies, Edward; Four-pence and Three-pence, 
George, III. ; Barnard Castle Token. 

Miss Carlyle, Carlisle* 

Miss Carlyle. 

Mr. J. T. Brockett, New- 

Miss Carlyle. 

J. Losh, Esq. Vice-Pre- 

Rev. I. Cook, Newton, 

Wm. Ta^r, Esq. Hen- 
don Grange, Sunder- 

Mr N. J. Philipson, New- 

Wm. Taylor, Esq. Hen- 
don Grange. 

Ph. Orkney Skene, Esq. 

Rev. J. Hodgson, Se- 

Thomas Davidson, Esq. 

Mr. Brockett. 



Date* Donations. 

Feb. 2. A Medal of Luit de CamoeMt ■truck, for private 
diftribution onljy in Paris, at the expense of Don 
Joze Maria de Souza. The Society has availed 
itself qf Mr. Adamson^s permis$ion to insert an im- 
pression <ifa Wood Cut here of this Medal ; as also 
that of another Medal, in honour of the said Poet, 
tohich foere made for that Gentleman* s ** Memoirs of 
the Life and Writings of Luis de Camoens.** 


Don Joze Maria de Sou- 
za, Parii. 

June 7. " Robert the DevyU, a metrical Romance, from an 

ancient illuminated Manuscript. Lond. 1798> 8vo. Mr. N. J. Phih'pson. 
Various Antiquities found upon the property of Gui- 

c S 


Date. Donations* 

brand Rosenberg, Farmery in the County of Laitr- 
v'lg, in Norway, — see Description, page 205. 

Aug. 2. Copy of a Return of Three Knights of the Shire for 
the County of Northumberland, in the year 16S4, 
— see page 171 • 

Sept. 6. Seals : Two Impressions of Old Seals of Newcastle 

upon Tyne ; two of Durham ; and four others. 

Sermon, preached at the Duke of Devonshire's Fu- 
neral, with Memoirs of the House of Cavendish, 
by Dr. Kennet, 1708, 8vo. 

Oct. 4. The Life of Rev. and Learned Mr. John Sage, Svo. 
The History of the Troubles of Hungrie, 4to. The 
Antiquity of the Royal Line of Scotland, by Sir 
George Mackenzie, 8vo. London, 1686. View of 
London, 12mo. 

Copy of a Petition from the Lord Mayor and Mer- 
chants of the City of York, the Mayor and Mer- 
chants of Kingston upon Hull, and the Wardens 
and Brethren of the Trinity House there against 
Sir Wro. Waller, complaining of his demands for 
prizage of Wines and his bringing a vexatious Suit. 

1821. Coins : A French Copper Coin, under Camot, coined 
Jan. 3. at Antwerp ; a Copper Medal, Ludovicus XIIIL 

Rex Christianissimus ; 6 Roman, first Brass; 3 
Roman, third Brass ; 2 Roman, second Brass ; 9 
Foreign Copper; 1 Barbadocs Penny, 1788 ; 2 Old 
Englbh, Copper ; 20 Old Tradesmen's Tokens. 
A Brass Lar, found at Peersbridge. 

Two Check or Nick Sticks, as formerly issued by the 
Exchequer on passing the Sheriff's Accounts. 

Feb. 7. An Ancient Ornament of Jet, found in a Stone 
Chest, in a field called Cruises, the property of Mr. 
Ridley, of Park End. 

Coins: 5 Local; Collej^ii Experimentale sive Cu- 
riosum in quo Primaria hujus Seculi inventa, &c. 
Nurimbergse, 1676. 

April 4. The History and Antiquities of the See and Cathe- 
dral Church of Litchfield, by John Britton, F. S. A. 
4to. London, 1820. 
Garbutt's History of Sunderland. 
Copy of a Letter of Wm. Lord Dacre, with Obser- 
vations, — see page 214. 
May 2. Four Ancient Spurs and a Pair of Ancient Brass 

Mr. Peterson, of Nor- 

Mr. John Bell. 

Mr. Adamson, Secre- 

Rev. Wm. Turner, New- 

Mr. R. Thompson, New- 

Mr. John Bell. 

R. Surtees, Esq. Mains- 

R. Surtees, Esq. 

Mr J. Bell. 

Rev. A. Hedley, New- 

Mr. John Bell. 

Sir J. E. Swinburne, 

Bart. President. 
The Author. 

John Caley, Esq. Lon- 



Date, Donations. 

Sept. 5* 7 Ancient British Coins, found at Jersey. 

Nov. 7« ^^Py ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Election of Members for 
Newcastle, 1820. 

Dec* 5. An Historical Description of the Monastery and 
Chapel Royal of Holyrood-house, 8vo. Edinburgh, 

A Map of the Country round Scarborough, by 
Robert Knox. 

1822. A Roman Figure found at Fulwell, near Sunderland, 
Feb. 6. and also a Celt found in Ireland. Dr. Clanney 

accompanied this Donation with the following ac- 
count: — ^*'In the month of November, 1820, im- 
mediately above the excavation of the Limestone 
at Cariey Hill Quarry, which is situated about a 
quarter of a mile West of Fulwell Hill, in the 
parish of Monkwearmouth, and about 200yards 
West of Hill House, the residence of Mr. Wake» 
sen., whilst removing the surplus soil, Thomas 
Dobson, quarryman, found the Roman Figure 
which appears to be a Lar. There were found at 
the same time, several portions of Human Bones 
and a quantity of common rock Limpet Shells im- 
bedded in limestone rubbish and surface soil. It 
is worthy of remark that several excavations have 
been discovered in the solid limestone rock, at Car- 
ley Hill, (^simihur to stone coffins) containing 
human Bodies. 

Tables of Dates for the Use of Genealogists and 
Antiquaries, printed by T. Moule. 

March 6. Vols. V VI. VII. and VIIL of the Acts of Par- 
liament of Scotland, folio. 

Select Views of London and its EnvironSi 2 vols, in 
1, quarto. London, 1804f. 

J. Smart, Esq. Trewitt, 

Mr. Chamley. 

Mr. Wood, Killingworth, 

Rev. Wnu Turner. 

Dr. Clanney, Sunder- 
land, Durham. 

Mr Thomas BeU, New- 

Rev. J. Hodgson, Secre- 

Isaac Cookson, Esquire, 












1^ The Books in the Library are allowed to circulate under thefoUowihg Rtgu^ 
lations, viz. — The Books may be taken out by Members at one Meeting, and returned' 
by them at the subsequent Meeting. All the Books are to be in the Library- 
during the Sittings of the Society. 










The Newcastle upon Tyne Antiquarian Society. 

Statutes of the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle upon Tyne. Instituted January, 
1813. FoL 

Chorographia; or a Survey of Newcastle upon Tyne, in 1649; by William Gray — Re- 
printed by the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle upon Tyne. Fol. Newcastle, 

"First Annual Report of the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle upon Tyne. Quarto. 
Newcastle, 1814. 

TaE Society of Antiquaries of London. 

A Copy of the Royal Charter and Statutes of the Society of Antiquaries, of London. 

Printed by order of the Society. 4to« London, 1800. — Presented by Sir J. E» 

Stvinbumef Bart. 
Tables of English Silver, and Gold Coins : First published by Martin Folkes, and now 

re-priated| inth Plates and Explanations, by the Society. 4to. 1763. 




An Account of a Copper Table ; containing two Inscriptions, in the Greek and Latin 
Tongues; discovered in the year ITSS, near Heraclea, in the Bay of Tarentum in 
Magna Grseda: By Philip Carteret Webb. 4to. London, 1760. 

Archaeologia; or. Miscellaneous Tracts, relating ta Antiquity^ with Plates, 17 vols, and 
PartLofVoLXVIIL 4io, London, 177ft— 1815. 

Three Chronological Tables ; exhibiting a State of the Society, from its first rise in 
1572 to 1784; by Sir John Fenn, Knt. 4to. London, l7S4f,>^Presented by Mr. 
Thomas Belt. 

Liber Quitidianus ContrarotuLttoris Grarderobe, Anno Regpu Regis Edwardi Primi vicer 
simo octavo, A. D. 1299 et 1300. 4to. Londini, 1787. 

Thb Society of Antiquaries of Edinburgh. 
Rules of the Edinburgh Society of Antiq^uaries. 4to. — Presented by Mr^ John Belt^ 

Glasgow Academy. 

Monumenta Romani Imperii, in Scotia, maxime vero inter Vestigia Valli, Auspiciis An- 
tonini Pii Imperatoris, a Fortha usque ad Glottam perducd, reperta et in Acar 
demiS Glasguensi adservata, Iconibus expressa. ^to^^^PresenUd by Matthew 
Atkinson^ Esq^ 

Perth Literary Society. 

Preliminary Discourse and Plan, delivered at the Institution of a Literary Socie^ at 
Perth, December 16, 1784. 4to. Perth, 1785— Pr«««iferf by the Rev. W^ 

Addison, Joseph. 

Dialogues on the Usefulness of Ancient Medals, especially in Relation tG the Latiik 
and Greek Poets. 8vo. Glasgow, 1751. — Presented by Mr. John Belk 
Ainsworth, Robert. 

Dictionary, English and Latin. A'new Edition, with great Additions and Amend- 
ments: By Thomas Morell, 8. T. P. 4to. London, 1808. 

The Border Antiquities of England and Scotland, conprising Specimens of the Archi- 
tecture, Sculpture, and other Vestiges of former Ages, to the Union' of the twa 
Crowns. 4to. large paper. London, 1812. All the Parts yet published* — Pre^ 
sented by Waiter Scott ^ Esq. 
The Antiquities of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, v. Grose. 
The Military Antiquities respecting the English Army, v. Grose. 


AsHBTy George, B. D. 

A Diflsertation on a singular Coin of Nerva, in a Letter to Matthew Duane, Esq* 
4to. London, 1774. 
Atloftb, Joseph, Bart. V. P* A. S. and F. R. S. 

Calendars of the Ancient Charters, and of the Welch and Scottish Rolls, now 
remaining in the Tower of London : also, Calendars of all the Treaties of Peace 
between England and Scotland, in the Chapter House at Westminster, &c« &c. 
4to« London, 1774. 

Banduri, Amselm. 

Numismata Imperatorum Romanorum a Trajano Dedo ad Palceologos Augustos, acces- 
sit Bibliotheca Nummaria, siye Auctorum qui de Re Nummari& scrlpserunU 2 vols* 
Fol. Lut. Paris, 1518. 
Bell, John. 

An Account of the great Flood in the River Tjrne, on Saturday Momuig, Dec. SO, 
1815« To which is added, a Narrative of the great Flood in the Rivers Tyne, 
Tease and Wear, Sec on the 16th and 17th Nov. 1771 ; with an Account cf the 
Eruption of Sol way Moss. Newcastle, 1816. 8vo. — Presented hy Mr. John 
Rhymes of Northern Bards, being a curious Collection of old and new Songs and 
Poems, peculiar to the Counties of Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland, and 
Durham* Edited by John Bell, Jun. Newcastle upon Tyne. 8vo. 1812.— 
Presented by Mr, John BelL 
Brand, the Rev. John, M. A. 

The Hbtory and Antiquities of tlie Town and County of the Town of Newcastle upon 
Tyne^ including an Account of the Coal Trade of that place. 2 vols. 4to. 
London,. 1789. 
Bristol-Charters, v. Seters. 
Britannia Romana, v. Horsley. 


Catalogue of the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen,, that have compounded for tlieir 
Estates. 8vo. London, ISSS^-^Presenied by Mr^ Thomas Davidson. 
Chamberlatne, John, Esq. 

Magnse Britannise Notitia ; or the present State of Great Britain, with divers Remarks 
upon the antient State thereof. 8vo* London, 1797 '^'Presented by Mr. Dickson. 
Clennell, John, v. Magazine. 
Combe, Carolus, M. D. 

Nummorum veterum Populorum et Urbium, qui in Museo Gulielmi Hunter asservantur, 
Descriptio, Figuris illustrata. 4to« Londini, 1782. 


CoMBBy Taylor, Eao. 

A Description of the Collection of ancient Terracottas in the Britiah Museum^ with 

Engravings. 4to. London, 1810. 
A Description of the Collection of ancient Marbles in the British Museum, with 

Engravings. Part L and IL 4to. London, 1812 — 15* 
Vetenim Populonim et Regum Nummi, qui in M useo Britannioo asservantur. 4to. 

Londini, 1814. 
Cumberland, Right Rev. R., D. D. 

Origines Gentium Antiquissimse ; or Attempts for discovering the Times of the first 

Planting of Nations; in several Tracts. 8vo. London, n2^.-^Prcsented by R. 

JSpeamutnf Esf. 

Darell, Rev. Wm. v. Grose. 
Dover Castle, v. Grose* 
Dutbns, Louis. 

Explication de quelques Medmlles de Peuples, de Villee, et de Rois, Grecques et 
Pheniciennes, avec une Paldographie numismatique. 4to. LondFOs, 1776. 2d 

Engravings, Drawings, &c. 

Drawing of the Swords found in Ewart Fwck^^^Presented by Af. CuUey^ E$q. 

(Two Engravings of the Coins of Henry III. 
Five of British Coins. 
Twentj-eight of Saxon Coins. 

Presented by Rev. Rogers Ruding. 
A Drawing of the Tower upon the old Bridge of Newcastle upon. Tyiie, facing 

Newcastle. — Presented by Miss Hornby. 
Three Plates of Roman Antiquities found near Capheaton, Northumberland.-^ 

Presented by ISir J. E. Smnbume^ Bart. 
Anndus Antiquus ; an Engraving from an ancient Gold Ring in the Possession of 

Julius Caesar Ginnasi« — Presented by </• C. Ginnasi. 
Chart of English Silver Coins, from A. D. 1066.— Presented by Mf. John Bell. 
An Impression of the Plate deposited in the Foundation of the new County Courts, 

Newcastle, July 23d, 1810. — Presented by Mr. Thos. Davidson. 
The College of Arms ; or the Herald's Office. London, 1768. — Presented by Ditto. 
Prftfericulae found in Carlisle, lSO4!.'^Pr0sented by Mr. Dickson. 
A Drawing of the old Gate at Pandon, in Newcastle, called POndcHi Gate.— Dratvn 

and presented by Mr. Thomas Wilson. 
An elegantly iUuminated Pedigree of the Family of the late Earl of Derwentwater.--^ 
Presented by W. Radclyffe, Esq. 


Ekoravings, Drawings, &c. 

Drawings of the various Silver Tokens struck in ISH, Scc.^^Made and presented bi/ 

Mr. John Bell. 
An Engraving from the Seal of the ancient Hospital of St. Bartholomew, in Newcastle 

upon Tyne^f^^Presented by Mr. Brociett, at tohose Expense it voas engraved. 
A Drawing of a Brass Vessel found in 1816, near the Roman Wall, similar in every 

Respect to one described by Camden to have been found in IreUmd« See Eg. 6, 

Plate xii. Vol* IV.^— Droton and presented by, Mr* John Adamson», 

FoLKss, Martin, v. Acta Acadsmiarum*. 

Gardner, Ralph* 

England's Grievance Discovered,, in Relation to the Coal. Trade ; with the Map of the 

River of Tine, and Situation of the Town and Corporation of Newcastle, &c. &c 

Svo.^ Newcastle : reprinted 1796. 
Gent, Thomas. 

Annales Regioduni HuUini : or History of Kingston-upon-HulL 8vo. York, 1735.— 

Presented by the Rev. Wm. Turner. 
The ancient and modem History of the Loyal Town of Rippon. 8vo. York, 1733. — 

Presented by the Rev. Wm. Turner. 
Grxvius, Joannes Georgius. 

Inscriptiones antiquse totius Orbis Roman! in absolutissimum Corpus reductae olim 

Auspiciis Joseph! Scaligeri et Marc! Velseri Industria autem et DUigencia Jani 

Gruteri: nunc Curis secundisejusdem Gruteri et Notis Marquardi Gudii emendats, 

et Tabulis seneis ^ Boissardo confectis illustratss ; denuo Cura Joannis Georgii 

Grsevii recensits: cum Adnotationibus et Indicibus. 2 vols. Fol. Bound in 4 

vols* Amstelsedami, 1707. 
Gross, Francis, F* A. S. 

The Antiquities of England and Wales. 8 vols. 4to. London, 1784 — 87^ 

The Antiquities of Scotland. 2. vols. 4to. London, 1 797. 

The Antiquities of Irehind* 2 vols. 4to. London, 1791. 

Military Antiquities, respecting a History of the English. Army, from the Conquest to 

the present Time ; and a Treatise on ancient Armour and Weapons. 2 vols. 4to^ 

London, 1801* 
A provincial Glossary, witb a Collection of local Proverbs and popular Superstitions. 

4to. London, 1811. 
The History of Dover Castle, by the Rev. Wm. Darell, Chaplain to Queen Elizabeth. 

4to. London, 1797. Bound with the last Volume. 
Gruterius, Janus. 

Inscriptiones antiquae totius Orbis Roman!, v. Graevius*. 


IIavbrcampds, Sigbbertus. 

Thesaurus Morellianus ; sive Familianim Roinananim Nmniflaiata mnnia, diligendssime 
undique coDquisita^ ad ipsorum Nummorum Fldem accuratissime delineata, et juxta 
Ordinem FtUviiUrstni et CaroliPaiini disposita, a celeberrimo Antiquario ; accer 
dunt Nummi miscellanei, Urbis RonMe, Hispanid, et Goltziani dubie Hdei omnes. 

2 vols. Fol. Amstelsdamiy 1734. 

Tliesauri Morelliani Totni I. I. II. ; sive Christ. Schlegelii, Sigeb. Haverkampi, et 
Antonii Francisci Gorii, Commentaria in XII. Priorum Imperatorum Roman or urn 
Numismata aurea, argentea, et aerea, cujus moduli, diligentissime conquisiu, c t ad 
ipsos Nummos accuratissime delineata, a celeberrimo Antiquario, Andrea Morellio ; 
accedunt CI. Gorii Descriptio Columna Trajarus^ a Morellio, itidem elegant issime 
in ses incises, nee non Tristani, Rubenii, ac Harduini Interpretationes prctiosissi- 
morum aliquot Antiquitatis Monumentomm ; cum Prae&tione Petri Wcf^sotingii. 

3 vols. Fol. AmstelsDdami, 1752. 

Dissertationes de Alexandri Magni Numismate et de Nummis Contomialis, cum Figuris 
sneis. 4to. Lug. Bat 1722 
Hbkley, John, M. A., v. Montfaucok. 
HoRSLEY^, John, M. A. 

Britannia Romana; or, the Roman Antiquities of Britain; in three Books. Fol. Lon- 
don, 1732. 
Hull, r. Gent. 
Humphreys, David, M. A., v. Mohtfaucon. 

Rennett, Basil. 

Romae Antfquse Notitia; or, the Antiquities of Rome. 8vo. London, 1769.— Pre- 
sented hy Mr, Dichon. 


The Gentleman^s Magazine for the Years 1813 et seq. To be continued. 
Stace's List of Plates in the Gentleman's Magazine. Svo. 1731 to 181 3. 
The Ne«r Agricultural Magazine. By John Clennell. Vols. 1 ahd 2. 8vo. — Pre^ 
sented hytke Author. 

The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John MandeviUe, Knt. ; which treateth of the Way to 
Hierusalem $ and of Marrayles of Inde, with other Hands and Countryes. Now 
first published, entire, from the original MS. in the Cotton LibfUry. 8yo. Lon- 
don, n^S^^Presented hy R. Spearman, Esq. 
Monmouth, Jeffrey of, v. Thompson, Aaron. 
Morsllius, Andreas, Hehetus. 

Thesaurus Morellianus, v. Havercampus^ 



Antiquity explained and represented in Sculptures. Translated into English by David 

Humphreys, M. A. Folio. $ vols. London, 1721. 
The Supplement to the above. Translated into English by David Humphrey, M. A. 

In 5 vols, bound in 1. London, 1725. 
The Antiquities of Italy, being the Travels of the learned Bernard de M ontfaucon, 

from Paris, through Italy, in the Years 1698 and 1699. Made Engli^ from the 

Paris Edition of the Latin Original. Adorned with Cuts. 2d Edition. By John 

Henley, M. A. Folio. London, 1725. 

Noble, The Rev. Mark. 

Two Dissertations upon the Mmt and Coins of the Episcopal Palatines of Durham ; 
with an Appendix* 4to. Birmingham, nSO.>~^Presented hy Mr. J. Bell. 

Patin, Charles, M. D., Paris. 

Imperatorum Romanorum Numismata ex ^re medis et minimse Formsb descripta et 
enarrata. Folio. Argentina^, 1671. 
Pegge, The Rev. Samuel, LL. D. 

An Essay on the Coins of Cimobelin ; to which is subjomed, a Dissertation on the 

Seat of the Coritani. 4to. London, 1766. 
A Series of Dissertations on some elegant and very valuable Anglo-Saxon Remains; 
with a Preface. 4to. London, 1756. 
Pikkerton, John. 

An Essay on Afedals ; or, aa Introduction to the Knowle^ of ancient and modern 
Coins and Medals ; especiaUy those of Greece, Rome, and Britain. 2 vols. 
8vo. London, 1808. 
Potter, John, D. D. 

Archseologia Grseca; or, the Antiquities of Greece. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1728. — 
Presented by Mr, Thomas Hodgson* 

RsiNBsius, Thomas, Archiatrus et Consul Altenburgicus. 

Syntagma Inscriptionum antiquarum, cum primis Rome veteris, pro Supplemento ad 

J. Gruterum, Opus posthumum; cum Commentariis nunc primiim editum» 

FoL Lipsis, 1682. 
Rf PPON, V. Gent. 

Stage, v. Magazine. 

Seyer, The Rey. Samuel, M. A. 

Hie Charters and Letters Patent, granted by Uie Kings and Queens of England to the 



Seybr, The Rev. Samuel, M. A. 

TowD and City of Bristol. Newly translated, and accompanied by the original 
Latin. 4to. Bristol, 1812^'^resenied btf the Rev. John CoUimon. 

Registrum Magni Sigilli Regum Scotorum in Archivis Publicis aaservatum: A. D. 1S06 
— A. D. 1424 Printed by Commaiid of His Majesty King George the Third, 
in Pursuance of an Address of the House of Commons of Great-Britain. Folio. 
— Presented by the Rev* Jehn Hodgson. 
Sharp, Sir Cuthbert, Knt. 

A History of Hartlepool. 8vo. Durham, 1816. — Presented by the Anthor. 
Sheringham, Robert, C. C. C. 

De Anglorum Gentis Origine Dlsoe^tatio. €yo. Canftd)., 1670. — Presented by 
R* Speoffnan^ Esq* 
Smith, William, Rector of Melsonby. 

Literse de Re Nummaria, in Opposition to the common OpinloD, that the Denarii 
Romani were never larger than Seven in an Ounce; with some Remarks on Dr. 
Arbutbnot's Book and Tables, &c. Bvo. Newcastle upon Tyne, 1729. 
Snellino, Thomas. 

View of the Coinage of England; containing Views of the Gokl Coinage, SDver Coin- 
age, Copper Coinage, and Tradesmen's Tokens ; Coins struck by English Princea 
in France ; Counterfeit Steriiags, PMtem Pieces, &c. ; Jettons, &c. ; Silver Coin* 
^e of Scotland. 2 vols. FoL 1763— 1769* 
Speed, John. 

A Proqiect of tlie most &mous Parts of the WorUL 12mo. London, 1646«— Pre- 
sented by Mr. Thos. Davkbon. 
Spelman, Sir Henry, Knt 

Glossarium Archaiologicum ; cum Scholiis, et Commentariis, FoL Chart, max. 
Londini, 1664. 

St A TUT A. 

The Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland. Vols. 2 and 8. Printed by Command of 
His Majesty King George the Third, in Pursuance of an Address of the House 
of Commons of Great^Britain. Folio. 2 vols. 1^4t,^'mm,Presented by the Rev. 
J. Hodgson. 
Stukeley, The Rev. William, M. D. 

The Medallic History of Marcus Aurelius Valerius Carausius, Emperor in Britain. 
2 vols. 4to. London, 1757 — 59. 
Surtees, Robert, Esq. F. S. A. 

The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham : Con^fled from ori- 
ginal Records preserved in public Repositories and private CoUections, and illus- 
trated by Engravings. Vol. 1. Folio. London, 1816. 


Testa de Nevill. 

Testa de Nevill; sive Liber Feodorum in CumA Soaccarii; temp. Hen. TIL et Edw. L 
Printed by Command of His Mi^esty King Greorge XIL, in Pursuance of an Ad- 
dress of the House of Commons of Grreat-Britain* FoL 1807- — Presented by Sir 
Charles Monch^ Bart. 
Thoresby, Ralph, F. R. S., v. Whitaker. 
Thompson, Aaron, late of Queen^s College, Oxon. 

The British History, translated into English from the Latin of Jeftey of Monmouth« 
8vo* London, 1718. — Presented by R. Spearman f Esq, 

Vaillant, J. Foy, 

Seleucidarum Imperium, sive Historia Regum Syrise, ad Fidem Numismatum accom- 

modata. Editio secunda. FoL Hagse CoBiit., 17S2. 
Historia Ptolemseorum ^gypti Regum> ad Fidem Numismatum accommodata. FoL 

Amstelsedami, 1701. 
Arsacidarum Imperium, sive Regum Parthorum Historia, ad Fidem Numismatum ac« 

commodata. 2 vols. 4to. Partsiis, 1725. 
Numisroata Imperatorum Romanorum prsestantiora a JuKo Caesare ad Postumum us- 
que. S vols. 4to. Roms, 174S* 
Velazquez, Don Luis Joseph. 

Congeturas sobre las Medallas de los Reys Godos y Suevos de Espana. 4to« Ma- 
laga, 1759. 

A Critical History of the Establishment of die Bretons amongst the Gauls, and of 
their Dependenoe upon the Kioi^ of France, and Dukes of Normandy : Trans- 
lated jGnom th^ French. 2 vols. 8vo. London^ 1722. — Presented by R, Spear- 
ntanf Esq* 

A Letter from the Chevalier Antonio Canova ; and Two Memoirs read to the Royal 
Institute of France, on the Sculptures in the Collection of the Earl of Elgin. 
Translated from the French and Italian* 8vo. London, 1816* 


A Collection of Inventories and other Records of the Royal Wardrobe and Jewel- 
house; and of the Artillery and Munition in some of the Royal Castles: 1488 — 
180*. 4to. Printed at Edinburgh, 1815.— Presented by the Rev. John Hodgson. 
Liber Quotidianus, v. Acta Academiarum. 

The Battle of Waterloo^ with circumstantial Details ; by an Eye- Witness 8vo. 1815. 
— Presented by Mk John Waldie. 


Webb, Philip Carteret, Esq. v. Acta Academiarum. 
Whitaker, Thomas Dukham, LL.D., F. S. A. 

Ducatus Leodlensis ; or, the Topography of the ancient and populous Town and Pa* 
rish of Leedes, and Parts adjacent, in the West Riding of the County of York : 
By Ralph Thoresby, F. R. S. The second Edition ; with Notes and Additions, 
by Thomas Dunham Whitaker, LL. D^ F. A. S. Folio. Leeds, 1816. 
Loidis and Elmete ; or, an Attempt to illustrate the Districts described in those Words 
by Bede, and supposed to embrace the lower Portions of Aredale and Wharfdale, 
together with the entire Vale of Calder, in the County of York. Folio. London, 
Willis, Browne, Esq. 

Notitia Parliamentaria ; or, an History of the Counties, Cities, and Boroughs, in Eng- 
land and Wales. 8vo. London, 1715. 
Wise, Francis, B. D., Fellow of Trmity College, Oxon. 

Nummorum antiquorum Scriniis Bodleianis reconditorum Catalogus ; cum Commen- 
tario, Tabulis eneis, et Appendice. Folio. Oxonii, 1750. 
Wyndham, Henry Penruddock. 

Wiltshire, extracted from Domesday Book : To which is added, a Translation o£ the 
original Latin into English; with an Index. 8?o. Salisbury, 1788. — Presented 
bi/ R. Spearman^ Esq* 

The Society are Subscribers to 

Annals of British Coinage ; by the Rev. R. Ruding, B. D., F. S. A. 
The Life of King Robert Bruce, and the Acts and Deeds of Sir Williata Wallace ; To 
be edited by Dr Jamieson. 





Akstis, John, Esq. Garter Principal King of Arms. 

Observations Introductory to an historical Essay upon the Knighthood of the Bath. 
8yo. London, 1725. 
Arbuthnot, The Rev« Archibald. 

The Life, Adventures, and nmny great Vicissitudes of Fortune of Simon, Lord Lovat, 

the Head of the Family of Fraser. 12mo. London, 1746. 
A brief Account of the Life and Fainily of Miss Jenny Cameron. 12bo. London, 

Essays on Gothic Architecture, by the Rev. Thos. Warton, Rev. J. Benthans Captain 
Grose, and the Rev. John Mihier. dvo. London, 1808. 

Baillie, Rev. — * 

An impartial History of the Town and County of Newcastle upon Tyne and its Vici- 
ni^, &c. &C. 8vo. Newcastle, 1801. 
Bbntlet, John. 

Hdiiax and its Gibbet Law placed in a true Light, together with a Description of the 
Town, Temper of the People, Antiquity of its customary Law, and Account of 
the Gentry inhabiting the Town, &c. 8vo. Halifax, 1761. 
Revenge upon Revenge, or an historical Narrative of the tragical Practices of Sir John 
Eland, of Eland, High Sheriff of the County of York^ &c. 8vo. Hali&z, 1761. 


Bibliotheca Anglo-Poetica, or a descriptive Catalogue of early English Poetry. 8vo. 
London, 1815. 
Bolton, Solomon. 

The Extinct Peerage of England ; containing a succinct Account of all the Peers whose 
Titles are expired : with their Descents, Marriages, and Issues, Offices in Govern- 
ment, and memorable Actions, from the Conquest to the Year 1769. 8vo. Lend. 


Border History. 

The Border History of England and Scotland v. Ridpatb, the Rev. Fhihp. 
Border Laws. 

Leges Marchiarum^ or Border Laws ; containing several original Articles and Treatiea 
made by the Commissioners of the respective Kings of England and Scotland, by 
William (Nicholson), Lord Bishop of Carlisle. 12mo. London, 1747. 
Bourne, Henrt, M. A. Curate of All Saints, Newcastle. 

Antiquitates Vulgares; or the Antiquities of the Common People, giving an Account 
of several of their Opinions and Ceremonies, &c. 8vo. Newcastle, 1725. 
Brand, John, M. A. F. S. A., &c. 

Observations on Popular Antiquities, chiefly illustrating the Origin of our vulgar Cus- 
toms, Ceremonies, and Superstitions ; with AddUtioss, Scc^ by Henry Ettis, F« R. S. 
4to. 2 vols. LoDdoD, 1813. 
Browne, Sir Thomas, M. D. 

Hydriopaphia ; or Urn Burial. Two Discourses of the Sepulchral Uras found in Hatr 
lUk, 1658 and 1667. 8vOb London, 17S6. 4th edition. 
Brtdson, Thomas, F. S. A. R 

A sunmary View of Heraldry in Reference to the Usages of Cbivahy, and tlie general 
Economy of the Feudal System. 8vo. London, 1795. 

CAirLAHpaR, John, of Craigforth* 

Two ancient Scottish Poems ) the Gaberlunaid Man^ and Ckristfs Kirk on the Green. 
8vo. Edinburgh, 1782. 

Canals, See Northumberland, County of. 

Chapman, William. 

Report on the Mewures to be attended to in the Survey of a Line of Navigation firom 

Newcastle upon Tyne to the Irish Channel. 8vo. Newcastle, 1796. 
Report on the proposed Navigation between the East and West Seas, so far as extends^ 

from Newcastle to Haydon Bridge. 8vo. Newcastle, 1795. 
Second Part of a Report on the proposed Navigation between the East and West Seas, 

^. from Haydon Bridge to Maryport. 8vo. Newcastle, 1795. 
Third and last Part of a Report on the proposed Navigation between the East and 

West Seas. 8vo. Newcastle, 1795. 
Posieript to Mr. Jessop's Report on the proposed Line of Navigation between New- 
castle and Maryport. 
Cheviot. — See Northumberland, County of. 

CoAfft, Jamm* . i_ V . 

A H^ Dictionary of Heraldry, explaining thfe Terins used in that Scienoe, with their 

Etymology, fte. 8vo. London, 17i5« 



CollectaDea Anglo-Minomtkia ; vt a CoOection'Of die J^Kliqoitiat t>f tbe fingUah Fran- 
ciscanB, or Frier's Minors, CfMomonly ealkd Grey Friers, in -tiro BmeIs, compiled 
and collected by A. P. 8vo. London, 1726. 
Collier, John. 

An Essay on Charters, in which eve partiettlarly considered 'those of Newoisftle, with 
Remarks on its Constitation, CustemsyandFranohises. 8vo« l^ewcastle, H??. 

Dassier, John. 

"Engravings and Explanation of Dessier's Mcdalsof die So f e re ig ne of England. Folio. 
London, 1707. 
Derby, County of. 

An Account of a large Silver Plate of antique Basso Relievo, Roman Workmanship, 
found in Derbyshire, 1729. 4to. London, 17S6. 
DfBDtK, Rev. Thomas Prookall, F. S. A. 

The Bibliomania, or Book-Madness; containing some Aecoimt of .the History, Symp- 
toms, and Cure of this fatal Disease. 8vo. London, 1809. 
DrroDALi, Sir William, Knight, Grarter Prindpa] King of Arms. 

The antient Usage in bearing of such Ensigns of Honour as are commonfy iadled Anns, 
wi^ a Catalogue of the present Nobili^ of England. To which is added, a Cata- 
logue of the present Nobility of Scotland and Ireland, &c. Idno. Qacford, 1682. 
Durham, County of. 

A View of the City of Durham and its Environs. 12kno. Durham, 18IS. 
The Legend of St. Cuthbert, with the Antiquities of the Church Qf.Durham».Mni#d 
and corrected, with explanatory Notes and Illustrations: to which is piefixed, a 
concise Account of Robert H^^e, the Author, by John Broij^ Taylor» F* S. A. 
4to. 'Sunderiand, ISlS^^Pntented by Mr. Tayhr. 

Sdoar, John Foy, Esq. 

Catalogue of his Greek and Roman Coins, sold by Leigh and Sothdby, 1815. 8vo.— 
Pr$senied by Mr. John Adanwm. 
Gerrard, Johannes, Eccles. Anglican. Presbyter Londinens. 

Sigterium Romanum ; sive Explicatio Notarum ac Literarum, quss hacteaus reperiri 
potuerunt, in Marmoribus, Lapidibus, Nummis, Auetoribus, aliisque Romanorum 
Veterum Relequiis, ordine alphabetico distributa. 4to. Londini, 1792. 

G«Arr0K, RiOHARD. 

Chronicle, or the History of England, to which is added, his Table of the Bailiflfe, 
Sfaerifi, and Mayors of the City of London, from the Year 1189 to 1558, inclu- 
sive. Svols. 4to. London, 1809. 



Graham, Dougal. 

An impartial History of the Rise, Progress, and Extinction of the hie Rebeffion in 
Britain, written in verse. 18mo. Glasgow, 1787. 
Greece. — See Pausanias. 
Grew, Nehemiah, M. D. F. R. S. 

Mussum Hegalis Societatis; or a Catalogue and Description of the Natural and Arti- 
ficial Rarities belonging to the Royal Society, and preserved at Gresham College. 
Folio. London, 1681. 
GuiLLiM, John, Pursuivant at Arms. 

A Display of Heraldry, the 6th edition, improved; to which is added, a TreaUse of 
Honour, military and civil, according to the I^ws and Customs of England; by 
Captain John Loggan. Folio. London, 1724. 

Hardtkg, Johk. 

The Chronicle of John Hardyng, containing an Account of the public Transactions, 
from the earliest Period of English History to the beginning of the Reign of King 
Edward the Fourth ; together with the Continuation by Richard Grafton, to the 
thirty-fourth Year of King Henry the Eighth; the former part collated, with two 
Manuscripts of the Author's own Time, with Grafton's Duplicate Edition : to 
which are added, a Biographical and Literary Preface, and an Indez^by Henry 
Ellis, F. R. S. 4to. London, 1812. 
Hegoe, Robert. 

Legend of St. Cuthbert, — see Taylor, J. B. and Durham, County of. 
Henderson, Andrew. 

Hbtory of the Rebellion, 1745 and 1746. 12mo. London, 1755. 
Heraldry, System of. 

A Synopsis of Heraldry, or the most plain, short, and easy Way for the perfect attain- 
ing of that Art. 18mo. London, 1682. 

The Coats of Arms of devirs Gentlemen of England blazon'd ; some in Colours, otbeii 
with planetary Blazon. 18mo. London, 1682. 

A Display of Heraldry, by John Guillim, Pursuivant at Arms. The sixth Edition, 
improved. Folio. London, 1724. 

Le Blason des Armoiries, auquel est monstr^e la Maoi&re de la quelle les anciens et 
modemes ont usk en icelles. Folio. Lyons, 1 58 1 • 

Elements of Heraldry, by M. Forney. 8vo. London, 1777. 

A new Dictionary of Heraldry, explaining the Terms used in that Science, with their 
Etymology » &c. by James Coats. 8vo. London, 1725* 

A summary View of Heraldry, ia Reference to the Usages of Chivalry, and the gene- 
ral Economy of the Feudal System, by Thomas Brydson, F.S. A. E*. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1795. 


Hbraldrt, Ststsm of* 

Notitia Anglicana, shewing the Atchtevements of all the English Nobility complete, Ac, 
Engraved by ' Gardiner. 8vo. London, 1724. 

HoRKB, Thomas Hartwbll. 

An Introduction to the Study of Bibliography; to which is prefixed, a Memoir on the 
public Libraries of the Antients. 2 vols. 8vo. London, I8I4f. 
HuTCBiNsoN, William, F. A. S. 

The History of the County of Cumberland and some Places adjacent, from the earliest 
AccounU to the present Time. 2 vols. 4to. Carlisle, 1794. 
HuTTON, William, F. A. S. 

Lifo of WilUam Hutton, F. A. S. S. including a particular Account of the RioU at 
Birmingham in 1791 • Written by himself. Svo. London, 1816. 

Jambs the Sixth. 

Historie and Life of King James the Sext, written towards the latter Part of tb^ six- 
teenth Century. Svo. Edinburgh, 4804. 
Jamisson, Robert, A. M. and F. S. A. 

Popular Ballads and Songs from Tradition, Manuscripts, and scarce Editions. 2 vols. 
8vo. Edinburgh, 1806. 
Jbssop, William. 

Report on the proposed Line of Navigation between Newcastle and Maryport Svo. 
Newcastle, 1795. 

Lasket, Captain J., L. S. H. S. &c. 

A general Account of the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow. Including historical and 

scientific Notices of the various Objects of Art, Literature, Natural History, 

Anatomical Preparations, Antiquities, &c. in that celebrated Collection. Svo. 

Glasgow, 1813. 
Lovat, Lord, Life o^ — see Arbuthnot, Rev. Archibald* 
Lowndes, W. 

The regulating Silver Coin made practicable and easie to the Government and Sub- 

ject, humbly submitted to the Consideration of both Houses of Parliament, by a 

Lover of his Country, 8vo. London, 1696. 

Macpherson, Jambs. 

Original Papers; containing the Secret History of Great Britain from the Restoration 
to the Accession of the House of Hanover : to which are prefixed. Extracts from 
the Life of James H. as written by himself. 2 vols. 4to. London,. 1775. 


Moore, Sir Thomas, Lord Chancellor of EDgland. 

The Historie of the pitifiil (ofe and unfortunate Death of Edward the Fifth, and the 
then Duke of York, his Brother; wHh the troublesome and tyrannic Govern- 
meat of usurping Richard the Third, and his miserable End. 18mo. London, 
The tragicall Historie of the Life and Reigne of Richard the Third. 18mo. London, 


Some Particulars of the Life and Death of DaVid Riccio, chief Favourite of Mary, 

Queen of Scots. 4to. London, reprinted 1815. 
An Account of a Quarrel between Arthur Hall, Esq. and Meldnaedeck Mallerie, Gent. 

4to. 1579. London, reprinted 1815. 
An Account of the Christmas Prince as it was exhibited in the University of Oxford 

in the Year 1607. London, 1815. 
Old Meg of Herefordshire for a Mayd Marian, and Hereford Towne for a Morris 

Daunce, or 12 Morris Dancers in Herefordshire of 1200 Years old. 4to. 1609* 

London, reprinted 1815. 
The Cold Yeare, 1614. A deepe Snow in which Men and Cattel have perished to the 

general losse. 4to. 1615. Reprinted 1815. 
The Life of Long Meg of Westminster, containing the mad Merry Pranks she played 

in her life Time. 4to. London, 1635. Reprinted 1815. 
The fiunous Historie of Fryer Bacon, containing the wonderful Things that he did in 

his Life; also the Manner of his Death. 4to. London. Reprinted 1815. 

NxwcASTLE UPON Ttke, Canal Rxports,— 400 Northumberland, County of. 
Newcastle upon Tyne, — see Northumberland, County of. 
NiCHoirsoK, William, D. D. Bishop of Carlisle. 

Leges Marchiarum, or Border Laws, containing several original Artides and Treaties 
made by the Commissioners of the respective Kfaigs of England and Scotland, Arc 
Ac. 12mo. London, 1747. 
Noble, The Rev. Mark, F. S. A. 

Memoirs of the Protectorate House of CromwelL 2 vob. 8vo. Birmingham, 1784. 


Topographical and statistical Description of the County of Northumberland, by George 
Alexander Cooke. 18mo. London, 1812. 

The History of Alnwick, the County Town of Northumberiand. 8vo. Ahiwick, 1813. 

An impartial History of the Town and County of Newcastle iipon Tyne and its Vici- 
nity, Ac Sec. by the Rev. — — Baiflie. 8vo. Newcastle, 1801. 

Cheviot, a poetical Fragment, containing Notices of the principal Places in Northum- 



beriasd, md the Ektinatfoa in which their reepective FoMessora (at the Time iir 

which it was written) were held, by R, W. 8vo. Newcasde, 1817. — Presented 

&y Mr, John Adamson, 
TlipcMft on the Measures to be atteaded to in the ^rrey of a Line of Navigation from 

Newcastle upon Tyne to the Irish Channel, by William Chapman. 8vo. New- 

castle, 1796. 
Ref»rt oa the proposed Navigation between the East and West Seas, so fkr as extends 

from Newcastle to Haydon Bridge, by William Chapman. 8vo. Newcastle, 1795. 
Second Part of a Report on the proposed Navigation between the East and West Seas,. 

viz. from Haydon Bridge to Maryport, by William Chapman. Svo. Newcastle, 

llird and last Part of a Report oa the proposed Navigation between the East and 

West Seas, by William Chapman. 8vo. Newcastle, 1795. 
Report on the proposed Line of Navigation between Newcastle and Maiyport, by 

WiUiam Jessop. 8vo. ^towcasUe, 1795* 
Mr. Chapman's Postscript to Mr. Jessop's Report. Hk 
PoD at the Election of Members for Newcastle in 1741.. 8vo. Newcastlle, 1741. 

White, Printer. 
The same^ Cuthbert, Printer. 
The Contest: bdng an Account of the Blatter in Dispute between the Magistrates 

and Burgesses at the Election in 1774. 8vo. Newcastle 1774.. 
The Burgesses' Poll at the Election of BDembers far Newcastle m 1774. 8vo. New- 
castle, 1774. 
The same. Second Edition. 8vo. 1775. 

Poll at the Election for Newcastle in 1774. Svo. PriatedbySamt, Newcastle, 18 1774. 
An Essay on Charters, in which are partieularly eansidered those ef Newcastle, with 

Remarks on its Constitution, Customs, and Franchises, by John Collier. Svo. 

NewcasUe, 1777. 
Poll at the Election of a Burgess to serve in Parliament for Newcastle in 1777. Svo. 

Newcastle, 1777. 
Pdtt at the Election for Meeobers to serve m Pftrlianent for New^istle in 178a Sro. 

Newcastle, 1780. 


Oxonia Antique Restaurata, S Nos. by Joaeph SkelloB«^*3*e ie ^miimted. 

Patten, Rbv. Robert* 

The History of the late Rebellioiit with original Papers aad Characters of the principal 
Noblemen and Gentlemen doncemed in it» Svq* London, 1717* 



The DescriptioD of Greece, by Pausanias, translated from the Greek, with Notes. 3 
vols. Svo* London, 1794*. 


Recueil de Medailles de Rois qui n*ont point encore M publi£es, ou qui sont peu 

conDues. 4to. ^ Paris, 17G2. 
Perct, Thomas, D. D. Bishop of Dromore. 

Reliques of Andent English Poetiy, congisting of old Heroic Ballads, Songs, and other 

Piecesof our earlier Poets. Svo. 3 vols« 1812. 


Elements of Heraldry. Svo. London, 1777. 
Pridsaux, Humphrey, CEdis Christ! Alumnus. 

Marmora Oxoniensia ex Arundellianis, Seldenianis, aliisque conflata, reoensuit, et 
perpetuo Commentario explicavit Humphridus Prideaux, CEdis Christi alumnus, 
4ippo8itls ad eorum nonnulla Seldini et Lydlati Annotationibus, accessit Serterii 
Ursati Patavini de Notis Romanorum Commentarius. Oxonii, e Theatre Shd- 
doniano, 1676. Folia 

Ray, J., M. A. F. R. S. 

A Collection of English Proverbs, digested into a convenient Method fbr the speedy 

Ending any one upon occasion, with Annotations. 12mo. Cambridge, 1678. 
Rat, Jambs, of Whitehaven. 

A compleat History of the Rebellion, firom its first Rise in 1745 to its total Suppression 

in 1746, &c. 12mo. London, 1758. 
Rbbbllion op 1715. 

The History of the late Rebdlion, with original Papers and Characters of the prindpal 

Noblemen and Gentlemen concerned in it, by Robert Patten* Svo. London, 1717* 
Rebbluon of 1745. 

History of the Rebellion in 1745 and 1746, by Andrew Henderson. Itoo. London, 

The History of the Rebellion in 1745 and 1746, extracted irom the Scots Magazine, 

with an Appendix, containing an Account of the Trials of the Rebels, the Pre- 
tender's Declarations, &c. 12roo« Aberdeen, 1755. 
An impartial History of the Rise, Progress, and Extinction of the late Rebellion in 

Britain. Written in verscy by Dougal Graham. 18mo. Glasgow, 1787. 
Compleat History of the Rebellion, from its first ^ise in 1745 to its total Suppression 

in 1746, &c. &c. by James Ray, of Whitehaven. 12mo. London, 1758. 
Ascanius, or the Young Adventurer, containing an impartial History of the Rebellion 

in Scotland in the Years 1745 and 1746. 12mo. Edinburgh, 181^ 


The Life, Adventures, and many and great Vicissitudes of Fortune of SnndHj Ldr3 
Lovaty the Head of the Fatally of fra^r/ &c. Bf t)ie RW. Arclubatd Arbtithnot, 
12mo. London, 1746. 
A brief Account of the Life and Family of Misb.!reiin^(^nieron;&c« 12mo. London, 
RiDPATH, The Rev. Philip. 

The Border Historjr of England and l^odand, JedWced from the earliedt Timet to the 
Union of the two Crowns, by the late JR,eV. George Ridpatb ; revised and pub- 
lished by the Author's Brother. 4*to. Loniion, 1776. 
RuDiNG, The Rev. Rogers, B. D. F. S. A. &c* 

Annals of the Coinage of Britain and its Dependencies, from the eorHeiBt Penbd <tf 
authentic History to t6e JBnd olf the fiftieth Year of the Rei|(h dt iia j^resent 
Majesty King George IIL 4 vols. 4to. London, 1817. 


The History of Tythes. 4to. 1618. 
Skslton, Joseph. 

Oxonia Antiqua restaurata. S Nos. 4to. 
Bpxlman, Sir Henry, Kmight. 

Villare Anglicanum; or a View of all tiie Cities, Towns^ ktid VWk^es'^ aijAiabeticany 
composed, so that naming any Town or Place you may readily ffiifl in Wlmt Shire, 
Hundred, Rape, Warpentake, &c. it fs. 2i Edidbn^ corrected and amended. 
8vo. London, 1678. 

The Acts of Parliament of Scotland, Vol. IV. l^rinted by Cbinma^d of his Majesty 
King George the Third, in' pursuance of an Address of the House of Commons of 
Great Britain. Folio. 1816. — Presented by the Rev, John Hodgson. 
Inquisitionum ad Capellam Domini Regis Retomatarum quae in publicis Archivis 
Scotise adhuc servantur Abbreviatio. 3 vols. Folio. 1811. Printed in pursuance 
of said address. — Presented by Ditto. 
Stukeley, William. 

An Account of a large Silver Plate, of Antique Basso Relievo, Roman Workmanship, 
found in Derbyshire, 1729. 4to. London, 17S6. 
SuTCLiFFE, John. 

Report on the proposed Line of Navigation from Stella to Hexham, on the South Side 

oftheTyne. 8vo. Newcastle, 1796. 
Report on the Line of Navigation from Hexham to Haydon Bridge* 8vo. Newcastle, 




The Legend of Saint Cuthbert, with the Antiquitiei of the Church of Durham, revised 
and corrected, with explanatory Notes and Illustrations ; to which is prefixed, a 
concise Account of Robert Hegge, the Author. 4to. Sunderland, 1816«— iVe- 
sented hy the Editor, 
ToRR, Jambs. 

Antiquities of York City, and the Ciyil Government thereof, with a List of all the 
Mayors and Bayliflfe, Lord Mayors and Sheri£G^ from the lime of King Edward 
the First. 8vo. York, 1719. 

Warnbr, Thb Rev. Richard. 

An Attempt to ascertain the Situation of the ancient Clausentum. 4to. London, 1792. 
Whitworth, Robert. 

Report on the proposed Line of Navigation from Stella to Haydon Bridge, on ^the 
South Side of Tyne. 8vo. Newoastle, 1797. 

York, County of. 

Hali&x and its Gibbet Law placed in a true Ligbt> together with a Description of the 

Town, Temper of the People, Antiquity of its Customary Law, and an Account 

of the Gentry inhabiting the Town, drc. Svo. Hali&x, 1761. 
Revenge upon Revenge, or an historical Narrative of the tragical Practices of Sir John 

Eland, of Eland, High Sheriff of the County of York. Svo. Halifax,. 1761. 
Eboracuro, or the History and Antiquities of the City of York, from its Origin to this 

Time, with an Account of the Ainsty or County of the same, and a History of the 

Cathedral, &c. 2 vols. Svo. York, 1788. 
Antiquities of York City and the Civil Government thereof by James Torr. York, 








The Socibtt of Antiquaribs or Londoh. 
AmcHAOLooiA. Vol. XVIII. Part IL, VoL XIX. and Index to the first l^VoIumei. 
4to. London, 1817—1822. 

Baebr, Rev. Thomas, St. John's Collbob, Cambriogb. 

Reflections upon Learning, wherein is shewn the InsoflkJency thereof in. its seferal 
Particulars, in Order to evince the Usefulness and Necessity of Rerelation, by a 
Gentleman. 8to. London, nW^^PrescfUed by the Rm>. Jot- Cook^ Nentam. 
The Funeral Sermon of Margaret Countess of Richmond and Derby, Mother to King 
Henry VII. and Foundress of Christ's and St. John's College, in Cambridge. 
8vo, London, IJOS^^^Presented by the Rev. Jos. Cook. 
Bbtham, Thb Rbv. William. 

The Baronetage of England, or the History of the English Baronets^ and such 
Baronets of Scotland as are of English Families ; with Grenealogical Tables, Ac 
5 vols. 4to. Ipswich, 1801—1805. 
BoNNBT, The Rev. H. K. see Northampton, County oL 
Brittov, John, F. S. A. see Stafford, County o£ 
Brockett, John Trotter, F. S. A. 

An Essay on the Means of Distinguishing Antique from Counterfeit Coins and Me- 
dals, translated from the French of M. Beauvais, with Notes and Dlustrations, by 
John Trotter Brockett, F. A. S. 8vo. Newcastle, 18ia 
A Catalogue of Books and Tracts, printed at the Private Press of George Allan, Esq. 

F. S. A. (By J. T. B.) 8vo. Newcastle, 1818. 
The Episcopal Coins of Duriuun,. and the Monastic Coins of Reading, minted during 


Baockett, John Trotter, F. S. A. 

the Reigns of Edward I. II. and IIL appropriated to their respective Owners, by 
the late Benjamin Bartlett, F. A. S. A new Edition, with Notes and Illustrations, 
by John Trotter Brockett. 8yo. Newcastle, 1817* 

Brockett, J* T., — see Reprints. 

Carlbton, George, Bishop of Chichester. 

The Life of Bernard Gilpiflt% Man most holy and renowned among the Northeme 
English, fiiithfully written by the Right Reverend Father in God George Carle- 
ton, Lord Bishop of Chichester. ISmo. London, ISSS.'-Presented by fFiUiam 
Taylor^ Esq. 
Charles I. 

Reliquis Sacrae Carolinse, or the Works of that Great Monarch and Glorious Martyr 
King Charles I. S2mo. Hague, 1657. ^Presented by Wm. Taylor^ Esq. 
Charles II. 

Boscobely or the Complete History of his Sacred Majesties Most Miraculous Preser- 
vation after the Battle of Worcester, 3d Sept., 1651. 12u)o. London, 1680. — 
Presented by Wm, Taylor^ Esq. 
Combe, Taylor, Esq. 

A Description of the Collection of Ancient Marbles in the British Museum, with En- 
gravings* Parts III. and IV. 4*to. 

Durham, County of. 

The Heraldic Visitation of the County Palatine of Durham, in the Year of our Lorde 
God, 1575, by William Flower, Esq. Norroy King of Arms, &c. Folio. New- 
castle, 1820* 

The Visitation of the County Palatine of Duresme, taken by Richard St. George, Esq. 
in the Yeare of our Lord, 1615. Folio. Sunderland, 1820. 

Statuta et Ordinationes Ecclesiae Cathedralis Christ! et Beats Mariae Virginis Dunelm, 
M* S. Foolscap folio. — Presented by Wm. Taylor^ Esq. 

An Enquiry into the Ancient and Present State of the County Palatine of Durham, 
&c by John Spearman, Esq« 4to. 1729* — Presented by Wm. Taylor^ Esq. 

The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham, compiled from Origi- 
nal Records, preserved in public Repositories and private Collections. Illustrated 
by Engravings, by Robert Surtees, Esq. Vol. II. Folio. London, 1820. 

A Historical and Descriptive View of the Parishes of Monkwearmouth and Bishop- 
wearmouth, and the Port and Borough of Sunderland. 8vo. Sunderland, 1819. 
^^Presented by Mr. Garbutt^ the Author of this Work. 

Survey of Uie Milbank Estates— the County of Durham. Folio, 1822 — Presented by 
Mr. John Bell. 


EngravincSs, Drawings, &c. 

Two Plans of Tiomouth Castle, copied from the Originals in the British Museum* 
A Map of the Country round Scarborough, by Robert Knox. 1821* 

Flowbr, William, Esq.,— see Durham, County of. 

FuMiB, Mart. 

The Historic of the Troubles of Huogariet containing the Pitiful Losse and Ruine of 
that Kingdome, and the Warres happened there in that time, betweene the 
Christians and Turkes. By Mart. Fumee, Lord of Genille, &c. translated out of 
the French, by R. C, Gent. Folio. l660.'^Pre9ented &y Mr. Robt. Thompson, 

Garbut, Georoe, — see Durham, County of. 
Gbd, William, — see Printing. 

HoDosoif , THR Rev. John,— see Northumberland, County of. 
HoDOSON, Thomas,^ — see Printing. 
Holtrood House, — see Scotia. 
Hunter, Joseph, — see York, County of. 

Jamibson, John, D, D. 

The Bruce and Wallace, published from two ancient Manuscripts, preserved in the 
Library of the Faculty of Advocates. 2 vols. 4to. Edmburgh, 18^. 

Kbnnet, White, D. D. 

A Sermon preached at the Funeral of the Right Noble William Duke of Devonshire, 
in the Church of All Hallows, in Derby, on Friday, Septemb. 5th, MDCCVH., 
with some Memoirs of the FamUy of Cavendish, by White Kennct, D. D., Arch- 
deacon of Huntingdon. 8vo. London, noS.-^Preiented by the Rev. William 

Lambe, Rev. Robert. 

An Exact and Circumstantial History of the Batde of Floddon, in Verse, by Robert 
Lambe, Vicar of Norham upon Tweed. 8vo. Berwick, 1774. — Presented by 
Wm. Taylor f Esq. 
LiTHGoWy William. 

Lithgow's Nineteen Years Travels through the Most Eminent Places in the Habitable 
World. 8vo. London, l692.'^Presented by Wm. Taylor, Esq. 
LiTHGOWy William,— see Newcastle upon Tyne, Town and County of. 




Camera Regb, or a View of Loadon. l2mo*^Preiented by Mr. Roht. Thompson. 
Select Views of London and ito Environs, containing a Collection of highly finished 
Engravings, from Original Paintings and Drawings, accompanied by Copious 
Letter-press Descriptions of such Objects in the Metropolis and the surrounding 
Country as are most remarkable for Antiquity, Architectural Grandeur, or Pic- 
turesque Beauty. 4to. London, ISO^^^Presented by L Coohon, Esq. New- 

Mackenzie, Sir George. 

The Antiquity of the Royal Line of Scotland further cleared and defended against the 
Exceptions lately ofiered by Dr. Stillingfleet in his Vindication of the Bishop of 
St. Asaph, by Sir George Mackenzie. 8vo* London, l68S.^Presented by Mr. 
Robert Thompson. 
Museum, British. 

Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum. 8vo. London, ISlS.-^Presented 
by Mr. John Bell^ Newcastk. 


Table of Dates for the Use of Genealogists and Antiquaries, printed by T. Moule, 
Duke-Street, Grosvenor-Square. l2mo.^Presented by Mr. Thomas Bell, 

Newcastle upon Tyne, Town and County op. 

A CoUection of Armorial Bearings, Inscriptions, &c. in the Church of St. Nicholas, 

Newcastle, by M. A. Richardson. 2 vols, in 1. 8vo. Newcastle, 1820. 
A Collection of Armorial Bearings, Inscriptions, &c in the Parochial Chapel of St. 

Andrew, Newcastle, by M. A. Richardson. 8vo. Newcastle, 1818. 
Hints on the Propriety of Establishing a Typographical Society, in Newcastle upon 

Tyne, by J. T. B. 8vo. Newcastle, \S\S.^Presented by the Typographical Society. 
His Majesties passing through the Scots Armie, as also his Entertainment by General 

Lesly ; together with the Manner of the Scots Marching out of Newcastle. 

Printed in the Yeare 1641. Reprinted. 8vo. Newcastle, lS90.^Presented by 

Mr. J. T. Brockett. 
An Account of the Great Floods, in the Rivers Tyne, Tees, Wear, Eden, &c. in 1771 

and 1815 ; to which is added, an Account of the Irruption of Solway Moss, by 

W. G. 8vo. Newcastle, 1818. ' 

An Experimental and Exact Relation upon that Famous and Renowned Siege of New- 
castle, by William Lithgow. Edinburgh, 1645. Newcastle, Reprinted. 8vo. 



Newcastle upon Tyne, Town and County op. 

Chorograpbia, or a Survey of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1649, by W. G. 8vo. New- 
castle, 1818. 

The Poll at the Election of Members of Parliament for the Town and County of New- 
castle upon Tyne, in March, 1820. 8vo. Newcastle, 1890. 
Northampton, County of. 

Historic Notices in Reference to Fotheringhay. 8vo. Oundle, 1821. 
Northumberland, County of. 

A History of Northumberland, in three Parts, by John Hodgson, Clerk, Perpetual 
Curate of Jarrow, with Heworth. Vol. V., being the first Volutne of Part III., 
containing Ancient Records and Historical Papers. 4to. Newcastle, 1820. 
Large and small paper. 

A Complete Collection of all the Papers which have appeared from the difierent Par- 
ties in the present Contest for Members for the County of Northumberland. 8vo. 
Newcasde, 1774. — Presented by Mr. N. J. PhUipson^ Netocastk. 

The Marriage of the Coquet and the Alwine, a Poem. 8vo. Newcastle, 1817* 
Edited by J. Adamsbn. 

Vallum Romanum ; or, the History and Antiquities of the Roman Wall, commonly 
called the Picts Wall, in Cumberland and Northumberland, built by Hadrian, and 
Severus, the Roman Emperors, &c., by John Warburton, Esq., Somerset Herald 
and F. R. S. 4to. London, 1753. — PruetUed hy W. L. Rogers^ Esq. London. 


Letters from Orinda to Poliarchus. 8vo. London, 1705. — Presented by William 
Taylor^ Esq. 

Oxonia Antiqua Restaurata, by Jas. Skelton. — Continued. 

Patin, Charles, M. D. 

Travels through Germany, Bohemia, Swisserland, Holland, and other Parts of Europe, 
describing the most considerable Citys and the Pftlaces of Princes, by Charles 
Patin, D.D. 12mo. London, IGdH. ^Presented by Wtn. Taylor^ Esq. 

An Essay on the Origin and Progress of Stereotype Printing, including a Description 

of the various Processes, by Thomas Hodgson. 8vo. Newcastle, 1820. 
A Memoir on the Origin of Printing, in. a Letter addressed to John Topham, Esq. 

F. R. and A. SS., by Ralph Willett, F. R. and A. SS. 8vo. Newcastle, 1830. 
Biographical Memoirs of William Ged, including a particular Account of his Progress 
in the A rt of Block Printing. 8vo. Newcastle, 1819. 



An Hittorical Essay on the Origin of Printing, translated from the French of M. de la 
Sema, Santander, by T. H. 8to, Newcastle, 1819. 
PaoBsmT, William. 

The Gododin and the Odes of the Months, translated firom the Welch by William 
Probert. Svo. Alnwick, 1820. 


Three Biographical Tracts, edited by John Trotter Brockett, F. S. A. containing 

An exact Narrathre of the Life and Death of the Reverend and Learned Prelate 

and Painful Divine Lancelot Andrews, late Bishop of Winchester. 8vo. 1817. 

A short View of the long Life and Reigne of Henry the Third, King of England. 

A Remembrance of the Honours due to the Life and Death of Robert Earl of 
Salisbury, Lord Treasurer of England. 1818.* 
Lithgow's Siege of Newcastle, — see Newcastle. 
His Majesty's passing through Newcastle,— see Newcastle. 
Chorographia, — see Newcastle. 
Willett's Letter, — see Printing. 
Richardson, M. A. — see Newcastle, Town and County of. 

Robert thb Dbvyil, a metrical Romance, from an ancient Oluminated Manuscript. 8vo. 
London, 1798.— (Edited by J. Heri>ert.) — Presented by Mr. Nick. J. Philipsan. 
RuDD, Thomas, Captain and Engineer to ms late Majesty. 

Euclid's Elements of Geometry, the first VI. Books in a compendious form, contracted 
and. demonstrated by Captain Thomas Rudd. 4to. London, 1651. — Presented 
by Wm. Taylor^ Esq. 

St. Gborgb, Richard, Esq. — see Durham, County of. 
Santander, M. db la Sbrna,— see Printing. 
Saqb, Life of. 

The Life of the Reverend and Learned Mr. John Sage. 8vo. Bound with Mackenzie's 
Royal Line of Scotland. — Presented by Afr. Robert Thompson* 

Historical Description of the Monastery and Chapel Royal of Holyrood House, with 
an Account of the Palace and Environs. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1819. — Presented by 
Mr. Nicholas Wood, Killingworth. 
Spbarmam, John, Esq.— see Durham, County oH 

Speeches against the Bill for repealing the Triennial Act, as they were spoken in the 


House of Commons the 24th day of April, 1716. Folio. 1716, Londoiu— >Pfe- 
ienled by Mr. J. Bell. 

Stafford, County of. 

The History and Antiquities of the See and Cathedral Churchy of Litchfield, &c.^ by 
John Britton, F. S. A* 4Co. London, 19120^-^PresefUed &y Sir J. E. Swinburne f 

The Acu of Parliament of Scotland, Vols. V. VL VII. VIII. and IX. Folio— 
Presented btf the Rev. John Hodgson. 
Straker, John. 

Memoirs of the public Life of Sir Walter Bkudcett, of Wallington, Baronet, with a 
Pedigree of the Calverieys, of Calverley, and the Blacketts, of Newcastle. 8vo. 
Newcastle, 1819. 
Sturmius, Johannes Christofhorus. 

CoUegiii Experimentale sive Curiosum. in quo Primaria hujus Seculi Inventa, &c 4to. 
Norimberge, l676.^Presented by Mr. John Bell. 

Warburton, L Esq.— see Northumberiand, County of. 
WuiTAKER, Thos. Dunham, LL.D.^-see York, County o£ 
WiLCocK, THE Rev. Peter. 

The Lives of Benedict, Ceolfrid, Easterwine, Segirid, and Huetbert, the first five 
Abbots of the united Monastery of Wearmouth and Jarrow, translated from the 
Latin of Venerable Bede by the Rev. Peter Wilcock. Svo. Sunderland, 1818. 
— Presented by Mr, N. J. Philipson. 
WiLLETT, Ralph, Esq. F.R. and A.SS. — see Printing. 
York, County of. 

Hallamshire, the History and Topography of the Parish of Sheffield, in the County of 

York, Ac, by Joseph Hunter. Folio. London, 1819. 
A General History of the County of York, by the Rev. Thos. Dunham Whitaker, 
LL.D.F.S.A. Folio. 6 Parts.— Conftnti^i/. 






i&Sittx^ of t|)t ^OCt(t^t 




Vice Presidents, 
Bart. } C. W. BIGGE, Esq. 




Mr. J. T. Brockett, F. S. A. 

Mr. Thomas Hodgson, 

Mr. Thomas Bell, 

Mr. John Murray, 

Mr. John Stanton, 

Rev. Anthony Hedley, M. A. 

Mr. E. Chamley, 
Rev. William Turner, 
Mr. Thomas Davidson, 
Mr. I. Cookson, Sen. 
Rev. Chas. Thorpe, B. D. 
Dr. Headlam. 








Vice Presidents, 
Bart. | JAMES LOSH. Esq. 



Mr. Thos. Davidson 
Mr. Murray 
Mr. Loggan 
Rev. W. Turner 
Mr. Brumell 
Mr. Stephenson 
Rev. J. CoUinson 
Mr. J. Forster 
Mr. Stanton 
Mr. Dickson 
Mr. Charnley 
Mr. Brockett. 


Mr. Brumell 
Rey. J. CoUinson 
Mr. Thos. Davidson 
Mr. Murray 
Rev. W. Turner 
Mr. Stanton 
Mr. Dickson 
Mr. Charnley 
Mr. Brockett 
Rev. H. Salvin 
Mr. J. Fenwick 
Mr, W. Clarke. 

Mr. Thos. Davidson 
Mr* Brockett 
Mr. Murray 
Mr. Stanton 
Mr. J. Forster 
Mr. Dickson 
Mr. Thos. Bell 
Rev. W. Turner 
Mr. W. Clarke 
Mr. Charnley 
Mr. Brumell 
Rev. J. CoUinson. 


Mr, John Adamson, F. S. A, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

George Allan^ Esq. F. S. A. Blackwell Grange, Durham. 

M. Atkinson, Esq. Carrshill, Durham. 

Mr. John Bell, Newcastle upon Tyne. 
5 Mr. Thomas Bell, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Mr. William Bell, Gilsland, Northumberland. 

C. W. Bigge, Esq. Linden, Northumberland. 

Mr. J. T, Brockett, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Mr. John Brumell, Newcastle upon Tyne. 
10 Mr. John Buddie, Wallsend, Northumberland. 

William Burrell, Esq. Broome Park, Northumberland. 

Mr. Emerson Chamley, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Mr. William Clarke, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Rev. Robert Clarke, Hexham, Northumberland. 
15 N. Clayton, Esq. Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Rev. Joseph Cook, Newton. 

I. Cookson, Esq. Newcastle upon Tyne. 

[. Cookson, jun. Esq» Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Lieut. Col. Coulson, Blenkinsopp Castle, Northumberland. 
20 Mr. Charles Cradock, London. 

H. Cramlington, Esq. Newcastle upon Tyne. 

M. CuUey, Esq. Akeld, Northumberland. 

Thomas Davidson, Esq. Newcastle upon Tyne. 

W. Dent, Esq. Shortflatt, Northumberland. 
25 Mr. J. Dobson, Architect, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Mr. A. Donkin, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Rev. James Edmondson, Newburn, Northumberland. 

Mr. J. Fairbairn, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Mr. Thomas Fen wick, Dipton, Durham. 
30 George Forster, Esq. Newcastle upon Tyne. 

George Gibson, Esq. Stagshaw, Northumberland. 

Mr. William GreenweH, Ford, Durham. 

Sir R. S. Hawks, Knt. Newcastle upon Tyne. 

T. E. Headlam, M. D. Newcastle upon Tyne. 
35 Rev. A. Hedley, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Rev. John Hodgson, HeworUn Durham. 

Mr. Thomas Hodgson, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Rev. N. J. Hollingsworth, Haltwhistte, Northumberland. 

J. C. Jobling, Esq. Newton Hall, Northumberland. 
40 Joseph Lamb, Esq. Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Mr. M. Lambert, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Mr. William Laws, Prudhoe, Northumberland. 

James Losh, Esq. Jesmond, Northumberland. 

B. Mitford, Esq. Mitford Castle, Northumberhmd. 
45 Sir C. M. L. M. Monck, j^rt. Belsay Castle^ Northumberland. 

Mr. William Moore, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Mr. John Murray, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

His Grace the Duke of Northumbel^land, K. G. Alnwick Castle, 

Mr. William Peters, Newcastle upon Tyne. 
50 Mr. N. J. Philipson, Newcastle upon Tyne 

Rev. J. Raine, Durham. 

Mr. D. Reid, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

William Lorance Rogers^ Esq. London. 

Mr. Isaac Robson, Dipton. 
55 Mr. J. W. Sanders, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

P. J. Selby, Esq. Twizell House, Northumberland. 

Sir D. W. Smith, Barfc. Alnwick, Northumberland. 

J. Smart, Esq. Trewhitt, NorthumberlancL 

Mr. John Stanton, Benwell, Northumberland. 
* 60 R. Surtees, Esq. F. S. A« Mainsforth, Durham. 

Sir J. E. Swinbupde, Bbrt.. F. S. A. (l^alpheaton^ Northumberland. 

E. Swinburne, sen. Esq. Capheaton, Northumberland. 

Mr. William Thom«B, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Mr. Robert Thompson, Newcastle upon Tyne. 
65 Rev. C Thorp, Ryton, Durham. 

John Tr^elyan, Esq. Wdlington, Northumberland. 

Rev. William Turner, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Mr. Thomas Wailes, Newcastle upon Tyne. 

John Walker, Esq. Wallsend, Northumberland. 
70 John Waldie, Esq. Newcastle uJ)on Tytie. 

J. A. WHkie, £sq» Hetton^ Northumberland. 

Mr. Jos. Willis, Gateshead, Durham. 

R. Wilson^ Esq* London. 


The Ekrl of Aberdeen. 

William Benthaita, Esq. 

Mr. T. Bewick. 

R. Bigland, Esq. 
5 Rev. J. Boustead, B. D. 

John Britton, Esq. F. S. A. 

N. Carlisle, Esq. 

John Caley^ Esq. F. S. A. 

The Connt de Chassenon, Paris. 
10 T. Combe, Esq. 

Sir H. Davy, Knt. 

Shute, Lord Bishop of Durham. 

Sir H. C. Englefield, Bart. 

F. Freeling, Esq. 
15 James Gooden, Esq. 

M. Gregson, Esq. 

The Earl Grey. 

Sir William Hamilton, Bart. 

W. Hamper, Esq. 

20 Mr. D. Hawks. 

R. Heber, Esq. 

Rev. Joseph Hunter. 

The Earl ofKinnoul. 

Ed. Lodge, Esq. 
25 The Rev. James Murton. 

Philip Neve, Esq. 

Rev. M. Noble. 

Samuel Parkes, Esq. F. L. S. 
F. G.S 

Sir R. K. Porter, Knt. 
30 William RadclyflFe, Esq. 

Rev. Wm. Reed. 

The Rev. J. Robinson, D. D. 

Mr. J. J. Robinson. 

Sir Walter Scott, Bart. 
35 Don Jos^ Maria de Souza, 

The Lord Stowell. 

William Taylor, Esq. 

Pnoted by 8. Hodgon, 
Union-ttreety Newcastle. 




^nttquamn ^ocietp. 










V ARIOUS lostitotions have been formed to rescue from spoil and 
oblivion such remains of Antiquity, as convey to our ideas the manners 
and customs of the numerous generations which have preceded the aera 
in which we live, and as point out to our view the gradual progress 
of art and refinement. Newcastle upon Tyne, on account of its being 
situated in a district abounding with remains of British, Roman, Sa^on, 
Danish, and English Antiquities, naturally presents itself as a place 
well adapted for commencing a collection of such objects; and it has 
been a matter not only of surprise, but of regret, that an institution 
of this nature had not been formerly established. 

The formation of a society having been previously considered, in 
conversations between Mr. John Bell, junior, of Newcastle upon Tyne 
and some gentlemen, whose ideas coincided with his as to the advantage 
to be attained by such an establishment, he circulated seventy-five 
letters, dated November i, 1812, through that town, and the counties 
of Northumberland and Durham, which pointed out these districts as a 
rich and ample field for antiquarian research, and gave an outline of a 
plan for an establishment, to consist " of the neighbouring gentlemen 
who had acquired a taste for the study of antiquities." 

By the original letters in the archives of the Society, it appears, that 



the plan met with the entire approbation, and obtained the promise of 
assistance, from Mr. Carr, of Dunston Hill, the Rev. John Hodgson, 
of Jarrow, Mr. Cuthbert Sharp, of, Hartlepool, and Mr. J. Adamson, 
and Mr. J. T. Brockett, of Newcastle upon Tyne, who offered it their 
sanction and support. 

On Thursday, the 6th of December, in the same year, Messrs. Hodgson 
and Adamson had an opportunity of conversing with Alderman Joseph 
Forster, as to an application being made to the Corporation of Newcastle 
upon Tyne to allow the conversion of a part of the Castle into apartments 
for an Antiquarian Society; and (after some explanation respecting the 
propositions contained in the letter circulated by Mr. Bell, and certain 
suggestions Mr. Hodgson had made, in the September previous, to Mr. 
Forster, relative to the appropriation of part of the Castle as a depot 
for antiquities, found in the Roman Wall and the various Roman Stations 
in the neighbourhood, being altogether distinct and original commu- 
nications,) Mr. Bell was requested to call a meeting of the gentlemen 
to whom his circular letter of the 24th of November had been addressed, 
to be holden at the Chambers of Mr. Adamson, on the 15th of January, 

At this meeting, Messrs. T. Davidson, J. Brumell, J. Adamson, J. 
Bell, and J. T. Brockett, of Newcastle upon Tyne, J. Shield, of North 
Shields, R. Hoyle, of Denton, and the Rev. J. Hodgson, of Jarrow, 
attended, and resolved to meet in Mr. Loftus's Long Room, in New- 
castle, on Saturday, the 23d of January, for the purpose of forming 
themselves into an Antiquarian Society. This resolution was inserted 
in the Newcastle upon Tyne Saturday's Newspapers, and every appear- 
ance of anxiety, respecting accession of members, was carefully and 
purposely avoided. 

At the meeting on the 23d of January, 1813, at which the first seven- 
teen Ordinary Members were present, and Sir Chas. M. L. Monck, 
Bart, of Belsay Castle, presided, it was agreed, that the Society should be 
denominated " The Antiquarian Society of Newcastle upon Tyne," 
and the purport of its establishment was declared to be " inquiry into 

** antiquities in general, but more especially into those of the North of 
^^ England, and of the Counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, and 
" Durham, in particular/* Messrs. T. Davidson, John Brumell, J. 
Adamson, John Murray, John Bell^ Rev. J. Hodgson, and J. T. 
Brockett, were authorised and requested to draw up a code of statutes 
to govern the Society, which should be ready for confirmation at a 
meeting to be holden on the 6th of February ; and the following officers 
were unanimously appointed : His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, 
Patron ; Sir John Edward Swinburne> Bart. President ; Sir Chas. M. 
L, Monck, Bart. Vice-President; the Rev. J, Hodgson, and Mr. John 
Adamson, Secretaries ; and Mr. John Bell, Treasurer. It was also 
resolved at this meetiog, that the Right Worshipful the Mayor and 
Corporation of Newcastle, should be petitioned by the Secretaries, in 
the name of the Society, to grant a room in the Castle of that town, 
in which its meetings might be held, and its property deposited. 

On the 6th of February, the meeting was accordingly held at the 
same place, and the members, from the seventeenth to the forty-seventh, 
were agreed to be admitted as Ordinary Members, previous to any 
rules as to admission being past. The Society were gratified by very 
flattering letters from His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, and 
Sir J. E. Swinburne, Bart, in which they expressed the pleasure they 
had in accepting the offices to which they had been appointed, and 
their desire to promote the objects of the Society. Messrs. Davidson, 
Hodgson, Murray, Adamson, and Bell, delivered to the chairman of 
the. meeting the following statutes, which were sanctioned. John Carr, 
and James Losh, Esqrs. were elected Vice-Presidents, the Council were 
chosen, and a resolution passed, that the Committee of the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of Newcastle should be requested, through 
the Rev. Wm. Turner, to accommodate the Society with one of their 
rooms, which they obligingly did» until the Mayor and Corporation . 
signified their acquiescence to the request contained in the petition of 
the Secretaries. 

After this period the meetings of the Society were, according to the 

sixth Statute, holden monthly, and all the succeeding memb^-s were 
elected by ballot; on the days affixed to their names in the list at the 
end of this report 

Statutes qf the Antiquarian Society of Neivcastle upon Tyne. 

I. The Society shall consist of Ordinary, Corresponding, and Honorary 
Maoabers. The number of Ordinary Members limited to one hundred; 
the number of Corresponding and Honorary Members unlimited. The 
candidates for admission as Ordinary Members shall be proposed at a 
regular meeting by at least three Members, and ballotted for at the 
next succeeding meeting ; three-fourths of the Members present to con- 
firm the admission of the candidate. The election of Corresponding 
and Honorary Members shall be subject to the same regulations as the 
election of Ordinary Members, excepting that they may be ballotted 
for the same meeting at which they are proposed. Twelve Members 
to form a constitution. 

II. Persons residing within the town and county of Newcairtle upon 
Tyne, the counties of Northumberland, Durham, or Cumberland, shall 
not be eligible as Corresponding Members. 

III. The Officers of the Society to consist of a Patron, one President, 
three Vice-Presidents, two Secretaries, one Treasurer, and a Council of 
six. The office of Patron to continue for life; the other Officers to be 
annually elected, out of tlie class of Ordinary Members, by written lists, 
to be delivered by the Members in person at the Anni^rersary Meeting. 
These Officers to have charge of the property of the Society, and any 
five to be competent to act. 

IV. The interest of each Member in the funds and property of the 
Society to continue so long only as he shall remain a Member^ and 
the property shall never be sold or otherwise disposed of (except in the 
case of duplicates hereinafter mentioned), so long as there remain 
Members sufficient to form a constitution ; but should the Members 
be reduced below the number of twelve, and so remain for twelve 
calendar months then next following, the funds and property of the 

Society shall be delivered unto, »nd vest iii^ the oldeit Society of Airti- 
quaries in Great Britain. 

V. Each Ordinary and Corresponding Member to pay an admission 
fee of two guineas, and each Ordinary Member to pay an annual sub- 
scription of one guinea, commencing at the Anniversary Meeting in 

VI. The Meetings of the Socirty to be held hi the Society's room, at 
6 o'clock in the evening, on the first Wednesday in every month ; and 
the Anniversary Meeting ajt twelve o'clock in the day, at the same 
place, on the first Wednesday in January. 

VII. All papers to be read in the ordter of their dates. If any 
Member declines reading his own paper,, any other Member may be 
allowed to read it ; but suoh as are to be read by the Secretaries shall 
be sent to them a month previous to their being laid before the Society. 

VIII. Three Censors to be annually chosen by the Officers out of 
the Ordinary Members; to whom shall be intrusted the chatge of revi- 
sing and printing all such papers and communications as the Officers 
may admit into the Transactions of the Society. 

IX. All donations to the Society to be regularly recorded in a book 
kept for that purpose, describing at length their nature, when and 
where discovered, the donors' names, &c. And all duplicates of Coins, 
Books, &c. to be at the ^lisposal of the Officers^ for the b^iiefit of the 
Society at large. 

X. Each Member, on his admission, shall sign the Statutes; but 
any Ordinary Member may, on producing and leaving the authority 
by letter for it, sign them for such Members as cannot conveniently 
attend at the time of their admission. 

XI. No alteration shall be made in the Statutes, except at the Anni- 
versary Meeting in January. And every alteration intended to be 
then proposed, must be publicly announced and inserted in the Trans- 
actions at a meeting previous to the General Meeting. 

XII. And lastly, — ^We, the undersigned Members, oblige ourselves 
to observe and fulfil the above Statutes, and conform ourselves to all 

the future Rules and Regulations, which may be made by the Society 
and regularly entered in their Minute Book. 

List of the Officers i^ the Society for 1813. 



Vice-Presi dents, 

Bart. • | JAMES LOSH, Esq. 






4n Essay, on the Study of Antiquities. By the Rev. JoHN HODGSON, 


Read before the Society, May 5th, 1813. 

Society has a right to expect, both from individuals, and from bodies 
of men, that their labours and enquiries be directed to some useful end. 
Concerning the origin of this right, L forbear any discussion, supposing 
it cannot be misunderstood; for even experience may teach us, that, 
in a community of persons, attention to mutual wants is indispensably 
incumbent on every one. In moral matters, childhood and old age 
need only be mentioned to refresh our memories with the truth of this 
position ; and the plain impossibility of each individual learning the 
various arts, connected with procuring for himself an adequate supply 
of the necessaries suited to the nature of social life, sufficiently demon- 
strates its utility in every other point of view. We are necessary to 
each other, and this necessity obtains every possible degree of modi- 
fication, by dividing the different branches of arts, science, and manu- 
factures, into distinct callings; and by the force of impressions made 
on our minds so near the time of infancy as often to be mistaken for 
innate propensities. 

But utility is not a striking feature of some of the pursuits that have 
eagerly engaged the attention of individuals in every civilized nation, 
and in all ages of the world j and of this class is the Study of Antiquities. 
The mind does not at first sight perceive any advantage that can arise 
to society from contemplations on the ruins of cities, camps, and the 
remains of objects connected with the arts, or military or domestic 
affairs, of the people that have preceded the sera we live in. 

All nations have had perpetual examples of contrivance directed by 
instinct before their eyes, in the nests of birds, and in the systematic 
arrangement observable in the habitations of the ant and beaver, and 
in the cells of bees, hornets, wasps, and other insects. No one, I think, 
could inspect the curious work of the weaving and the sowing birds, 
without applying the principles of their art to his own necessides ; and 
after minutely inspecting the wonderful economy of an ant hill, one 
may perceive how strongly Solomon's advice to the sluggard that he 
should " go to the ant, learn her ways and be wise," appears to be 
applicable to the wisest and most industrious. The first exertions of 
instinctive art are never exceeded by a repetition of trials^ but each suc- 
cessive effort of human ingenuity is usually a step to improvement, — an 
approximation to a species of perfection, which, ia works of arts, there 
is always a possibility of imitating, while the prototype exists, and 
concerning which no arbitrary height can be fixed as the highest to 
be attained ; for, in human things, I think, we must allow, that whatever 
is in itself superior and excellent, at present, may itself be excelled. 

The Colleges of Numa, the Casts of India, the Guilds and Mysteries of 
our own Nation, were all political expedients contrived and sanctioned 
for the purpose of continuing the knowledge, and perpetuating the 
improvements, in the several arts for which they were instituted*-*- 
Where artisans work only from model, where the secrets of a trade 
are not recorded in books, andi especially wliuere the art of printing has 
not contributed to perpetuate the experience of ingenious persons, 
without such institutions, valuable discoveries would not only be liable 
to perish with their authors; but every depression, in the political 
circumstances of a country, would threaten to obliterate all but the 
names of many useful arts. 

While the Apollo Belvideire, or the horses of Lysippus exist, we 
have speciioens before us of the st«te of statuary more than three cen- 
turies before the Christian »ra. The same observatio« is applicable to 
the arts of making earthen ware, coining, compounding metals, engra- 
ving on precious stones, to architecture, and the n^aQuiacturing of 


objects capable of resisting the attacks of time. But though Pliny tells 
us, that the ancient painters found the larch to be immortal in tablets^ 
and that it never cracked, yet, supposing the metaphor of his language 
to be fomided on something analogous to truth, after the storm of igno- 
rance and barbarity which extinguished the glory and overturned the 
grandeur of the Roman empire> where shall we look for the works of 
Apelles, or Protogenes; and, with a knowledge of the various substances 
they employed in their art, be gratified with s^ing that perfection, to 
which painting had arrived in their times, and concerning which 
the expressions of ancient authors, and the almost inimitable work- 
manship of the gems, medals, and statues of those ages, are a sort of 
humiliating and unwelcome recorders of an excellence, to which modern 
ingenuity has never yet been able to arrive ? 

That there exists in human nature a propensity to this pursuit is 
avident, from the anxiety all classes of people evince to be acquainted 
with the history of the places wherein they were born, or to which 
they have become attached by residence or property. The antiquity 
of a man's family, of his house, or his village, is narrated with a pleasure 
which seems to increase as the history of the object grows older; and 
when records fail, the obscurity of fable is employed to lengthen the 
importance of these " simple annals." Most of nations deduce their 
origin from gods and fabulous heroes, and the poorest villagers of our 
country, if they have nothing to relate concerning their own families 
or habitations, are seldom without legendary traditions about battles, 
fairies, or ghosts, to beguile the tedium of a winter's evening. 

The earliest inhabiters of the world, finding oral tradition a defective 
recorder of events, and that places, which had been sanctified by any 
act of piety, or rendered remarkable by any great transaction, were 
soon forgotten, erected rude pillars, or threw up mounds of earth, or 
heaps of stones, to preserve their memory. The projectors of the 
Tower of Babel encouraged each other to " build a city and a tower 
having its sununit in heaven, that they might acquire a name — lest they 



should be dispersed over the face of the whole earth"* and forgotten. 
The memorable pillar which Jacob set up in Beth-el ;f the pillar and 
the heap of witness in memory of his agreement with Laban ; J and 
the pillar of Padan-aram,§ were all erected to preserve, in the minds of 
his offspring, a grateful sense of the transactions they were intended 
to record. The twelve stones, which Joshua commanded to be set up 
in the midst of the river Jordan, he informed his army were for " a 
sign among them, that when their children asked their fathers in tnne 
to come^ saying : What mean ye by these stones ? Then ye shall 
answer them : That the waters of Jordan were cut off before the ark 
of the covenant of the Lord; when it passed over Jordan, the waters 
of Jordan were cut off; and these stones shall be for a memorial unto^ 
the children of Israel for ever.**|| Samuel, after a battle with the Philis- 
tines, set up a stone '^ between Mizpeth and Shen, and called the name 
of it Eben-ezer," that is, the stone of help.^ After describing the 
different ceremonies performed at the ftmeral of Patroclus, Homer 
tells us 

" That done, they bid the sepulchre aspire, 
*' And cast the deep foundations round the pi re ; 
" High in the midst they heap the swelling bed 
*^ Of rising earth, memorial of the dead."** 

And the spirit of Agamemnon^ in the regions of the dead, thus ad- 
dresses Achille s 

** Now all the sons of warlike Greece surround 
"Thy destin'd tomb, and cast a mighty mound: 
*' High o'er the shore the growing hill we raise, 
" That wide th' extended Hellespont surveys i 

* Gen. xL 4. f Gen. xxviii. 18. J Gen, xxai 45^ Ac* 

§ Gen. XXXV. 14. || Joih. xvii. 4, &c. % t* Sam. vii. 12. 

** Pope's Homer's Iliad, book 2S, line 917. 


^ Where all from age to age that pass the coasts 

^* May point Achilles' toiiib^ and hail the mighty ghost."* 

The tomb, which the army of Alexapder raised over the remains of 
Demartus, was of ^^ vast perimeter, and eighty cubits high/'f In the 
more advanced ages of civilization, these memorials of the <' mighty 
dead" were covered with hieroglyphic records, and, at length, the strong 
desire in man to have his name and actions distinctly and surely told 
among succeeding generationi^, impelled him to engrave them on rocks 
and tablets of stone, and perpetuate the glory of his country in 

Thus it would appear, that these propensities of mankind to preserve 
the memory of past events^ and to ask their forefathers concerning any 
pillar or otlj^r monument <^ antiquity : ^' What mean ye by these 
stones," have prevailed since the earliest ages of the world. All ani* 
mated nature clings to life; and that part of us, in which is seated the 
desire which has drawn and bound us together in this society, is not 
satisfied, even with the prospect of a better and longer existence ; but 
mingles its cup of aversion to die, with the hope that its remembrance 
will be long cherished amongst its fnends and descendants after it has 
emigrated from this fife. The numerous inscriptions on altars, tombs, 
.and all kinds of buildings, strongly mai^ this inclination for posthu* 
3DOUS iame; and the thirst shewn among all classes of people to learn 
the meaning, date, and history of such remains of former ages, as 
clearly points out the corresponding propensity to keep in mind, and 
be acquainted with, the persons and the works of former ages. Nor are 
we without considerable evidence that the most polite nations of antiquity 
afiected this study, with as much eagerness as modem nations have done. 
Cato, the elder, wrote a book on the antiquities oi cities in Italy ; and 
Tacitus informs us, that ^ Grermanicus, when Marcus Silanus and 
Lucius Norbanus were Consuls, made a tour into Egypt to view its 

* Pqpe's Homer's Odyssey, book 24, line 101, &c» 
t Plut ViU p. 1277, Ed. Hen. Stephani, an. 1572. 

C 2 


antiquities. — He sailed up the Nile^ from Canopus^ a city, which the 
Spartans built in memory of a pilot of that name, whom they buried 
there, at the time Menelaus, on his return to Greece, was driven on 
the Lybian coast. From thence he went to the mouth of the Nile, 
dedicated to Hercules, who, as the natives contend, was bom among 
them, and the first who bore that name, succeeding heroes having 
honoured his memory by suffering themselves to be called after him. 
Then he visited the extensive remains of Thebes, where Egyptian 
characters, on obelisks, described its former opulence; and which one 
of the eldest of their priests interpreted to him. He saw the statue of 
Memnon, which, though wrought in stone, gives a vocal sound when 
the rays of the sun strike it; the pyramids, resembling mountains, 
raised in almost impassable sands, by the emulation of kings ; the lake 
made by the labour of man to receive the overflowings of the Nile ; and^ 
in certain straits of the river, places of such profound depth, that they 
had never been sounded. He also went to Eiephantici and Scyene, 
formerly the boundaries of the Roman empire, which now extends to 
the Red Sea." 

The miscellaneous works of Plutarch, commonly called, his Morals, 
abound with profound enquiries into the antiquities of several nations; 
and his two books on Greek and Roman Questions, he recommends as 
treatises on the manners and customs of those countries, ** which may 
answer their turn very well, who, reading old authors, are desirous to 
know the particulars of antiquity."* 

There is, perhaps^ a sort of indefinable regret constantly hanging 
about our minds, that our lives and knowledge are so circumscribed, tiiat 
we cannot more strongly assimilate our mental faculties to that Infinite 
Perfection, who made us " after his own image," and has a distinct 
comprehension of the whole economy of his works. The largest circle 
of darkness, that any human intellect ever yet investigated, is a little 
one, when compared with the orbits of the planets; and these but 
insignificant rin^, when set in opposition to the immensity of space, 

« Holland's TranalatioD, p. 888. 


which the divine understanding fills and illuminates. But to us^ not 
only the operations of nature are either inexplicably mysterious 
or indistinctly known ; but the greater part of the history of the fami- 
lies of the worlds that have passed behind the goal of the present time^ 
is for ever removed from the reack of our observation. Daylight haa 
shone on all the places and generations of the people that have pre- 
ceded us; but how little of tlieir experience has been recorded. for out 
benefit ! how obscure the history of those among them that are best 
known ! No ingenious and well educated mind could, I think> but be 
gratified with seeing the annals of his country accurately analized, and 
the dregs of fable filtered off; and even those, who fix their minds oof 
objects more sensibly beneficial to the world, certainly could not refuse 
to rqjoice at the discovery (suppose in the deflagrated ruins of Hercu- 
laneum or Pompeia) of some account of the progress of that refine* 
menft, or some treatise on those arts that lead to the enviable greatness 
of the nations of antiquity. But look at Greece, once the favourite 
abode of liberty, the land of politeness, the cradle of heroes, the seat 
of learning; now inhabited by slaves, the nurse of ignorance and 
superstition ! Italy, that of old, called her dominions orbis terrarum, 
and boasted so many goodly cities, the sun of her glory has long since 
gone down, and her inhabitants been swayed by petty tyrants or 
foreign powers. How finely has Sulpicius, in a letter to Cicero, re- 
presented this notion of the weakness of man, by contrasting it with the 
ruins of the most splendid of his works. " Returning,'' says he, " out 
of Asia, as 1 sailed from iEgina towards Megara, I began to view the 
country all around. iEgiha was behind me, before me Megara, oi> 
the right Piraeeus, on the left Corinth, all in former times most flourish- 
ing cities ; but now they lie prostrate and in ruins before my eyes. I 
began to think within myself: Ah! shall we, shadows of creatures^ 
shall we be indignant, if one of us die or be slain, when in one place 
the carcases of so many cities bestrew the earth."* 

* Ex Afiia rediens, cum ab iEgma Megaram versus navigarem, coepi regiones circumcircat 


When, indeed, the mind reflects that there is a principle in nature^ 
which, by constant, though imperceptible industry, dissolves the 
strongest and most beautiful monuments of human skill ; and that this 
principle often finds powerful assistance in wars and civil comttiotions, 
how can it but behold with admiration and pleasure any oligect that 
has escaped, through a long series of ages, the reiterated attacks of this 
combined enemy ? Who is there so dull and incurious, that if he should 
be shewn the tomb of one of the Jewish prophets, or the sepuldire 
where the author of our religion was laid, would not aj^oach it with 
reverence, and examine it with care ? Who would not wish he could 
say, that he had trod the plains of Issus, where Alexander defeated 
Darius ; of Cannae, memora'ble for the overthrow of the Romans, by 
Hannibal ; or to witness, on the plains of Pharsalia, the fulfilment of 
this prophecy of Virgil ? — 

" The time, indeed, shall come, when in these fields, 
^^ Turning the soil, some hind, with crooked plough^ 
" Shall spears discover, eaten through with rust ; 
" With ponderous harrows dash 'gainst empty hehns, 
" And bones enormous, wondVing, dig from tombs.* 

The writers of romances and novels have discovered, that the best of 
the human passions is often most effectually called out amongst scenes, 
which favour antiquarian cdntetnplation ; and have, therefore, laid many 
of their finest plots within the walls of decaying castles, or heightened 

prospicere. Pbfit roe erat ^gina ; ante Megara ; dextra Hreeus, sinistra Corinthus : qam 
oppida quodam tempore florentissima fuerunt, nunc prostrata et diruta ante oculos jacent* 
Coepi egomet roecum sic cogitare: Hem! nos homunculi indignamur, si quis nostrum 
intenit, aut occisus est, quorum vita brevior esse debet, cum uno loco tot oppidiltm cadavem 
projecta jaceant ? Cic. Ep. Lib. iv. Ep. 5. 

* Scilicet et tempus veniet cimi finibus illis 
Agricola, incnrvo terram molhus aratro, 
Exesa invenict scabra rubigine pila, 
Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanes, 
Gtandiaque cffossis mirabitur ossa sepulchcis. Oeor. lib. i. prope fineitil 



their narratives with descriptions of the ruins of monastic edifices, 
crowned with ivy, and gilded with moon-beams. Indeed all the best 
modifioations of our passions and affections are never more satisfactorily 
employed than in meditating over the wrecks of ancient times. What 
piety b there so cold as could not be warmed among the ruins of 
Jerusalem, on the banks of Kedron, or on the heights of Calvary ? — 
Which of us, without horror and virtuous indignation, could visit the 
chambers of the tower of London^ where Tyrrell, at the command of 
Richard the Third, smothered thie king's young nephews, Edward the 
Fifth and the Duke of York ? We find Shakespeare lamenting to see 
a fine religious edifice falling, together from neglect, in the following 
beautifiil passage :— * 

O it pities me 
To see these antique walls and hallowed towers 
Split with the winter's frost, or mould'ring down 
Their very ruins ruined ; the crushed pavement. 
Time's marble register, deep o'ergrown 
With hemlock and rank fumitory, hides. 
Together with their perishable mouldy 
The brave man's trophies and the good man's praise^ 
Envying the worth of buried ancestry. 

A cabinet of ancient medals not only filk us with admiration at the 
excellency of their workmanship, and instructs us in the mythology^ 
architecture, dress, and the shape and use of various articles connected 
with the war, government, religion, and domestic concerns of the times 
in which they were stricken ; but it brings us into the presence and 
friendship of the worthies of Greece and Rome. With Alexander 
before us, we seem to ^ fight his battles o'er again." We stand 
doubtful whether the more to admire or condemn the conduct of 
Csesar ; and as we examine the lines of Tiberius's brow, we sigh at the 
hopelessness of seeing liberty and security in a nation^ while its throne 
is filled by a sullen and artful tyrant. 


•Bat perhaps the obscurity, in which the antiquary's pursuits kve 
generally involved, is not the least contributor to his pleasure. We 
are naturally gratified with making new discoveries, and with over- 
coming difficulties. We love to make the little candle of our intellect 
extend its light as far as possible; and it is only by constant exercbe, 
that we can tutor our eyes to see objects that lie on the verge of the 
circle of darkness that surrounds the brightest understandings ; and at 
that point, every thing, as if enveloped in a mist, represents itself to 
us in a magnitude and importance greater than is real. The deception 
invites us forward, and the avidity x>f our enquiry increases as certainty 
is removed, or truth assumes a more slaadowy and incomprehensible form. 

This employment is shaded with:a mixture of satisfaction and melan- 
choly, suitable to minds that love to retire, at times, from the hurry 
and confusion of the world. It is calculated to raise up in us a source 
of enjoyment, and tp 'bring us into the company of friends, which we 
x-an never hope to be blessed with in the exercise of our worldly en- 
gagements. Nunquam minus solus, quam quum solus, as Cowley 
observes, " is now become a vulgar saying : it has been in the mouth 
of every man, and almost every boy, since the days of Scipio." This 
sort of retirement and meditation strengthens us, and sends us out again 
into life more capable of opposing its evils, enjoying its true pleasures, 
and honourably executing our several engagements in it. And even 
here, when we begin to grow tired with close attention to truth, we 
have the boundless regions of past ages in which fancy may expatiate, 
and take as extended flights as in those of futurity. After we have 
seen the Roman Eagle planted in the southern provinces of our island, 
and several of the tribes of Britain contending for freedom upwards of 
120 years, against the legions of the mistress of the world, our imagi- 
nations might be warmed with the contemplation of the celebrated 
barriers which extend from this place to the Western Sea — with the 
spectacle of the Emperor Hadrian, at the head of his legions, excava- 
ting his vallum; of Severus widening and strengthening it; and of the 
oldiers and an enervated peasantry, about the time of Gallio, sheltering 


their frontier from their northern invaders, behind the laborious^ but 
cowardly, defence of walls and towers. And it is not difficnlt to 
raise in one's mind an idea of some robnst Pict, in attempting to scale 
the battlements of Pons i£Iii, perishing on its glacis, by the jayelia of 
a Roman soldier, and thus rendering the spot» on which we now stand, 
»cred to liberty, as the establishment,* which at present occupies it, 
has, in latter times, consecrated it to literature. 

This pursuit, howerer, distingvisbes itself into two very different 
kinds. The vulgar antiquary, while he walks among th6. ruins of a 
city, is stricken with wonder, and fixes his observation most upon their 
extent, their state of preservation^ the largeness of their columns, and 
the difficulty of lifting the massive blocks of stone into the several 
situations they occupy: he is an admirer of coins on account of their 
rarity, their age, the beauty .of their rust, or from some accidental 
variety which marks them : be values his collection of manuscripts, or 
rare editions of books, merely beranse they are old, or that they issued 
from the presses of Faust, Caxton, or other early printers. But the 
judicious antiquary considers the various objects of his contemplation 
with a learned eye ; and imposes a value upon them in proportion to 
the quantity of light they throw upon the several departments of the 
history of the people to which they belong. He seizes hold of obfects 
ready to perish, and gives them *'a local habitation and a name/' 

Perhaps in this country, our ideas of an antiquary are somewhat 
confined, and the ridicule to which the attacks of Scriblerus, and other 
satirists, have exposed the character, have abridged it of its just pro- 
portion of public regard.f 

* This Bsasflf was vesd ia one of the rooms of the literary and Philosophical Society^ 
IE Neweasde^wilhi which we were kindly accommodated, by that body, till the Corponitios 
hoeoured as with iq^artmenta- in thcr Castle.. 

f Blonnt, Im hia IVKyjoeottnogyapby, tells ns. ** an antiqi wry isa great admirer of the mat of 
old monumems, and reads aoly those characters where time hath eaten out the letters. 
He will fo yoQ forty miles to^ see a Saint's well, ov a ruhied abbey ; and if there be but s 
cross or stone feetstool in the way,, he'll be considering it so kag, till he forget his journey. 



Under the influence o( first reflections on the subject, we should 
perhaps define him to be one who collects and explains the use of such 
objects of human skill as belong to past ages. But, I think, a nearer 
examination of the case, will discover his employment to consist in the 
illustration of the general history and pursuits of mankind in ancient 
times, from visible objects. The historian draws his materials from 
facts, transacted in his own times; and the annals of every country are 
complete or imperfect, in proportion to the complement of facts thus 
recorded, and the regular succession of its historians. The antiquary 
attempts to illustrate and confirm the pages of history by contemporary 
objects. If history leaves us deficient in the date of a battle, the age 
of some public building, or the death of an emperor; some medal or 
inscription, perhaps, records the required information. But it is not 
merely in the labyrinths of history that he walks. He is not satisfied 
with ranging in one department of literature. The policy, laws, reli- 
gion, and manners of old times, engage his attention ; and he loves to 
examine into the arts, and define the boundaries of ancient empires ; 
to follow the emigrations of the early fieimilies of the world ; and to 
show how, by little and little, they spread over the surface of the whole 
globe. Truth, in combination with mystery, doubt, uncertainty, and 
superstition he laboriously searches after, and scrupulously analyzes: 
He ranges through the world at large, meditating upon men and things 
as they existed in past ages. 

The restorers of letters in Italy, among the many other excellent 
qualifications which they possessed, were all profound antiquaries.— 
While some of them travelled in search of ancient manuscripts, others 

His estate consists much in shekels and Roman coins ; and he hath more pictures of Caesar 
than James or Elizabeth. Beggars cozen him with musty things which th^ haTe raked 
from dung-hills ; and he preserves their rags for precious relics. He loves no library but 
where there are more q>ider's volumes than others, and looks with great admiration on the 
antique work of cobwebs. Printed books he contemns, as a novelty of this latter age, but a 
MS. he pores on everlastingly, especially if the cover be all moth-eaten, and the dust make 
a parenthesis between every syllable. He would give all the books in his study (which ara 
rarities all) for one of the old Roman binding, or six Unes of Tolly in his own hand.'' 


^e^e employed in writing commentaries upon and editing them ; and 
many in collecting the coins and statues, and studying the architecture^ 
and reanimating the arts of Athens and of Rome. The eyes, indeed, of 
many of these able men never became sufficiently strong to look on 
truth in its native brightness. While every sentence of the works of 
Cicero was made to comply with the rules of the rhetoric and logic, 
which prevailed at that time, the pages of natural history were dark- 
ened with astrological superstitions, and their criticisms, on matters of 
antiquity, were often polluted with the cabalistic and other childish 
mysteries. The hammers, for instance, hatchets^ arrow-heads, and 
other instruments of stone, used to this day by people unacquainted 
>vith the use of metab, and whidi are often dug up in various parts of 
Europe, were by Gesner, Agricola, and others, confounded with 
meteoric stones : though they might have found knives of stone men- 
tioned by Moses and in the hock of Joshua, as employed in the rite oi 
circumicision, a use to which they are said to be still applied by the 
people of Alnajah, a nation of Ethiopia.^ 

But though our employment must be of a more humble nature than 
that of the early antiquaries ;~-though we can scarcely hope to have the 
honoui: of <liscovering and publishing any valuable manuscript, or of 
illustrating antiquities equal in interest to those of Asia Minor, or of 
Italy ; yet the four counties to which our labours are to be primarily 
directed, present us with a field rich in Roman, Saxon, Danish, Norman, 
and monastic Antiquities ; and in which, numerous objects connected 
with the manners, property, and general history of its inhabitants, are 
as yet very inadequately explained. The remains of the Roman Wall, 
though lar^ly described about the middle of the last century, by the 
accurate and judicious Horsley, are still but slightly investigated; and 
the received opinions respecting the constructors of the several parts of 
it, seem to be founded on very inaccurate criticism. The same obser- 

* Lndopbua' ^thiopic Hist book 3, diap. L quoted by ParkhursI under JH* See also 
Gent Mug. Se^ 1789, p« 799. 



vations are applicable to die state of our information oq tbe castles awl 
camps with which the interesting district of the borders abmind. The 
popular superstitions of the common people, now, it is to be hoped, 
fast vanishing away before the light of truth, are sko worthy of amr 
atteiStion; and much curious matter in philology might be gleaned 
from well selected lists of vulgar words, and the names of &rm-hoQseS) 
glenci, brooks, and especially of fields. 

The prosperity of this Society altogether depends upon its oftembers. 
If our meetings be taken up merely with conversations, and our atten^ 
tion directed only to collecting books and trifling curiosities, it will 
either die in its infancy, or, at best, draw out a feeble and rickety 
existence. But if any real ^tification is to arise to us as iodiridaals, 
or respectability to attach to us as a body, they can only be ^fected 
by every member zealously contributing his portion of knowledge ^ 
and each of us certainly has it in his power, by adding something to 
the common stock of information, to further the designs of the institu- 
tion. Should it, unhappily, he discovered, that drones have been 
admitted into the hive — that we have members among us that neither 
demre nor endeavour to promote its interest and honour, watchfulneo? 
will be necessary to guard against any accession of their numbers. In a 
constellation, however dim, there may be stars of different degrees of 
brightness, and even some that ^diine with borrowed lustre; and in 
literary societies, it is to be expected, that there will be persons, not 
only of various gradatioiu of capacity and attainmedt, but even some 
that can delight themsdves with gilding their names with the reflection 
of othw men's celebrity* The meanness of such a spirit need scarcely 
be pointed out, and, I trust, it will be long before it shew itself here. 
In prosecuting the business we have undertaken, we must not confide 
in numerical strength ; our industry must be directed by intelligence, 
and by endeavouring to deserve the support and countenance oi the dis«- 
tinguished personages, who patronise and preside over us with such 
munificence and fatherly attention. For, should any unhappy cifcum* 
stance withdraw from us the light and honour we derive from tkris 


source, our snsfc^iance and good report would too certainly fail 5 but 
because the glory of ancestry — ^the reputation so justly due to families, 
who, in spite of the infatuating nature of wealth, have preserved their 
names and properties through a long series of ages, cannot but fill the 
minds of their possessors with high reverence for every thing allied td 
the history and times of their worthy fbrefathen^, we may never doubt 
of flourishing under the auspices that shine upon us, while o«r labours 
are assiduously employed in the objects of the Society. 

I conclude this incoherent essay with observing, that it is only by a 
retroqpiect into past ages, that we know whether tile world be improving 
in refijoMumti or at a stund ; aad though this study never ought to be 
put ia comfMuriaon, in point of utility, with many of the pursuits of tfad 
human mind^ with such, for instance, as relate to our moral and physical 
wants ; yet> when I contemplate the vast advantages, that must evet 
accme to society by a due oukivation of the simplicity and expetienoe 
of the early ages of the world, I cannot, I think, too severely stigma* 
tise that ibsatiable appetite for variety and novelty which dii^aces the 
kerning, mminers^ and religion of these days, or too cordially agree 
with Cicero, thai antiquitas proiiim^ ad deos accedit, both with respect 
to time and merit. 


Some Account of Gray's Ckorographia^ with Additions^ extracted from t1^ 
Author's own interleaved Copy. By the Rev. John Hodgson, 

At the fourth Monthly Meeting of the Society, after some GonversatioB 
respecting a scarce and currous tract, entituled ^' Chorographia, or a 
Survey of Newcastle upon Tyne, &c.", the members present suggested 
to the Council the propriety of re-printing it; and on the nintli of 
June, 1813, a meeting of the Council resolved, *' that Gray's Choro- 
graphia be printed in small folio, and that a wood-cut of the Castle, of 
Newcastle upon Tyne, should be engraved and inserted in the title- 
page of that, and every other work, the Society may publish." 

On the tenth of October following, the Council ordered ^' that the 
166 copies of the Chorographia, printed by the Society, be disposed of 
in the following manner : — ^One to Cuthbert Ellison, Esq. ; one to the 
Corporation of Newcastle ; one to each of the Societies of Antiquaries 
at London, Edinburgh, and Perth; one to the Literary and Philosophical 
Society of Newcastle upon Tyne ; that one hundred be reserved for 
the first one hundred ordinary members of the Society, and the remain- 
ing sixty be reserved for sale.** 

Mr. Brand, in his preface to his history of Newcastle upon Tyne, 
says : ** The oldest printed account of that place is a small book in 
quarto, consisting of thirty-four pages, and intitled * Chorographia, or 
a Survey of Newcastle upon Tyne, &c. : Newcastle, printed by S. B. 
1649. S. P. D. dilectis burgensibus et probis Hominibus Novi Castri 
super Tyman W. G/ 

" The last letters stand for the initials of William Gray, of whom I 
have not been able to recover any particulars. — ^The Greys of Back- 


worth, in Northumberland, are said to be of the same family. This 
work, an imperfect outline, but which is extremely scarce, was re-* 
printed in the Harleian Miscellanies, vol. iii.^in 1745, with some 
additional remarks/' 

The copy, from which the Society's reprint was made, was obligingly 
furnished by Cuthbert Ellison, of Hebburn-hall, Esquire, M. P. for 
Newcastle upon Tyne. It contains copious interleaved additions, in 
the author's own hand-writing; but these have unfortunately been 
much mutilated by the margin of the work being cut uniformly with 
several other tracts, with which it is bound. The blank page prece- 
ding the preface, is inscribed, 

which is unquestionably an autograph of the author. The text, in 
many parts, has been corrected ; the stile much improved ; and in the 
preface, at the conclusion of the sentence which begins " I find," is 
the following addition: — '^ Therefor I thought good that the ancient 
monum.ts in the ch * * .* and this commonwealth, these 
late warrs have 6estroyedy may continue after our times, to posterity, 
to write this second edition, na posteriores cogitationes * * * *." 
Here the expression, " this common-wealth," fixes the period of the 
additions between 1649> the date of the printed copy of this work, and 
1660, the year of the restoration. Some of the copies have London in 
the imprint, but on a careful examination, it will be found, that in 
every other letter, they exactly correspond with the impressions bear- 
ing Newcastle in the titl^ page. 

The additions chiefly relate to the various charters and privileges 
granted to Newcastle, or to events connected with the several depart- 
ments of the history of that town, which are both more fully uid 
more authentically recorded in the works of Bourne and Brand. All 
the curious matter, however, not contained in these authors,, has been 

carefully copied and given in the foUowing addidons. Where the 
reading qf the mutilated parts could, with ady tolerable certainty, be 
ascertained, it is. printed in italior: the doubtful passages are inariced by 
asterisks. The pages refer to the Society's reprint. . 

R 5, /. 31-— In ye, west parts^ to this day, ye, wall is allmostf entire, 
and the foundations of ye. wall to be seen in all parts. 

P. 5, L 5.~Thi^ Wall-Knowle, or Wallnole, was a part of ye, Roman 
ws^l, a(ker a Priory, kn#wn afittrtimes by the name of St. Michael apon 
ye, WaUno)e> an ancient /obriek. 

P, 7,i«4.~* * ey ♦ the east to 

the * * ord deane * * Eurs Bum, 

This town is sufficiently provided for all things that belongeth ye. 
life of man, both by sea and land, and tha elements of fire and water; 
the latter out of an aqueduct intp the town by pipes, which serves 
all quarters and streits of town Bbnndantly. Every streit hath his 
cistern or pant. The conduits are * d by pipes of lead<» wch. de- 
scends from a spring, called Conduit-head, not farr without the walls. 
Every streit of the town is well paved, and kept in repaire at the charg 
of town, as any town in E * * in natura brevium. 

i^ 10, /. 11. — ^This Newgat, called so because K. John buiMed that 
Crate, as Newcastle is called from Wm. Conquerors ♦ * who built 
this Castle. Their is an outward gate on the North, builded by Ed. 
9, or successors, as appears by the armes, he atchieved in Ym 
conquests * * the many flower de lucies in the frontispiece of 
them ; and the B. of Durhams arms and towns armes. 

p. 11, /. 7. — The tower on ye. Bridg was builded by G. Bird, Mayor 
of i\iV& town, the Bird coots of armes was upon it, 

P. 1 1, /. 20.— The words from " the Picts WalP' to " Pandon" are 
blotted out, and the following substituted — as appears by the rings that 
in many places are to be seen at thiis day. 

P. 1-2, /. 20. — ^The Steple of St. Nicholas stands upon 4 columm^ or 
pillars of stone and masonnary wor*, which supports yt. magnificent 
and high architertz/re, the height of it from the crosse leads is 120 foot 


and the basis whereon it stands to the cross leads^ from which to the 
heightest pinnicle is 60 foot. 

Ther is 13 pinnacles, 4 greatest in ye. 4 comers ^ the steeple, which 
supporteth 4 stone arches, whereon is a ston lanthom, and 5 ston 
pinnacles, wherof one in the midst surmounteth all the rest, in the 
caput is a circular ston like a mistone, in midst is p * ^ or the 
largest fane of ye. 13. 

Ther is a clock house, wherin the clock doth «^eak to all the town 
the time of day ; and nigh audibfy to all the town, at 4. 9- and 12. it 
chims {or a while. And a dial in the south side of steple, which h(is 
the motion of the moon in her sphere. 

This steple being decayed and spoild * * * * winds and 
weather in the pinnacles, was repaired in the year 1601. There was in 
the yeare 1650. 2 * * * an impetuous tempest and west wind^ 
which blow downe name of the pinnacles and fanes, repaired and restored 
to their former splendour, in 1651 following. 

P. 13, /. 27. — He gave also to the church of Ryton £5. per annum. 

P. 14, /. 33. — In Westgate*street, very probable it hath bene in 
former ages a house of the B. of Carlisle to live in. 

Theise 4 churches have little maintenance belonging them except St. 
Nicholas the mother church of the town, which has the pette tjrthes ; 
which may seeme a thing very strange : but the reason is conceived to 
be as in the university of Camfrrt(;^e, xohere the fellows of severall 
Colledges do officiate in their severed cures for the better exercise and 
practise of their mintr/ry, haveing their chiefest maintenances from 
Colledges. So the monks of the severall cells of this town, (whilest 
those VMnasterxes stood) did officiate in several parishes here having^ 
their principal maintenance from the monasteries which were dissolved 
by K. Hen. 8. their not any maintenance * * * * unto them, 
which want is bountifully supplied at the charge of the town ^ no 
corporation in the north doing the like. 

F. 15, /. 21. — ^There is a passage which is called the Roode way to 
St Michael Priory of the Wallnole. 


p. 15, /. S8.-^Thi8 house dedicated to the Holy Trinity was a 
chantrey but dissolved long before the dissolucions of the Abbys in 
K. Hen. 8. dayes, as appeareth by many reoordsy given to the 
marinours of Newc« by Ed. 3« for setting out ships 4^mnst the town of 
Dundee in Scotland, who burnt it and came home with rich bootys, or 
for some other service by sea performed i^. pirates who infested the 

This town had 70. ships. SO. great of theis times * * * kBser 
in Ed. 3. reign which was i^le to fight all Gotland by sea, as appear- 
eth by a petition to the K. to inlarge * * r. 

A mighty and sudden wind from of water in the night, bare down a 
peece of the T. wall near the Walknowl: 135 men and women wSre 
drowned in that storm. HoUinsid. 


1 Grundon chaire. 9 Trinity cbaire, Errington 

2 Collman chaire. chaire. 

3 Hayward's chaire. 10 Broad chaire. 

4 Shipman chaire. 1 1 Spicer's lane* 

5 Hornby chaire. 12 Burne bank. 

6 Plumber chair, alias Beverley 13 Bikers chaire. 

chaire. 13 Ratten row. 

7 Blinde chaire. 13 Grouday raw. 

8 Broad garth. 

P. ]6, L 8. — ^There is an ancient pfatce and house called the Dukes 
place; the house of the Earls o/* Nortbumber/euMt. 

Streits in Pandon, Cow gate. You gate, * ^ ^ Blith^iook, 
Bi'oad chaire. Biker chaire. Way to B ^ * , Spicer lauie. Fish 
mar Are/. 

P. 16, L 16.—^' House" is blotted out and '< court'' added. 

P. 16, /. 20. — This magnificent wnd stately building was founded in 
the time of the Heptarchy. Since the conquest the work was done ai 
Ui€ cost aod charges of sevdral K.s a&d divers persons spinVMll and ^ 
temporal. Many K.s of England lodged in it, and m^wed it with: 


maay revenews* One of the chambers was caUed K. Hen. chamber^ 
where the K. lay. 

Thiu Princely house after the dissolution of Monastorys was made a 
magazin for the north ; since the union (^ the two kingdoms^ begged 
of a Scot who made sale qf the lead timber and stones of house and 
church, so that this stalely fabrick is almost wasted and oiAy a receptikle 
to birds of the prey. 

It is most remarkable, that the lead sold was to be conveyed into a 
transmarine country, was buried in profundo in a wooden coffin, 
which hath been the end of many sacrilegious purloined goods, trans*' 
ported by sea. 

P. 16, /. «2.— For " houses" read '' clergy." 

P. 16, /. 26. — Before the market for fish in Sandhill was erected. 

P. 18, /. 24* — The prior of Tinanouth contended with the T. for 
the preveledg of Key * * but was foiled in suit, whiqh made the 
prior to make the Haven called Prior haven. 

The L. Prior of Tinmouth contended with the Town for the benefit 
of the D. and Chapk* * ♦ ♦ benefit of * * * for their lands 
du§oining upon the River. B. of * * * contested with for the like 
* * upon River Tyne, all go ♦ ♦ soil as Records doth report. 

P. 19, /. 6.—* * Hobworth ye. vicar son of Newcastle gave 15 
to the poor of three parishes, 5. to St. John, the parish where he was 
born, to St. Nicholas 6 JO where he was baptized, and 6JS to AUhallows 
where he was educated. 

Mrs. Frank a widdow of this towne gave iOOjS to the * * to 
bestow yearely gowns upon the poor ^the towne at Christmas. 

Dorothy Dane wid. gave a house in the Side to the Towne. Mr 
Andrew Alsworth Physician in the Town gave xxs yearly to the 
4 churches in Newc. and 20s to * * * * church which is SJS in 
all ever yearly. Tbesente&ce from ^^some think" to ^^land'' is can- 

P. 19, /. 12. — Here is a market /c>r cattle 4 times in the yeare. 

F. 19% L 15w — ^There is two long chares along the high parte of the 

E 2 


/i>cime walles cvAkd the higher and lozcer Frier Chaires, which apper-- 
tained to religious houses. And many * * gcound and houBes 
within the walls of Newc. * ^ ging to these chares in that part of 
the town in St. Bartholomews, a nunnery * * of a garden of which 
was found of /ate a passage ttiii/er ground; going mto the friorag next 
adjoyneing, ad pur gandas renes. It is in medio fratrum, in the midst 
of friorys. 

Th^re is a place called white crosse, which in times of procession 
was a marke to know the borders of the town from the Frierys in that 

P. 21, /. 8. — Above the gate into this court is a clockhouse, which 
speaks to us the houres of the day, chims at 5 and 1 1 of the clock. 

P. 22, /. 19. — ^^ An appendix to the castle*' is cancelled. 

P. 22, /. 22. — After castle read in the head of the Side. 

P. 23. /. 6.— For " ten" read '' 12." 

P. 2d. /• 10. — ^Tbere is such a concourse of people out of the ^utUry 
in the streits every Saterday to sell all sorts of corne mid flesh, buy all 
sorts of provision for house. and fajmily, receive mooey of maisters of 
cole for cole-worA:, that every Saterdays Market is like a £Btir, for all 
sorts of wares provisions and manufactours. . 

P. 23, /. 20.—" Three hundred" is altered ta " 400*' and after ships 
is added " in the river at one time." 

P. 23, /. 17. — K/s lodgings and G. Selby*s house in the oaXe-markei. 

P. 24, /. 8. — Near this Inn is a place of Sanctuary, as they had their 
refuge and their Bsylum. 

P. 25, /. 22.— The Duke of SuflFolk kept Court in Bennet Chessie 
Fryers in the beginning of Q. Elisabeth Reign, and had the command 
of the northern counties agt. Scots* . 

P. 28, /. 25. — Close gate ward. 

P. 28, /. 12. — Gunner tower Newgate wurd Anderew T* ward Pilgrim 
gat ward. 

P. 28, /. 19. — Corner tower ward Sandgate ward. 

P. 29, /. 12.—*^ Warwickshire" is changed into " Wirwick" and 


^' the Maikor of Wivesimv^ or Westo and belonging to the Prior and 
coxwent of Durham^ ticw Deane and Chapter" is added. 

P* SO, /. 4. — ^It is not my intent philosophically to speake of the 
nature of coles, that they ace of a salpfaurioiis nature : but only as they 
lye underground and of the working theoL Some coles are 10 fedomes 
under ground * ^ der 20. 30. 40i fadomes; in some grounds 
^ 3. 4. eollemines under a nother, but differ in thickness of coles, and 
goodness. Above thes mines of coles is firme stone, which supporteth 
the super * * * ive of the earth so that they may work safely 
from falles. They have many working underground, * * e a 
common hall, or place called ye. barrow way, * * boyes pages, 
called barrowmen * * usts the coals in corfs from the * * ers 
of coUes, unto the picts mouth ; where they * * * up in picts 
ropes upon a hooke by horses * * # ♦. 

P. SO, /. 1 1 -— " Five hundred" has a line drawn under it, " or a 
thousaud" is. cancelled, and ^^ 400 and above" is added in the margin.^ 

P. 30, /. 15.— "One, of ' is changed into " not." 

P. 31, /. 30.—" Thirty thousand" is underlined, and " 20,000" 
written in the margin. 

P. 33, 1. 29. — ^All these 4 Countys, viz. Westmeriand, Cumberland, 
Northumberland and the County of Durham, is not able to serve this 
town with come, not 3 months in the yeare, but is provided out of the 
south parts of England, out of Scotland and Dantisk, ye. comon mart 
town in the north CI * * in great quantities yearly, and out of 
most parts of Germany in time of scarcity. 

P. 36, /. 7. — ^The bishop of Durham had a house in Gatsid and his 
Parke. **••♦## 

* called Bottle bank, the prior of Duresm his brother had his 

house most of the way against his brother. A * * of the Bo. went 
into Northumberland and brought a gentlewoman of that county ; for 
committing of this rape the gent, of Northumb. gathered to geather 
a company, anno 7. Ed. 6. and environed the Bs. hous and the gent, 
being denyed by D. fired his house and church. 


P. 36, I. 31.*^Witbottt SwEMigate is the Ltmekills, wbi(^ serve the 
town with lime, and the BaUbt hilb for drying of cloths: their bap^ 
pened in. the yeare 1632 a uproar of Apprentices called to this day 
Reslys rebelKon, occasioned by bailding a new lime kill under the 
BaUist hills the comnum people of the town complained in guild of the 
nuisance and begged to be redressed. Next Shrovstide prenteses and 
men in Sandgmte manshaled themselves in arms demolished tbe limekill 
and the house adjoining: but being resisted by the mayor their forces 
increased for 9 dajrs. 

Turn vero indomitas ardescit vulgus in iras. 
' Saevitque animis ignobile vulgus, 

Jamque faces et saxa volant; furor arma ministrat. 

Virg. iEneid. Lib. I, 

The multitude came into the town, and marched into the Sandhill in 
armes, c^^nmaiided the Major and' all the town * * till an Alder- 
man upon a confront came out of the Town Court and incounters with 
the captaine of the rebells, hurt their captaine and his souldiers * * 
put to flight and dissipated. 

* * * ♦ * # , many iMster^ of 

families was questioned, fined, imprisoned, and undone by the misgo- 
vernmt. of our rulers. 

Quicquid deiirunt reges plectuntur Achivi. 

P. 36, /. 6. — ^After " ships" read **for laying grindstones and coUes.'' 

P. 38. /. 12.— Of old of Fenwicke. 

P. 38, /. 18.— And Highill. 

P. 39, /. 17. — Shaftoe, Ordes, Proctor, Bednel, Swinnon, Reed. 



Collected out of the Society's Minute Book, by J. Adamsok, Secretary. 

His Grace the Duke of Northumberland — Patron. 

50 Guineas. 

Sir John Edward Swinburne, Bxrt.— President. 

A copy of the Royal Charter and Statutes of the Society of the 
Antiquaries of London. 

Four Plates of Roman Antiquities, found near to Capheaton, for an 
account of whiph, see the 15th voL of the Archseologia, page SdS. 

A very elegant Seal for the use of the Society, designed by Mr. 
Howard, of the Royal Academy, and engraved by Mr, Wyon,^f the 
Royal Mint. A female figure is supposed to be recording the pro- 
ceedings of the Society ; she is seated on the fragment of a column 
opposite to an altar, found near Newcastle upon Tyne, and inscribed 
LAMIIS TRIBVS; beneath is inscribed SCRIPTA MANENT, and 

Two Coins, one a penny of Elizabeth, dated 1575, found in Hill- 
head Bank, new Plantation Fence ; and a counter, found at Harnham, 
in Northumberland. 


A copper vessel, two fibulae, a ring, and some pieces of copper, be- 
longing to the vessel. 

Sir J. E. S. described these articles in a letter to the Society in the 
following manner. 

'* The copper vessel contained the fibulae, the ring, and the pieces of 
copper ; and was found about a foot below the surface, at the east end 
of two large stones, in the centre of a small tumulus, about one mile 
and a quarter from the village of Capheaton. 

'^ The tumulus contained a great many cart loads of human bones 
and skulls, all beiifg within fW6 feet of the surface. The copper vessel, 
from its form, is certainly Roman, as well as the ring, and the two 
fibular. A Roman Station is supposed to have existed near where the 
Roman silver, represented on the four plates just mentioned, was 

Sir Charles M. L, Monck, Bart. V. P. 
9 Guineas. 

James Losh, Esq. F. President. 

A Drawing of the Entrance of Voreda, as it appeared, when cleared^ 
in 1812. Plate I. Fig. A. 

A Drawing of the Corner of the Camp, with the Arch in the founda- 
tion of the Wall. Plate I. Fig. B. 

A Drawing of two brazen Articles, one apparently a lamp, and the 
other a tripod, found at the Station of Plumpton Walls. Plate I. Figs. 
C and D. 

• I Edward Hussey Delaval, Esq. H. M. 


The Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary. 

A Saxon coin of Egfrid, King of Northumberland, 

Mr. Hodgson accompanied this donation with the following descrip- 
tive memoir. 

Egfrid began to reign in 670. He succeeded his father, Oswy, in 
the kingdom of Bernicia, and the people of Deira revolting against 
their Sovereign, Alfred bestowed the crown of their country on Egfrid, 
who thus obtained the sovereignty of all Northumberland. He was a 
warlike prince ; severely chastised the Picts and Mercians for invading 
his dominions ; in 684 sent an army to conquer Ireland; but after 
sacriligiously destroying the monasteries there, returned home, beaten, 
disgraced, and ruined. His attempts to enlarge his dominions, 
amongst the Picts, were equally unsuccessful : they drew him into 
defiles amongst their hills and mosses, surrounded him, and, in an effort 
to save himself by cutting a passage through their ranks, slew him at 
Dumbarton on the 25th of May, 685. 

An inscription in the Wall of the Church of Jarrow, says, that that 
edifice was dedicated to St. Paul on the 8th of the Kalends of May, in 
the 15th year of this Monarch. Monkwearmouth Monastry, the elder 
sister of Jarrow, was founded in 669 ; and Egfrid endowed them both. 

Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, founder of Hexham Church, and a 
man of, great activity of mind, and notoriety in church history, was 
peculiarly obnoxious to this Sovereign, who deposed him, and deprived 
him of his dignities during the greater part of his reign. 

Benedict Biscop, the founder of Jarrow and Monkwearmouth, ac- 
cording to Bede^ was his favourite minister. 

This coin, in being of copper, neatly minted, and bearing the name 
of its Sovereign, ha$ the usual character of Saxo-Northumbrian coins ; 
but it differs from them in having a devise and motto on its reverse, 
instead of the moueyer's name. 

The reverse, I suppose to be a cross, surrounded by a glory, and the 
motto LUX. How Uiis devise is applicable to Egfrid's character, is 



not easy to be perceived. But it clearly enough points out the 
glorious light which the religion of the cross is calculated to throw upon 
the world. It was probably intended as a compliment to Egfrid about 
the commencement of his reign^ when the christian religion was in a 
flourishing and popular state. 

This coin, with a few others, was discovered in Heworth chapel yard, 
in a small earthen vessel, which I intend presenting to this Society, 
after I have gratified a few of my friends with inspecting it. All the 
coins, as far as I have cleared them of rust, are of the same King, and 
from the same die. 

They were found in a part of the chapel yard, which had never been 
employed as burial ground; and, I think, that the claim of this chapel, 
to be nearly contemporary with Jarrow, is, by this discovery, pretty 
strongly established. 

Of the rarity of the coin, 1 think I may safely remark, that none 
other of the same monarch, or of several of his suc<»6sors, have 
hitherto been found. Indeed, according to Pinkerton, it is upwards of 
150 years earlier than any other Siixo-Northumbrian coin known to 
be in existence. See Plate IL Fig. K. 

A drawing of an inscription on Fallowfield Fell; for which see the 
engraving, Plate II. Fig. E. 

Mr. Hodgson accompanied this drawing with the following desctlf^ 
tion : — 

Heworth y December Isty 1813. ' 

On the middle of Fallowfield Fell, in the Parish of St Johnlfee, 
Northumberland, there is a long ridge of very hard sandstone rocks, 
which runs along the brow of a slightly elevated hill, in a direction 
nearly north and south, and fronting the east. While on a visit at 
Mr. Tulip's, of Fallowfield, in July last, Mr. Atkinson, of Carr-hilt, 
informed me that on the face of one of these rocks, which the country 
people there called the Written Cragg, he had once observed an in- 
scription, and obligingly ofltered to conduct me to it. It was readily 


founds and I then made the sketch of it, which stands at the head of 
this paper. It is about three furlongs south of the Roman Wall, and 
the ground about it is covered with ferns and heath. The inscription 
it bears is: Petra Flavi Carantini — the Cragg of Flavus Carantinus. — 
The letters are deep and very legible ; and from their form, appeur to 
have been cut about the latter end of the first, or the beginning of the 
seciHid, century. 

As far as I am acquainted, it has never been published. It is not, 
indeed, of much importance* Perhaps no historical inference can be 
drawn from it. Curiosity and resistance to the attacks of time may be 
all that it can boast. It, however, records to the present day, the name 
attached to these craggs, by a people, who, for many ages, denominated 
themselves the conquerors of the world: but whether it was imposed 
on them, to point them out as the property of this Flavus Carantinus, 
to record some great achievement of him, to shew the place where he 
fell in battle, or was inscribed to gratify some whim or impulse of 
vanity by himself, are conjectures too minute, and connected with a 
period of time too distant, to render their discovery either useful or 

The inscription, (see Plate IL Fig. F,) and which was accompanied 
with the following illustraticms : — 

The tablet, which bears this inscription, is broken into three pieces, 
and imperfect on the right side. The remains of it measure thirty- 
eight inches in length, and thirty-two inches in breadth. It was dis- 
covered, some years since, at Walwick Chesters, in Northumberland ; 
and is, at present, in the possesion of Nathaniel Clayton, Esq. of that 
place. The letters, which remain upon it, are very perfect, and the 
parts, which are blank, have been designedly erased. In its present 
mutilated condition, it is impossible to ascertain, with certainty, the 
particular purpose for which it was erected ; but it is interesting, on 
account of the facts it contains, and the inferences deducible from it. 

It mentions an Emperor of Rome, who was grandson of Severus ; 

F 2 


tlie second Ala of the Astures; a person of the name of Marius Valerius; 
the presence of a prefect called Septimus Nilus ; and refers to something 
that had been affected by time, and dedicated on the third of the 
Kalends of November, when Gratus and Seleucus were Consuls. 

Heliogabalus was grandson of McBsa, the sister of Sererus, and 
styled himself DIVI SEVERI NEPOS. He began to reign in 218, 
and was slain on the tenth of March, 222f. Gratus and Seleucus were 
Consuls in 221 : this inscription was, therefore, made on the thirtieth 
of October, in that year, and refers to Heliogabalus. After the death 
of an Emperor, who was hated, his name and title were often erased 
from public monu^ments, a practice which accounts for the mutilations 
in this inscription. 

The Notitia Imperii, a record, which mentions transactions which 
occurred after the reign of the Emperor Theodosius the First, and, 
consequently, after 375, enumerates the names of eighteen cities per 
lineam Valli ; and particularizes the rank of the officers, and the names 
of the several divisions of the Roman army, by which they were gar- 
risoned. In the sixth of these cities, which it calls Cilurnum, and which 
answers to Walwick Chesters, it places the prefect of the second wing 
of the Astures (Prefectus Alas secundae Asturum Cilurno.) The coin- 
cidence, therefore, between this inscription and the Notitia, clearly 
proves that the ancient name of Walwick Chesters, was Cilurnum. A 
similar agreement exists between the Notitia and inscriptions found at 
the stations at Benwell, Hahon Chesters, Carrowbrugh, House Steads, 
Little Chesters, Burdoswald, and other stations on the line of the Wall. 

The Astures were a people of Spain : the first Ala of them was 
quartered at Benwell, and on an inscription belonging to that place, is 
called Ala prima Hispanorum Asturum, and is coupled with the name 
of Gordian. An inscription, discovered at iEsica, or Great Chesters, 
on the Wall, also mentions the second cohort of the Astures ; but the 
Notitia says cohors prima Asturum iEsica. 

The Alae were auxiliary cavalry, atid each of them consisted of four 
or five hundred horse, and were divided into ten turmas or troops. 


I conceive that the term vetustate referred to some edifice that had 
fallen into decay. The first Ala of the Astures rebuilt a temple at 
Benwell in the time of Gordian ; and the second cohort of the same peo- 
ple re-edified a ruined granary, from the ground, at Great Chesters, in the 
time of Alexander Severus. The Emperor Gordian also rebuilt Certain 
decayed barracks and magazines at Lanchester, and 1 apprehend that 
the inscription in the crypt at Hexham, which has HORR .. .. upon 
it, reliU;es to the repairs of some granary. It is worthy of remark, that 
all these repairs were done nearly about the same time ; and, I think, 
the term vetustate conlapsuy fallen together by time, implies that these 
edifices had acquired a very considerable age at the time they were 

Perhaps the repairs, which this inscription records, were done by 
some part of the second Ala of the Astures, the name of which was in 
the plural number ; and the four last lines, when perfect, stood in some 
such manner as the following. The titles and ofiices of the Emperor 
may be seen in several inscriptions in Gruter, Reinesius, and other 


In Horsley's Britannia Romana, and in Gough's Camden, there are 
copies of two inscriptions of this kind, found at Lanchester, in both of 
which, the names of the propretor and the prefect, are in this mode of 
phraseology. I have inserted templum to agree with dedicatum, sup- 
posing that the flattery of the times had complimented this execrable 
Emperor and Priest of the Sun with some title of divinity, and dedir 
cated a temple to him. 


Mr. Surtees, of Mainsforth, O. M. 
Eleven miscelUneous coins and medals. 

Mr. J. AdaMSON, Secretary. 
Three English silver coins. 

Fifty-one Roman coins, whereof 16 are of silver, and the remainder 
iron or brass, washed with silver. 
Seventy-four Roman coins, of 3d brass. 
Fourteen Portuguese silver coins. 
Forty-two Portuguese copper coins. 

Mr. J, Bell, Treasurer. 

Two Dissertations upon the Mint and Coins of the Episcopal Palatines 
of Durham, &c. by Mark Noble, Gent. Birmingham, 1780. 

An historical Account of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, by 
William Smellie, member of the Antiquarian and Royal Societies of 

A book for the insertion of the name^ of persons who may visit the 
rooms of the Society, 

Six boards, each pierced with thirty recesses for coins. 

Nine impressions of ancient seals. 

Addison's Dialogues upon the Usefulness of Ancient Medals. 

A fine paper copy of his Rhymes of Northern Bards, — New, 1812. 

Mr. G. a, Dickson, O. M. 
Part of an ancient mill-stone, of the species of buhr-stone, having all 


the usual features of the upper-stone of the querns^ found about the 
Roman stations : it was brought from Carlisle sands. 

AsRoman altar, of the mural kind, discovered at Brougham Castle, 
in Wekmoreland, and for many years placed in the wall of a steble 
there. Brougham Castle is the Brovacum of the Antonine Iter, accord- 
ing to Horsley, Gough, and others; but according to the fanciful 
conjectures of Reynolds, the Voreda of that authority. It stands near 
the confluence of the rivers Eden and Lowther, in the county of West- 
moreland, and the site of the Roman station near it has produced 
numerous inscribed altars and tablets, coins, urns, &c. This altar is 
made of red sandstone, is 15 inches high, and 12 inches broad, and 
bears the following inscription :— 




V. S. P. SS. 

Which Mr. Hodgson, in his account of Westmoreland, in tlie Beauties 
of England and Wales, proposes to read thus :— Deo BeJatucadro Auda- 
cus votum fiolvens posuit sanctissime. 

A small altar, found at Old Penrith (Voreda). It is of red sandstone, 
with an illegible inscription. 

A centurial stone, brought from Caervoran (or Magna), the eleventh 
station in th^ wall — inscribed 


A Roman millstone, found at Caervoran. 

The head of a statue, found at Caervoran. 

The fragments of a millstone, made of basaltine rock. It has been 
neatly hewn, and its interior part has formed a kind of basin about two 
inches and a half deep. 

Specimens of cement, used in the Roman baths at Carlisle, composed 
of lime, pounded brick, and pebbles. 


A Roman earthen 4)0ttle, found in digging a cellar in Carlisle. 

The neck of a large Roman amphora, found under the foundations 
of the Roman wall at Stanwix. 

A fragment of a disk of Roman earthen ware, found on the site of 
the Roman station at Benwell. 

Three fragments of ancient Roman pottery. 

An ancient Roman key, found at Carlisle, under the foundation of 
St. Alban's church. 

Another key, found at York. 

A cast, bearing this inscription, TIT, VES. C. and the head of that 

A Roman vessel of black earthen ware, in the form of a bottle, found 
in Pompeia. 

A small Etruscan earthen vessel from Herculaneum. 

An Etruscan vase. 

A perfect Roman lamp, found at Carlisle. 

A British urn, with part of the bones it contained, found under a 
large cairn at Croglin, in Cumberland. Plate II. Fig. I. 

A pedestal of a pillar, converted into a mortar, from Caervoran. 

A Drawing of an altar, found in 1803, in making a drain at Burgh 
upon Sands, in Cumberland. In ApriU 1804, it was in the possession 
of Mr. Hodgson, of that place. It is 6 inches high, and 4 inches in 
breadth, and bears the following inscription : — 






On the 9th of Feb. 1804, while some labourers were digging a drain 
across the foundation of the Roman wall, in the line of the foot path 
between Stanwix and Tarraby, and in a field belonging to Mrs. Gra- 
ham, of the former place, they found an altar, bearing the following 


inscription. The ends of the altar rested on two stones, and the in- 

scription was downwards^ and a cavity below it. It is about 18 inches 

high, and a foot broad. 







The Rev. Wm. Turner, O. M. 

A silver ring, found at Towton Moot*, in the coiHity of York, 1770. 
Mr. Turner accompanied his donation with the following descriptive 
letter addressed to Mr. Adomsoft, one of the Secretaries. 

Soilicet et teivpus y/mitt, ^tm fiiubra iUis 
Agricola, incurvo terrain nudkut aradro, 
Exesa inveniet 8cabr& rublgine pfla, 
Aut gravibus rastris galeas pulsabit inanes, 
Grandiaque eflbssis mirabitur ocsa sepulchris. 

Geor. Ub. I. 493* 

Dear Sir, 
The application of these beautiful lines of Virgil, to the objects of 
our association, by your Brother Secretary, in his very appropriate 
introductory address, reminded me that I possessed a relic of one of 
the severest contests which ever took place among our countrymen, 
the famous battle of Towton, which terminated the civil war between 
the Houses of York and Lancaster. It was fought on Palm Sunday, 
1461; the Lancastrian's had 60,000 engaged, the Yorkist's 40,000; 



victory, however, declared in favour of the latter, aud Rapin states^ 
from the chronicles of Hall and Holinshed, that 36,776 were left dead 
upon the field ; among whom were the Earls of Northumberland and 
Westmorland, the Lords Dacres and Wells, Sir John Nevil, and many 
other distinguished persons. 

When I was a boy (I think about 1770), Towton Moor (an extensive 
district of open-field between Saxton and Towton, north-east of Aber- 
ford, near Ferrybridge,) was inclosed by act of Parliament. Many 
traces of the effects of this dreadful battle were discovered in every 
allotment, affording an ample commentary upon the lines at the head 
of this letter. Among others, the inclosed ring, which I beg leave to 
offer to the acceptance of the Society, was ploughed up, and brought 
for sale by the countryman who found it, to a silversmith, in Wakefield, 
of whom my father purchased it. It is, you will perceive, a plain 
silver hoop, bearing on its outside the following inscription, ffjiC ^ tXKft^ 

tttm . m # Ittoeorttm ♦ i. e. 

Jesus Nazarenus Rex Judceorum. 

Whether, from the nature of the inscription, it may be fair to argite, 
that it belonged to some ecclesiastical person, I know not. It is well 
known, that many connected with the clerical ppofession did not scruple 
in these times of disorder, to engage personally in military affairs. — 
But it is by no means improbable, that laymen might choose to put 
themselves under the protection of som^ such sacred inscription as this. 
That it was adopted and worn, probably by some eminent person, as 
an amulet or charm, which it was hoped might preserve its wearer, is, 
at least, very probable. That it failed of its expected effect, the cir- 
cumstances, in which it was found, furnish a sufficient evidence. 
I am, Sir, with great respect. 

Your very obedient servant, 

Percy-Sh^eef, August 4, 1813. 


Mr. John Clennell, of Homerton, in the County of Middlesex. 

Vols. I. and H. of the New Agricultural and Commercial Magazine. 
LondoUy 1811, 

I. CooKSON, Esq. Sen. O. M. 
A curious mortar, found near Chester-le^treet, county of Durham. 

Mr. Thomas Davidson, O. M. 

Eighty-eight tradesman's tokens, struck in the 17th century, accom- 
panied with a MS. description. 

Twenty-eight impressions and five casts of ancient seals, principally 

An impression of the plate deposited in the foundation stone of the 
new County Courts of Northumberland. 

M. Lawson de Cardonnel, Esq. of Cramlington, in the County of 


An ancient Roman urn, baked in the sun, found in Lincolnshire, 
and containing a quantity of calcined bones. 

A centurial stone, inscribed . > OCTAVI SEBANI. 

A square brick, inscribed TIPRINVS. 

The top of an amphora, and a large iron ring, both of Roman work- 

Wm. Ratclyffe, Esq. Rouge Croix, H. M. 
A list of the members of the Antiquarian Society, of London. 



Mr. J. T. Brockett, O. M. 
Thirty^three miscellaneous coins and medals, chiefly English, 

Joseph Forster, Esq. O. M. 

A circular British earthen vessel, 3j inches high, and 6 inches in 
diameter, found near Corbridge. Plate II. Fig. G. 

The hinge of the east-gate of the wall of Old Penrith, and several 
other pieces of iron. 

Several fragments of Roman pottery. 

The Rev. Slaughter Clark, A. M. of Hexham, in the County of 

Three flues of a Roman bath, made of brick. 
Eight copper and four silver Roman coins. 

Two fragments of ears of a Roman amphora, one inscribed DOMS. 
Two fragments of an amphora. 
Two pieces of a deer's horn. 
Some human bones. 

All of which were discovered in the Roman station Corstopitum, or 
Corchester, a little west of the town of Corbridge. 


Of the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle vpon Tyne, with the Dates of 

their Admission. 


Sir C. M. L. Monck, Bart. M. P. Belsay Castle, Northumberland 

John Carr, Esq. Dunstan, Durham 

Rev. John Hodgson, Heworth, Durham 

Mr. J. W. Saunders, Newcastle upon Tyne 
5 Mr. Richard Hoyle, Denton, Northumberland 

Mr. J. T. Brockett, Newcastle upon Tyne 

Mr. Thomas Loggan, Ditto 

Mr. John Adamson, Ditto 

Mr. G. A. Dickson, Ditto 

10 Mr. David Stephenson, Ditto 

Mr. John Bell, Ditto 

Mr. Thomas Fenwick, Dipton, Durham 

Mr. John Brummell, Kibblesworth^ Durham 

Mr. Thomas Wailes, Newcastle upon Tyne 
15 Mr. Thomas Davidson, Ditto 

Mr. John Murray, Ditto 

Mr. John Stanton^ Ditto 

His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, Alnwick Castle 

Sir John Edward Swinburne, Bart. Capheaton 
20 Sir Cuthbert Sharp, Knight, Hartlepool, Durham 


Ralph Spearman^ Esq. Eachwick, Northumberland 

Joseph Forster, Esq. Newcastle upon Tyne 

D. W. Smithy Esq. Alnwick Northumberland 

Mr. J. Shield, North Shields, Northumberland 
25 J. Davidson, Esq. Clerk of the Peace for Northumberland, New- 
castle upon Tjme 

John Wilson, Esq. Morpeth, Northumberland 

Mr. William Clarke, Newcastle upon Tyne 

Mr. William Bell, Gillsland, Northumberland 

Mr. A. Donkin, Newcastle upon Tyne 
30 Mr. Thos. Hodgson, Ditto 

C. D. Purvis, Esq. Earsdon, Northumberland 

Mr. John Waldie, Newcastle upon Tyne 

Edward Swinburne, Esq. Sen. Capheaton, Northumberland 

Mr. E. Chamley, Newcastle upon Tyne 
35 Rev. J. Collinson, A. M, Rector of Gateshead, Durham 

Rev. H. Salvin, B. A. Ditto Ditto 

Rev. N. Wm. Darnell, A. M. Durham 

I. Cookson, Esq. Jun. Newcastle upon Tyne 

N. Clayton, Esq. Walwick Chesters, Northumberland 
40 M. Atkinson, Esq. Carr*s Hill, Durham 

C. W. Bigge, Esq. Linden, Northumberland 

Mr. J. Buddie, WalFs End, Ditto 

Rev. Wm. Turner, Newcastle upon Tyne 

Mr. Wm. Moore, Ditto 

45 James, Losh, Esq. Jesmond, Northumberland 

I. Cookson, Esq. Sen. Newcastle upon Tyne 

Matthew Culley, Esq. Akeld, Northumberland, 1th April, 1815 

Rev. C Thorpe, A. M. Rector of Ryton, Durham, Ditto 

Rev. N. J. Hollingsworth, A. M. Vicar of Halt- 
whistle, Northumberland Ditto 
50 Mr. Mark Lambert, Newcastle upon Tyne, Ditto 

Bertram Mitford, Esq. Mitford, Northumberland, Ditto 


James Ellis, Esq. Otterburn, Northumberland, 1th April, 1813 
Rev. Joseph Cooke, Newton, Northumberland, Ditto 

Mr. Thomas Bell, Newcastle upon Tyne, 2rf JunCy 1813 

.^ George Forster, Esq. Ditto, Ditto 

J. B, Dwerryhouse, M. D. Ditto, Ditto 

George Gibson, Esq. Stagshaw, Northumberland, Ditto 
Mr. Robert Maule, Newcastle upon Tyne, Ditto 

Robt. Surtees, Esq. Mainsforth, Durham, Ditto 

60 Mr. Nicholas Naters, Newcastle upon Tyne, Ditto 

John Smart, Esq. Trewhit, Northumberland, 1th July, 1813 
Mr. William Peters, Newcastle upon Tyne, Ditto 

P. Selby, Esq. Twizell House, Northumberland, %th Oct. 1813 
W. Dent, Esq. Short-flat Tower, Ditto^ Ditto 

&5 Mr. P. Paxton, Newcastle upon Tyne, 3d Nov. 1813 

Mr. W. Laws, Prudhoe Castle, Northumberland, Ditto 
Wm. Greenwell, Esq. Ford, Durham, Ist Dec. 1813 

Mr. J. Fen wick, Newcastle upon Tyne, Ditto 


Mrs. Atkinson, of Temple Sowerby, Westmor- 
land, 6M Feb. 1813 
Rev. J. Robinson, D. D. of Ravenstondale, Ditto, 3d March, 1813 
Mr. Edw. Harwood, Kirby-Street, London, Ditto 
Rev. M. Noble, Barming, Kent, 7th April, 1813 
5 Walter Scott, Esq. Edinburgh, Ditto 
Wm. RatclyflFe, Esq. Rouge Croix, London, Ditto 
Sir R. K. Porter, Knight, St. Petersburgh, 1st Sept. 1813 
Edw. H. Delaval, Esq. Parliament-Place, West- 
minster, Ditto^ 
Philip Neve, Esq. Furnivars Inn, London, Ditto 
10 The Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. 1st Dec. 1813 
Smithson Tenant, Esq. Ditto 
Sir H. C. Englefield, Bart. Ditto 


The Right Hon. the Earl of Aberdeen, 1st Dec. 1*13 

Mr. N. Carlysle, Ditto 

15 The Right Hon. the Earl of Kinnoull, Pres. 

Pert. A. S. Dupplin Castle, Ditto 

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